White Cargo

The Forgotten History of Britain’s White Slaves in America

Author: Don Jordan,Michael Walsh

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814742963

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 8932

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White Cargo is the forgotten story of the thousands of Britons who lived and died in bondage in Britain's American colonies. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, more than 300,000 white people were shipped to America as slaves. Urchins were swept up from London's streets to labor in the tobacco fields, where life expectancy was no more than two years. Brothels were raided to provide "breeders" for Virginia. Hopeful migrants were duped into signing as indentured servants, unaware they would become personal property who could be bought, sold, and even gambled away. Transported convicts were paraded for sale like livestock. Drawing on letters crying for help, diaries, and court and government archives, Don Jordan and Michael Walsh demonstrate that the brutalities usually associated with black slavery alone were perpetrated on whites throughout British rule. The trade ended with American independence, but the British still tried to sell convicts in their former colonies, which prompted one of the most audacious plots in Anglo-American history. This is a saga of exploration and cruelty spanning 170 years that has been submerged under the overwhelming memory of black slavery. White Cargo brings the brutal, uncomfortable story to the surface.

White Gold

The Extraordinary Story of Thomas Pellow and North Africa's One Million European Slaves

Author: Giles Milton

Publisher: Sceptre

ISBN: 1444717723

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 7307

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This is the forgotten story of the million white Europeans, snatched from their homes and taken in chains to the great slave markets of North Africa to be sold to the highest bidder. Ignored by their own governments, and forced to endure the harshest of conditions, very few lived to tell the tale. Using the firsthand testimony of a Cornish cabin boy named Thomas Pellow, Giles Milton vividly reconstructs a disturbing, little known chapter of history. Pellow was bought by the tyrannical sultan of Morocco who was constructing an imperial pleasure palace of enormous scale and grandeur, built entirely by Christian slave labour. As his personal slave, he would witness first-hand the barbaric splendour of the imperial court, as well as experience the daily terror of a cruel regime. Gripping, immaculately researched, and brilliantly realised, WHITE GOLD reveals an explosive chapter of popular history, told with all the pace and verve of one of our finest historians.

Colonists for Sale

The Story of Indentured Servants in America

Author: Clifford Lindsey Alderman

Publisher: MacMillan Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780027002201

Category: Indentured servants

Page: 184

View: 1774

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Examines the origin, working conditions, and eventual fate of indentured servants in America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Testimony of an Irish Slave Girl

Author: Kate McCafferty

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101176822

Category: Fiction

Page: 240

View: 3782

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Kidnapped from Galway, Ireland, as a young girl, shipped to Barbados, and forced to work the land alongside African slaves, Cot Daley's life has been shaped by injustice. In this stunning debut novel, Kate McCafferty re-creates, through Cot's story, the history of the more than fifty thousand Irish who were sold as indentured servants to Caribbean plantation owners during the seventeenth century. As Cot tells her story-the brutal journey to Barbados, the harrowing years of fieldwork on the sugarcane plantations, her marriage to an African slave and rebel leader, and the fate of her children—her testimony reveals an exceptional woman's astonishing life.

White Cargo

The Forgotten History of Britain’s White Slaves in America

Author: Don Jordan,Michael Walsh

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814743048

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 7002

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White Cargo is the forgotten story of the thousands of Britons who lived and died in bondage in Britain’s American colonies. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, more than 300,000 white people were shipped to America as slaves. Urchins were swept up from London’s streets to labor in the tobacco fields, where life expectancy was no more than two years. Brothels were raided to provide “breeders” for Virginia. Hopeful migrants were duped into signing as indentured servants, unaware they would become personal property who could be bought, sold, and even gambled away. Transported convicts were paraded for sale like livestock. Drawing on letters crying for help, diaries, and court and government archives, Don Jordan and Michael Walsh demonstrate that the brutalities usually associated with black slavery alone were perpetrated on whites throughout British rule. The trade ended with American independence, but the British still tried to sell convicts in their former colonies, which prompted one of the most audacious plots in Anglo-American history. This is a saga of exploration and cruelty spanning 170 years that has been submerged under the overwhelming memory of black slavery. White Cargo brings the brutal, uncomfortable story to the surface.

White Slaves, African Masters

An Anthology of American Barbary Captivity Narratives

Author: Paul Baepler

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226034041

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 310

View: 1151

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Contains primary source material.

Proclamation 1625

America’s Enslavement of the Irish

Author: Herbert L. Byrd Jr.

