Women In Human Evolution

Author: Lori Hager

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134840101

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 1409

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This volume, the first of it's kind, examines the role of women paleontologists and archaeologists in a field traditionally dominated by men. Women researchers in this field, have questioned many of the assumptions and developmental scenarios advanced by male scientists. As a result of such efforts, women have forged a more central role in models of human development and have radically altered the way in which human evolution is perceived. This history of the feminist critique of science, is of profound significance and will be of interest to all those who work in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, paleontology, and human biology.

Managing Without Power

Author: R Meredith Belbin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136014330

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 4710

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Meredith Belbin, best known for his work on teams, now considers the way in which continuing evolution has produced distinct patterns of behaviour for men and women. Examination of the key stages in the history of homo sapiens reveals * how very early human society was regulated not through power but by organic balance, so allowing women to play a vital role in the community * why women lost their hold over men as more populous and structured societies became dominated by aggressive warriors seeking territorial expansion * how natural selection within competing empires favoured the survival of able professionals and compliant slaves, so diversifying the behavioural roles to which humans were genetically disposed * how, in the present era, power has lost its biological utility as human evolution slowed, and technological evolution favoured the emancipation of women with its premium on communication skills *how in this changing scenario, as women have recovered their status and influence, social progress has brought in its wake a new set of cross-gender problems. Penetrating, original and provocative this book offers suggestions on how men and women can come to terms with their genetic heritage, so restoring much needed balance to business organizations and to the community at large.

Sex, Time, and Power

How Women's Sexuality Shaped Human Evolution

Author: Leonard Shlain

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9780142004678

Category: Psychology

Page: 420

View: 8763

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From the best selling author of Art and Physics and The Alphabet Versus the Goddess comes a provocative new book that will change our views of human sexuality and evolution. According to Leonard Shlain there is no clear and compelling explanation for the sudden emergence of glib, big-brained Homo sapiens 150,000 years ago. In his latest book, he proposes an original thesis that variations in female sexuality changed the course of human evolution. Due to the narrowness of her bipedal pelvis and the increasing size of her infant's head, the human female began to experience high childbirth death rates. Natural selection adapted her to this environmental stress by drastically reconfiguring her hormonal cycles. Her estrus with its external signal that she was ovulating disappeared as her menses became the most florid of any mammal and it mysteriously entrained with the periodicity of the moon. These interlocking adaptations led the first women to grasp the concept of a month and make the connection between sex and pregnancy.

The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality

Author: Randy Thornhill,Steven W. Gangestad

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199712489

Category: Psychology

Page: 424

View: 5162

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Research conducted in the last fifteen years has placed in question many of the traditional conclusions scholars have formed about human female sexuality. Though conventional wisdom asserts that women's estrus has been evolutionarily lost, Randy Thornhill and Steven W. Gangestad assert that it is present, though concealed. Women, they propose, therefore exhibit two sexualities each ovulatory cycle-estrus and sexuality outside of the estrous phase, extended sexuality-that possess distinct functions. Synthesizing research in behavioral evolution and comparative biology, the authors provide a new theoretical framework for understanding the evolution of human female sexuality, one that is rooted in female sexuality and phylogeny across all vertebrate animals.

Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge

Author: William Haviland,Dana Walrath,Harald Prins,Bunny McBride

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 049538190X

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 4189

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Explore evolution and prehistory through photos, examples, and anthropologists' studies with Haviland et al's EVOLUTION AND PREHISTORY. The authors' goal in writing this book is to provide you with a vivid, accessible text that shows how the field is relevant to understanding the complex world around you. With Haviland et al, you will have the opportunity to explore the different ways humans face the challenge of existence, learn about the connection between biology and culture in shaping human beliefs and behavior, and see the impact of globalization on peoples and cultures around the world. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Evolution of Human Sexuality

Author: Donald Symons

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199878471

Category: Psychology

Page: 368

View: 7446

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Anthropology, Sexual Studies, Psychology, Sociology, Gender and Cultural Studies

Gender in Cross-cultural Perspective

Author: Caroline Brettell,Carolyn Fishel Sargent

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 575

View: 3068

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This reader introduces learners to the most significant topics in the field of anthropology of gender-drawing not only from classic sources, but also from the most recent, diverse literature on gender roles and ideology around the world. It features high quality introductions to each section of articles, broad geographical coverage, and the most current research available. An extensive range of topics includes the relationship between biology and culture as it pertains to gender issues; gender and prehistory; the cultural construction of gender and sexuality; women and the state; and the impact of development and the global economy on women. For an awareness and understanding of the sociology of women and gender roles.

