Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?

Author: Immanuel Kant

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3954552043

Category: Philosophy

Page: 60

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Immanuel Kant verfasste seinen bahnbrechenden Essay 1784 für die »Berlinische Monatsschrift«. Mit dem berühmten ersten Satz »Aufklärung ist der Ausgang des Menschen aus seiner selbst verschuldeten Unmündigkeit« formulierte Kant dabei die bis heute gültige Definition der Aufklärung, mit der im eigentliche Sinne die Moderne begann. Neben dem Aufsatz enthält der Band die ebenfalls für die Aufklärung zentralen Texte »Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht« und »Was heißt: Sich im Denken orientieren?«

Aufklärung jetzt

Für Vernunft, Wissenschaft, Humanismus und Fortschritt. Eine Verteidigung

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104030685

Category: Philosophy

Page: 736

View: 8927

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Eine leidenschaftliche Antithese zum üblichen Kulturpessimismus und ein engagierter Widerspruch zu dem weitverbreiteten Gefühl, dass die Moderne dem Untergang geweiht ist. Hass, Populismus und Unvernunft regieren die Welt, Wissenschaftsfeindlichkeit macht sich breit, Wahrheit gibt es nicht mehr: Wer die Schlagzeilen von heute liest, könnte so denken. Doch Bestseller-Autor Steven Pinker zeigt, dass das grundfalsch ist. Er hat die Entwicklung der vergangenen Jahrhunderte gründlich untersucht und beweist in seiner fulminanten Studie, dass unser Leben stetig viel besser geworden ist. Heute leben wir länger, gesünder, sicherer, glücklicher, friedlicher und wohlhabender denn je, und nicht nur in der westlichen Welt. Der Grund: die Aufklärung und ihr Wertesystem. Denn Aufklärung und Wissenschaft bieten nach wie vor die Basis, um mit Vernunft und im Konsens alle Probleme anzugehen. Anstelle von Gerüchten zählen Fakten, anstatt überlieferten Mythen zu glauben baut man auf Diskussion und Argumente. Anschaulich und brillant macht Pinker eines klar: Vernunft, Wissenschaft, Humanismus und Fortschritt sind weiterhin unverzichtbar für unser Wohlergehen. Ohne sie wird die Welt auf keinen Fall zu einem besseren Ort für uns alle. »Mein absolutes Lieblingsbuch aller Zeiten.« Bill Gates

What is Enlightenment?

Author: Samuel Fleischacker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135091579

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 903

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"Have the courage to use your own understanding! - that is the motto of enlightenment." - Immanuel Kant The Enlightenment is one of the most important and contested periods in the history of philosophy. The problems it addressed, such as the proper extent of individual freedom and the challenging of tradition, resonate as much today as when they were first debated. Of all philosophers, it is arguably Kant who took such questions most seriously, addressing them above all in his celebrated short essay, An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? In this engaging and lucid book, Samuel Fleischacker first explains and assesses Kant’s philosophy of Enlightenment. He then considers critics of Kant’s views - from Burke and Hegel to Horkheimer and Adorno - and figures he regards as having extended Kant’s notion of enlightenment, such as Feuerbach, Marx, Habermas, Foucault, and Rawls. Throughout, he demonstrates how Kant holds two distinct theories of enlightenment. On the one hand, Kant proposes a ‘minimal’ view, where to be enlightened is simply to engage in critical public discussion, allowing diversity of opinion to flourish. On the other, he argues that Kant elsewhere calls for a ‘maximal’ view of enlightenment, where, for example, an enlightened person cannot believe in a traditional religion. With great skill Fleischacker shows how these two views are taken in a multitude of directions by both critics and advocates of Kant’s philosophy. Arguing that Kant’s minimal enlightenment is a precondition for a healthy proliferation of cultures, religious faiths and political movements, What is Enlightenment? is a fascinating introduction to a key aspect of Kant’s thought and a compelling analysis of philosophical thinking about the Enlightenment. Including helpful chapter summaries and guides to further reading, it is ideal for anyone studying Kant or the philosophy of the Enlightenment, as well as those in related disciplines such as politics, history and religious studies.

What is Enlightenment?