Publisher: FriesenPress

ISBN: 1460285646

Category: History

Page: 228

View: 9395

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When one thinks of slavery in America, the only thought that comes to mind is Africans picking cotton in the fields of America. What many Americans don't know is that the Irish preceded the Africans as slaves in the early British colonies of America and the West Indies. They toiled in the tobacco fields of Virginia and Maryland and the sugar cane fields of Barbados and Jamaica. For over 179 years, the Irish were the primary source of slave labor in the British American colonies. Proclamation 1625 is the unveiling of the true and untold history of slavery in America. King James I's Proclamation ordering the Irish be placed in bondage opened the door to wholesale slavery of Irish men, women and children. This was not indentured servitude but raw, brutal mistreatment that included being beaten to death. The Irish were forced from their land, kidnapped, fastened with heavy iron collars around their necks, chained to 50 other people and held in cargo holds aboard ships as they were transported to the American colonies. During the early colonial period, free European and free African settlers socialized and married. Intermarriages existed in the colonies for over a hundred years until the birth and evolution of white racism. The Irish and African slaves were housed together and were forced to mate to provide the plantation owners with the additional slaves they needed. The British abolished slavery in 1833. This act emancipated the Irish slaves in the British West Indies. America abolished slavery in 1865. None of this freed the Irish to the degree they wanted because America had classified them as 'colored' and treated them accordingly. It was only after the ruling class accepted them as 'white' that they could finally say: "I'm free, white and 21." Proclamation 1625 is for those who want to know the true and untold history of slavery in America....

White Servitude in Colonial America

An economic analysis

Author: David W. Galenson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521273794

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 2796

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White servitude was one of the major institutions in the economy and society of early colonial British America. In fact more than half of all the white immigrants to the British colonies sold themselves into bondage for a period of years in order to migrate to the New World. Professor Galenson's study of the system of indentured servitude analyses rigourously the composition of this labour force and provides a quantitative description of the demographic, social and economic characteristics of more than 20,000 indentured immigrants. The author examines the interactions between indentured, free and slave labour and provides a framework for analysing why black slavery prevailed over white servitude in the British West Indies and the southern mainland colonies and why both types of bound labour declined to insignificance in the northern colonies of the mainland.

To Hell or Barbados

The ethnic cleansing of Ireland

Author: Sean O'Callaghan

Publisher: The O'Brien Press

ISBN: 1847175961

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 9287

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A vivid account of the Irish slave trade: the previously untold story of over 50,000 Irish men, women and children who were transported to Barbados and Virginia.

The Irish Slaves

Slavery, Indenture and Contract Labor Among Irish Immigrants

Author: Rhetta Akamatsu

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781456306120

Category: History

Page: 202

View: 4577

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"How to deal with the Irish...it was a tricky problem. For years, the answer was to enslave them, sell them, make them someone else's property or someone else's problem. If you thought that only Africans or other black races were enslaved in Barbados, West India, the American colonies and beyond, this book will open your eyes." -- P. [4] of cover.

Complicity

How the North Promoted, Prolonged, and Profited from Slavery

Author: Anne Farrow,Joel Lang,Jenifer Frank

Publisher: Ballantine Books

ISBN: 0307414795

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 7510

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Slavery in the South has been documented in volumes ranging from exhaustive histories to bestselling novels. But the North’s profit from–indeed, dependence on–slavery has mostly been a shameful and well-kept secret . . . until now. In this startling and superbly researched new book, three veteran New England journalists demythologize the region of America known for tolerance and liberation, revealing a place where thousands of people were held in bondage and slavery was both an economic dynamo and a necessary way of life. Complicity reveals the cruel truth about the Triangle Trade of molasses, rum, and slaves that lucratively linked the North to the West Indies and Africa; discloses the reality of Northern empires built on profits from rum, cotton, and ivory–and run, in some cases, by abolitionists; and exposes the thousand-acre plantations that existed in towns such as Salem, Connecticut. Here, too, are eye-opening accounts of the individuals who profited directly from slavery far from the Mason-Dixon line–including Nathaniel Gordon of Maine, the only slave trader sentenced to die in the United States, who even as an inmate of New York’s infamous Tombs prison was supported by a shockingly large percentage of the city; Patty Cannon, whose brutal gang kidnapped free blacks from Northern states and sold them into slavery; and the Philadelphia doctor Samuel Morton, eminent in the nineteenth-century field of “race science,” which purported to prove the inferiority of African-born black people. Culled from long-ignored documents and reports–and bolstered by rarely seen photos, publications, maps, and period drawings–Complicity is a fascinating and sobering work that actually does what so many books pretend to do: shed light on America’s past. Expanded from the celebrated Hartford Courant special report that the Connecticut Department of Education sent to every middle school and high school in the state (the original work is required readings in many college classrooms,) this new book is sure to become a must-read reference everywhere. From the Hardcover edition.

