Women In Human Evolution

Author: Lori Hager

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134840101

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

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This volume, the first of it's kind, examines the role of women paleontologists and archaeologists in a field traditionally dominated by men. Women researchers in this field, have questioned many of the assumptions and developmental scenarios advanced by male scientists. As a result of such efforts, women have forged a more central role in models of human development and have radically altered the way in which human evolution is perceived. This history of the feminist critique of science, is of profound significance and will be of interest to all those who work in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, paleontology, and human biology.

The Evolution of Human Sexuality

Author: Donald Symons

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199878471

Category: Psychology

Page: 368

View: 7161

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Anthropology, Sexual Studies, Psychology, Sociology, Gender and Cultural Studies

Sex, Time, and Power

How Women's Sexuality Shaped Human Evolution

Author: Leonard Shlain

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101200391

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 8630

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As in the bestselling The Alphabet Versus the Goddess, Leonard Shlain’s provocative new book promises to change the way readers view themselves and where they came from. Sex, Time, and Power offers a tantalizing answer to an age-old question: Why did big-brained Homo sapiens suddenly emerge some 150,000 years ago? The key, according to Shlain, is female sexuality. Drawing on an awesome breadth of research, he shows how, long ago, the narrowness of the newly bipedal human female’s pelvis and the increasing size of infants’ heads precipitated a crisis for the species. Natural selection allowed for the adaptation of the human female to this environmental stress by reconfiguring her hormonal cycles, entraining them with the periodicity of the moon. The results, however, did much more than ensure our existence; they imbued women with the concept of time, and gave them control over sex—a power that males sought to reclaim. And the possibility of achieving immortality through heirs drove men to construct patriarchal cultures that went on to dominate so much of human history. From the nature of courtship to the evolution of language, Shlain’s brilliant and wide-ranging exploration stimulates new thinking about very old matters.

The Descent of Woman

Author: Elaine Morgan

Publisher: Souvenir Press

ISBN: 0285639846

Category: Science

Page: 288

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A pioneering work, the first to argue for the equal role of women in human evolution. On its first publication in 1972 it became a rallying-point for feminism and changed the terminology of anthropologists forever. It remains a key text in feminist history, as well as an extension to the author's Aquatic Ape Hypothesis, which is gaining more academic support each year. Starting with her demolition of the Biblical myth that woman was an afterthought to the creation of man, Elaine Morgan rewrites human history and evolution.

The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality

Author: Randy Thornhill,Steven W. Gangestad

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199712489

Category: Psychology

Page: 424

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Research conducted in the last fifteen years has placed in question many of the traditional conclusions scholars have formed about human female sexuality. Though conventional wisdom asserts that women's estrus has been evolutionarily lost, Randy Thornhill and Steven W. Gangestad assert that it is present, though concealed. Women, they propose, therefore exhibit two sexualities each ovulatory cycle-estrus and sexuality outside of the estrous phase, extended sexuality-that possess distinct functions. Synthesizing research in behavioral evolution and comparative biology, the authors provide a new theoretical framework for understanding the evolution of human female sexuality, one that is rooted in female sexuality and phylogeny across all vertebrate animals.

Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality

Author: Michael R. Kauth

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136455191

Category: Social Science

Page: 414

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Expand your knowledge—with theories and concepts that may challenge your assumptions about sexual attraction Human sexuality can be better understood by knowing how sexual psychologies may have evolved throughout the ages. Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality presents a detailed examination of human sexuality, the assumptions about concepts and terms pertaining to sexuality, and the latest theories on the evolution of human sexual attraction. Leading experts explore various aspects of evolutionary theory, with a focus on Evolutionary Psychology (EP). Discussions include mate preferences, mating behavior, mate signaling, pheromones, and same-sex attraction. This comprehensive source also presents three groundbreaking theories of the evolution of same-sex attraction. Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality takes current assumptions about human sexuality, explains each in turn, and then offers fresh perspectives on conventional concepts of sexual orientation. This extensive resource provides ample evidence to argue that researchers should investigate sexual relationships based on a person’s characteristics such as personal traits, complementary roles/status, sexual acts, or situational context rather than simply the sex of the partner. The book provides a discussion of evolutionary theory, evolution of human sexual culture, evolution of sexual pleasure, and detailed analysis of assumptions about sexual orientation. The text is carefully referenced. Some of the topics explored by Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality include: links to non-human primate sexual behaviors and the emergence of human (sexual) nature EP research on consensual adult human sexual behaviors studies of evolved male and female mating strategies, mate preferences, and sexual psychologies a brief history of the theory of evolution ancient culture, archeology, and an overview of premodern human sexuality evolutionary history of sexual pleasure human mating strategies development of mate preferences sexual signals, such as distinctive physical features, material wealth, etc. theories of the evolution of same-sex sexual attraction and behavior Primatologist Paul Vasey’s observations of female Japanese macaques and their female-female sexual encounters—with an examination of human male-male behavior evolutionary history of female-female affectional bonding with a new theory on the behavior evolutionary history of male-male sexual behavior—with intriguing thoughts on why it happened evolutionary history of pheromones as chemical messengers much more Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality is an important, thought-provoking resource perfect for evolutionary psychologists, sexologists, educators, researchers, scholars, and graduate students.