Rethinking Human Evolution

Author: Jeffrey H. Schwartz

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262037327

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 8797

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Contributors from a range of disciplines consider the disconnect between human evolutionary studies and the rest of evolutionary biology. The study of human evolution often seems to rely on scenarios and received wisdom rather than theory and methodology, with each new fossil or molecular analysis interpreted as supporting evidence for the presumed lineage of human ancestry. We might wonder why we should pursue new inquiries if we already know the story. Is paleoanthropology an evolutionary science? Are analyses of human evolution biological? In this volume, contributors from disciplines that range from paleoanthropology to philosophy of science consider the disconnect between human evolutionary studies and the rest of evolutionary biology. All of the contributors reflect on their own research and its disciplinary context, considering how their fields of inquiry can move forward in new ways. The goal is to encourage a more multifaceted intellectual environment for the understanding of human evolution. Topics discussed include paleoanthropology's history of procedural idiosyncrasies; the role of mind and society in our evolutionary past; humans as large mammals rather than a special case; genomic analyses; computational approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction; descriptive morphology versus morphometrics; and integrating insights from archaeology into the interpretation of human fossils. Contributors Markus Bastir, Fred L. Bookstein, Claudine Cohen, Richard G. Delisle, Robin Dennell, Rob DeSalle, John de Vos, Emma M. Finestone, Huw S. Groucutt, Gabriele A. Macho, Fabrizzio Mc Manus, Apurva Narechania, Michael D. Petraglia, Thomas W. Plummer, J.W. F. Reumer, Jeff Rosenfeld, Jeffrey H. Schwartz, Dietrich Stout, Ian Tattersall, Alan R. Templeton, Michael Tessler, Peter J. Waddell, Martine Zilversmit

Grandmotherhood

The Evolutionary Significance of the Second Half of Female Life

Author: Eckart Voland,Athanasios Chasiotis,Wulf Schiefenhövel,Wulf Schiefenhovel

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813536095

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 343

View: 9615

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By the year 2030, the average life expectancy of women in industrialized countries could reach ninety--exceeding that of men by about ten years. At the present time, postmenopausal women represent more than fifteen percent of the world's population and this figure is likely to grow. From an evolutionary perspective, these demographic numbers pose some intriguing questions. Darwinian theory holds that a successful life is measured in terms of reproduction. How is it, then, that a woman's lifespan can greatly exceed her childbearing and childrearing years? Is this phenomenon simply a byproduct of improved standards of living, or do older women--grandmothers in particular--play a measurable role in increasing their family members' biological success? Until now, these questions have not been examined in a thorough and comprehensive manner. Bringing togethertheoretical and empirical work byinternationally recognized scholars in anthropology, psychology, ethnography, and the social sciences, Grandmotherhood explores the evolutionary purpose and possibilities of female post-generative life. Students and scholars of human evolution, anthropology, and even gerontology will look to this volume as a major contribution to the current literature in evolutionary studies.

Gun Women

Firearms and Feminism in Contemporary America

Author: Mary Zeiss Stange,Carol K. Oyster

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814739911

Category: Social Science

Page: 278

View: 6734

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Women, we are told, should not own guns. Women, we are told, are more likely to be injured by their own guns than to fend off an attack themselves. This "fact" is rooted in a fundamental assumption of female weakness and vulnerability. Why should a woman not be every bit as capable as a man of using a firearm in self-defense? And yet the reality is that millions of American women--somewhere between 11,000,000 and 17,000,000--use guns confidently and competently every day. Women are hunting, using firearms in their work as policewomen and in the military, shooting for sport, and arming themselves for personal security in ever-increasing numbers. What motivates women to possess firearms? What is their relationship to their guns? And who exactly are these women? Crucially, can a woman be a gun-owner and a feminist too? Women's growing tendency to arm themselves has in recent years been political fodder for both the right and the left. Female gun owners are frequently painted as "trying to be like men" (the conservative perspective) or "capitulating to patriarchal ideas about power" (the liberal critique). Eschewing the polar extremes in the heated debate over gun ownership and gun control, and linking firearms and feminism in novel fashion, Mary Zeiss Stange and Carol K. Oyster here cut through the rhetoric to paint a precise and unflinching account of America's gun women.

Woman

An Intimate Geography

Author: Natalie Angier

Publisher: HMH

ISBN: 0547344996

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 416

View: 2091

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National Book Award Finalist: This look at the science of the female body is “a tour de force . . . wonderful, entertaining and informative” (TheNew York Times Book Review). From a Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist who covers science for the New York Times, Woman is an essential guide to everything from organs to orgasms and hormones to hysterectomies. With her characteristic clarity and insight, Natalie Angier cuts through still-prevalent myths and misinformation surrounding the female body, the most enigmatic of evolutionary masterpieces. In addition to earning a nomination for the National Book Award, Woman was named one of the best books of the year by NPR, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and People, among others. “One knows early on one is reading a classic—a text so necessary and abundant and true that all efforts of its kind, for decades before and after it, will be measured by it.” —Los Angeles Times “Ultimately, this grand tour of the female body provides a new vision of the role of women in the history of our species.” —The Washington Post

Male, Female

The Evolution of Human Sex Differences

Author: David C. Geary

Publisher: ICON Group International

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 397

View: 8814

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Geary (psychology and anthropology, U. of Missouri-Columbia) thinks culturally constructed gender roles alone cannot account for the differences in the social behavior of men and women. He turns to Darwin's theory of sexual selection as the best avenue for understanding. His main focus is how th etwo elements of competition between males and of females selecting mates has influenced human behavior over the centuries and across cultures.