Black Slaveowners

Free Black Slave Masters in South Carolina, 1790-1860

Author: Larry Koger

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 9780786451289

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 1649

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Most Americans, both black and white, believe that slavery was a system maintained by whites to exploit blacks, but this authoritative study reveals the extent to which African Americans played a significant role as slave masters. Examining South Carolina's diverse population of African-American slaveowners, the book demonstrates that free African Americans widely embraced slavery as a viable economic system and that they--like their white counterparts--exploited the labor of slaves on their farms and in their businesses. Drawing on the federal census, wills, mortgage bills of sale, tax returns, and newspaper advertisements, the author reveals the nature of African-American slaveholding, its complexity, and its rationales. He describes how some African-American slave masters had earned their freedom but how many others--primarily mulattoes born of free parents--were unfamiliar with slavery's dehumanization.

Beloved

Author: Toni Morrison

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 9780307388629

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 8230

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Nominated as one of America’s best-loved novels by PBS’s The Great American Read Staring unflinchingly into the abyss of slavery, this spellbinding novel transforms history into a story as powerful as Exodus and as intimate as a lullaby. Sethe, its protagonist, was born a slave and escaped to Ohio, but eighteen years later she is still not free. She has too many memories of Sweet Home, the beautiful farm where so many hideous things happened. And Sethe’s new home is haunted by the ghost of her baby, who died nameless and whose tombstone is engraved with a single word: Beloved. Filled with bitter poetry and suspense as taut as a rope, Beloved is a towering achievement.

Black Patriots and Loyalists

Fighting for Emancipation in the War for Independence

Author: Alan Gilbert

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226293076

Category: History

Page: 369

View: 7999

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We commonly think of the American Revolution as simply the war for independence from British colonial rule. But, of course, that independence actually applied to only a portion of the American population—African Americans would still be bound in slavery for nearly another century. In Black Patriots and Loyalists, Alan Gilbert asks us to rethink what we know about the Revolutionary War, to realize that while white Americans were fighting for their freedom, black Americans were joining the British imperial forces to gain theirs. There were actually two wars being waged at once: a political revolution for independence from Britain and a social revolution for emancipation and equality. Drawing upon recently discovered archival material, Gilbert traces the intense imperial and patriot rivalry over recruitment and emancipation that led both sides to depend on blacks. As well, he presents persuasive evidence that slavery could have been abolished during the Revolution itself if either side had fully pursued the military advantage of freeing slaves and pressing them into combat—as when Washington formed the all-black and Native American First Rhode Island Regimen and Lord Dunmore freed slaves and indentured servants to fight for the British. Gilbert's extensive research reveals that free blacks on both sides played a crucial and underappreciated role in the actual fighting. Black Patriots and Loyalists contends that the struggle for emancipation was not only basic to the Revolution itself, but was a rousing force that would inspire freedom movements like the abolition societies of the North and the black loyalist pilgrimages for freedom in places such as Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone. In this thought-provoking history, Gilbert illuminates how the fight for abolition and equality—not just for the independence of the few but for the freedom and self-government of the many—has been central to the American story from its inception.

White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia

A Study of the System of Indentured Labor in the American Colonies

Author: James Curtis Ballagh

Publisher: Heritage Books

ISBN: 9780788417078

Category: History

Page: 103

View: 4178

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This concise, scholarly study focuses on the English origins of white servitude and the roll of white indentured servants in the development of the colony of Virginia. Special attention is also paid to the legislation needed to manage this segment of the population and the particulars of gaining one's freedom from such a system. The establishment of white servitude in the Americas is traced by Mr. Ballagh directly to the organization of the London Company, the division of the Virginia Company of London, which governed the Virginia colony. The first class of indented servants entered into their contracts voluntarily for a definite term of service in exchange for payment of their passage to the New World and a land grant on completion of their contract. The majority of indented servants were of this class. The second were undesirables, persons whom legal authority condemned to a term of servitude as punishment for a misdemeanor already committed or as a means of preventing unemployment or idleness. This class was composed primarily of paupers, debtors, orphans, and a large number of political agitators who had committed no criminal acts, but were unwelcome in England and sentenced to transportation. Men and women of both classes flooded the colony in the 1600s and early 1700s and had an enormous impact on both the population of the colony and its laws.

I've Got a Home in Glory Land

A Lost Tale of the Underground Railroad

Author: Karolyn Smardz Frost

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780374531256

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 480

View: 1004

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Traces the story of former slaves Thornton and Lucie Blackburn, who launched a daring escape from their slave masters in 1831 and became the subjects of a legal dispute between Canada and the United States regarding the Underground Railroad.