Managing Without Power

Author: R Meredith Belbin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136014330

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 9746

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Meredith Belbin, best known for his work on teams, now considers the way in which continuing evolution has produced distinct patterns of behaviour for men and women. Examination of the key stages in the history of homo sapiens reveals * how very early human society was regulated not through power but by organic balance, so allowing women to play a vital role in the community * why women lost their hold over men as more populous and structured societies became dominated by aggressive warriors seeking territorial expansion * how natural selection within competing empires favoured the survival of able professionals and compliant slaves, so diversifying the behavioural roles to which humans were genetically disposed * how, in the present era, power has lost its biological utility as human evolution slowed, and technological evolution favoured the emancipation of women with its premium on communication skills *how in this changing scenario, as women have recovered their status and influence, social progress has brought in its wake a new set of cross-gender problems. Penetrating, original and provocative this book offers suggestions on how men and women can come to terms with their genetic heritage, so restoring much needed balance to business organizations and to the community at large.

Male, Female

The Evolution of Human Sex Differences

Author: David C. Geary

Publisher: ICON Group International

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 397

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Geary (psychology and anthropology, U. of Missouri-Columbia) thinks culturally constructed gender roles alone cannot account for the differences in the social behavior of men and women. He turns to Darwin's theory of sexual selection as the best avenue for understanding. His main focus is how th etwo elements of competition between males and of females selecting mates has influenced human behavior over the centuries and across cultures.

Grandmotherhood

The Evolutionary Significance of the Second Half of Female Life

Author: Eckart Voland,Athanasios Chasiotis,Wulf Schiefenhövel,Wulf Schiefenhovel

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813536095

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 343

View: 3425

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By the year 2030, the average life expectancy of women in industrialized countries could reach ninety--exceeding that of men by about ten years. At the present time, postmenopausal women represent more than fifteen percent of the world's population and this figure is likely to grow. From an evolutionary perspective, these demographic numbers pose some intriguing questions. Darwinian theory holds that a successful life is measured in terms of reproduction. How is it, then, that a woman's lifespan can greatly exceed her childbearing and childrearing years? Is this phenomenon simply a byproduct of improved standards of living, or do older women--grandmothers in particular--play a measurable role in increasing their family members' biological success? Until now, these questions have not been examined in a thorough and comprehensive manner. Bringing togethertheoretical and empirical work byinternationally recognized scholars in anthropology, psychology, ethnography, and the social sciences, Grandmotherhood explores the evolutionary purpose and possibilities of female post-generative life. Students and scholars of human evolution, anthropology, and even gerontology will look to this volume as a major contribution to the current literature in evolutionary studies.

Woman the Gatherer

Author: Frances Dahlberg

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300029895

Category: Social Science

Page: 250

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Essays discuss chimpanzees as an evolutionary model, modern examples of hunter-gatherer tribes, women's and men's roles in prehistoric times, and primitive human adaptations

Die Neandertaler und wir

Meine Suche nach den Urzeit-Genen

Author: Svante Pääbo

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104030324

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 6595

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Die aufregende Geschichte der Entschlüsselung des Neandertalergenoms – und das lebendige Porträt der neuen Wissenschaft der Paläogenetik In einer folgenreichen Nacht im Jahre 1996 gelang Svante Pääbo die Entschlüsselung der ersten DNA-Sequenzen eines Neandertalers. Eine Sensation! Die verblüffenden Erkenntnisse revolutionierten unser Bild von der Entwicklung des Homo sapiens. Jetzt erzählt der preisgekrönte Wissenschaftler seine persönliche Geschichte und verschränkt sie mit der Geschichte des neuen Gebiets, das er maßgeblich mitentwickelte: der Paläogenetik - von den ersten Analysen an altägyptischen Mumien bis hin zu Mammuts, Höhlenbären und Riesenfaultieren. Ein faszinierender Blick hinter die Kulissen der Spitzenforschung in Deutschland und der spannende Entwicklungsroman einer Wissenschaft, deren Ergebnisse vor wenigen Jahrzehnten noch niemand erahnen konnte

Lucy's Legacy

Sex and Intelligence in Human Evolution

Author: Alison Jolly

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674005402

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 2074

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Takes a look at human evolution focusing on the long line of women and of female behavior that was to follow the age of the much-studied oldest human remains.