Lucy's Legacy

Sex and Intelligence in Human Evolution

Author: Alison Jolly

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674005402

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 5049

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Takes a look at human evolution focusing on the long line of women and of female behavior that was to follow the age of the much-studied oldest human remains.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 5679

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Das Ende der Männer

und der Aufstieg der Frauen

Author: Hanna Rosin

Publisher: ebook Berlin Verlag

ISBN: 3827076307

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 3803

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Ist die jahrtausendealte Herrschaft des Patriarchats am Ende? Noch nicht, sagt Hanna Rosin, doch die massiven Veränderungen der Berufswelt und des Bildungssystems haben eine Dynamik in Gang gesetzt, die das Verhältnis zwischen den Geschlechtern nachhaltig verändert. So scheinen viele Anforderungen der modernen Dienstleistungsgesellschaft – Flexibilität, soziale Intelligenz, Kommunikationsfähigkeit – eindeutig Frauen in die Hände zu spielen, während Männer oft von den Umwälzungen überfordert sind. Hanna Rosin zeigt – frei von ideologischen Prämissen –, wie sich heute das Leben von Männern und Frauen unterscheidet, wie sehr sich die Art und Weise geändert hat, wie heute gearbeitet, gelernt, zusammengelebt wird. Differenziert und mit vielen konkreten Beispielen gelingt es Rosin, die Chancen und Schattenseiten des »weiblichen Jahrhunderts« in den Blick zu nehmen. "Das Ende der Männer" ist keine feministische Streitschrift, keine Prophezeiung, sondern eine messerscharfe, weitsichtige Diagnose.

Women in Prehistory

Author: Margaret Ehrenberg,Margaret R. Ehrenberg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Europe

Page: 192

View: 2065

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" "ocial attitudes in our culture have led to the assumption that early advances in human knowledge were the achievements of men; the role of women in prehistoric times has been largely overlooked. In this thought-provoking book, however, Margaret Ehrenberg argues that the true contribution of women especially in the discovery and development of agriculture was much greater than has been acknowledged to date. Examining the evidence from archaeological, anthropological, and classical documentary sources, Ehrenberg throws new light on the lives of women and their social status in Europe from the Palaeolithic era to the Iron Age. The relationship between the role of women and economic production is a central theme of this survey. In Bronze Age and Iron Age societies individual women are seen to be in positions of power. Although available evidence is fragmentary and often controversial, Ehrenberg shows how information can be gathered from skeletons and grave goods found in burials, from settlement sites, from rock carvings and sculpted figurines, as well as from anthropological parallels, to enable significant inferences to be drawn about the life of prehistoric women.

Erect Men/Undulating Women

The Visual Imagery of Gender, “Race” and Progress in Reconstructive Illustrations of Human Evolution

Author: Melanie G. Wiber

Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press

ISBN: 0889205574

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 3029

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Based on intensive study of human origin illustrations, responses from students and colleagues and research into reconstructive illustration and feminist criticism of Western art, this ground-breaking book traces the subtle ways in which paleoanthropological conventions have influenced and have shifted in the creation of these illustrations. Wiber reveals that embedded meanings in these illustrations go beyond gender to include two other ubiquitous themes—racial superiority and upward cultural progress. Underlying all these themes, she found a basic conservatism in the paleoanthropological approach to evolutionary theory. Erect Men/Undulating Women provides a deeper understanding of popularized illustrations of human origins, but, more importantly, it encourages readers to gain a sensitivity to the ways in which Western culture constructs “scientific” findings that are compatible with its deeply held beliefs and values.

Das geheime Leben der Hunde

Author: Elizabeth Marshall Thomas

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644405638

Category: Pets

Page: 192

View: 7804

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Was machen Hunde, wenn sie sich unbeobachtet fühlen? Wie denken sie, was fühlen sie, wie orientieren sie sich sich «in freier Wildbahn», welches Sozialverhalten legen sie an den Tag? Die Biologin und Verhaltensforscherin Elizabeth Marshall Thomas erzählt, was sie im eigenen Rudel von elf Tieren erlebt hat. Ob es um die Huskys Misha und Maria geht, den asthmatischen Mops Bingo oder den australischen Schäferhund Rider: Sie folgte den Wegen und dem Verhalten ihrer Tiere über Jahre hinweg und beschreibt, was sie dabei lernte, liebevoll, aber durchaus unsentimental. Antropomorhismus ist für sie kein Vorwurf. Früher als viele andere hat die Autorin teilnehmend beobachtet und beschrieben, nach welchen Regeln Hunde sich und ihr Leben organisieren, wenn Menschen nicht eingreifen.