Gun Women

Firearms and Feminism in Contemporary America

Author: Mary Zeiss Stange,Carol K. Oyster

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814739911

Category: Social Science

Page: 278

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Women, we are told, should not own guns. Women, we are told, are more likely to be injured by their own guns than to fend off an attack themselves. This "fact" is rooted in a fundamental assumption of female weakness and vulnerability. Why should a woman not be every bit as capable as a man of using a firearm in self-defense? And yet the reality is that millions of American women--somewhere between 11,000,000 and 17,000,000--use guns confidently and competently every day. Women are hunting, using firearms in their work as policewomen and in the military, shooting for sport, and arming themselves for personal security in ever-increasing numbers. What motivates women to possess firearms? What is their relationship to their guns? And who exactly are these women? Crucially, can a woman be a gun-owner and a feminist too? Women's growing tendency to arm themselves has in recent years been political fodder for both the right and the left. Female gun owners are frequently painted as "trying to be like men" (the conservative perspective) or "capitulating to patriarchal ideas about power" (the liberal critique). Eschewing the polar extremes in the heated debate over gun ownership and gun control, and linking firearms and feminism in novel fashion, Mary Zeiss Stange and Carol K. Oyster here cut through the rhetoric to paint a precise and unflinching account of America's gun women.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Sperm Competition in Humans

Classic and Contemporary Readings

Author: Todd K. Shackelford,Nicholas Pound

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780387280363

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 286

View: 9739

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This volume presents the intricate ways in which sperm compete to fertilize eggs and how this has prompted reinterpretations of breeding behavior from a biological perspective. Sperm Competition in Humans: Classic and Contemporary Readings provides a theoretical framework for the study of sperm competition and also discusses the roles of females and the relationships between paternal care in sperm competition. The chapters focus on everything from evolutionary biology to taxonomic development.

The Philosophy of Human Evolution

Author: Michael Ruse

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521117933

Category: Philosophy

Page: 271

View: 346

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Provides a unique discussion of human evolution from a philosophical viewpoint, covering such issues as religion, race and gender.

Women in Prehistory

Author: Margaret Ehrenberg,Margaret R. Ehrenberg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Europe

Page: 192

View: 5055

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" "ocial attitudes in our culture have led to the assumption that early advances in human knowledge were the achievements of men; the role of women in prehistoric times has been largely overlooked. In this thought-provoking book, however, Margaret Ehrenberg argues that the true contribution of women especially in the discovery and development of agriculture was much greater than has been acknowledged to date. Examining the evidence from archaeological, anthropological, and classical documentary sources, Ehrenberg throws new light on the lives of women and their social status in Europe from the Palaeolithic era to the Iron Age. The relationship between the role of women and economic production is a central theme of this survey. In Bronze Age and Iron Age societies individual women are seen to be in positions of power. Although available evidence is fragmentary and often controversial, Ehrenberg shows how information can be gathered from skeletons and grave goods found in burials, from settlement sites, from rock carvings and sculpted figurines, as well as from anthropological parallels, to enable significant inferences to be drawn about the life of prehistoric women.

Woman

An Intimate Geography

Author: Natalie Angier

Publisher: HMH

ISBN: 0547344996

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 416

View: 6913

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National Book Award Finalist: This look at the science of the female body is “a tour de force . . . wonderful, entertaining and informative” (TheNew York Times Book Review). From a Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist who covers science for the New York Times, Woman is an essential guide to everything from organs to orgasms and hormones to hysterectomies. With her characteristic clarity and insight, Natalie Angier cuts through still-prevalent myths and misinformation surrounding the female body, the most enigmatic of evolutionary masterpieces. In addition to earning a nomination for the National Book Award, Woman was named one of the best books of the year by NPR, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and People, among others. “One knows early on one is reading a classic—a text so necessary and abundant and true that all efforts of its kind, for decades before and after it, will be measured by it.” —Los Angeles Times “Ultimately, this grand tour of the female body provides a new vision of the role of women in the history of our species.” —The Washington Post

Human Evolutionary Biology

Author: Michael P. Muehlenbein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521879485

Category: Science

Page: 624

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A wide-ranging and inclusive text focusing on topics in human evolution and the understanding of modern human variation and adaptability.