Eighteenth-century Answers and Twentieth-century Questions

Author: James Schmidt

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520202269

Category: History

Page: 563

View: 1284

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This collection contains the first English translations of a group of 18th-century German essays that address the question, "what is Enlightenment?". They explore the origins of 18th-century debate on the Enlightenment, and its significance for the present.

This Is Enlightenment

Author: Clifford Siskin,William Warner

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226761460

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 568

View: 2006

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Debates about the nature of the Enlightenment date to the eighteenth century, when Imanual Kant himself addressed the question, “What is Enlightenment?” The contributors to this ambitious book offer a paradigm-shifting answer to that now-famous query: Enlightenment is an event in the history of mediation. Enlightenment, they argue, needs to be engaged within the newly broad sense of mediation introduced here—not only oral, visual, written, and printed media, but everything that intervenes, enables, supplements, or is simply in between. With essays addressing infrastructure and genres, associational practices and protocols, this volume establishes mediation as the condition of possibility for enlightenment. In so doing, it not only answers Kant’s query; it also poses its own broader question: how would foregrounding mediation change the kinds and areas of inquiry in our own epoch? This Is Enlightenment is a landmark volumewith the polemical force and archival depth to start a conversation that extends across the disciplines that the Enlightenment itself first configured.

Die islamische Aufklärung

Der Konflikt zwischen Glaube und Vernunft

Author: Christopher de Bellaigue

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104906467

Category: Religion

Page: 544

View: 7313

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»Erhellend, großartig geschrieben, ein Buch, das uns hilft, das Verständnis zwischen islamischer Welt und Moderne zu verstehen.« Yuval Noah Harari, Autor von »Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit« Die islamische Aufklärung hat längst stattgefunden. In einer fulminanten Erzählung demontiert Christopher de Bellaigue die oft selbstgefällige westliche Sicht auf die arabische Welt. Auch in Ägypten, im Iran und der Türkei gab es nach 1800 eine breite Bewegung für Freiheit, Gleichheit und Demokratie und für einen weltlichen Staat, für Frauenrechte und Gewerkschaften, freie Presse und die Abschaffung der Sklaverei. In atemberaubender Geschwindigkeit modernisierten sich die arabischen Gesellschaften. Doch die Gegenaufklärung folgte auf dem Fuß, mit autokratischen Regimen und fundamentalistischem Terror. De Bellaigue schildert den Kampf zwischen Glaube und Vernunft und um eine neue muslimische Identität. Eine reiche, überraschende Geschichte, eine radikal neue Sicht auf den modernen Islam. »Eine ausgesprochen originelle und informative Studie über die Zusammenstöße zwischen dem Islam und der Moderne in Istanbul, Kairo und Teheran während der letzten zweihundert Jahre.« Orhan Pamuk »Christopher de Bellaigue gehört seit Langem schon zu den einfallsreichsten und anregendsten Interpreten einiger von Angst und Vorurteil verstellter Realitäten. In ›Die islamische Aufklärung‹ seziert er den selbstgefälligen Gegensatz zwischen Islam und Moderne und enthüllt dabei eine faszinierende Welt: eine Welt, in der Menschen sich unter dem Druck der Geschichte ständig verändern, improvisieren und sich anpassen. Es ist genau das richtige Buch für unsere in Unordnung geratene Welt: zeitgemäß, dringlich und erhellend.« Pankaj Mishra »Zur rechten Zeit, tiefsinnig und provokativ.« Peter Frankopan

An Answer to the Question: 'What is Enlightenment?'

Author: Immanuel Kant

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141957735

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 6557

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Immanuel Kant was one of the most influential philosophers in the whole of Europe, who changed Western thought with his examinations of reason and the nature of reality. In these writings he investigates human progress, civilization, morality and why, to be truly enlightened, we must all have the freedom and courage to use our own intellect. Throughout history, some books have changed the world. They have transformed the way we see ourselves - and each other. They have inspired debate, dissent, war and revolution. They have enlightened, outraged, provoked and comforted. They have enriched lives - and destroyed them. Now Penguin brings you the works of the great thinkers, pioneers, radicals and visionaries whose ideas shook civilization and helped make us who we are.

What is Enlightenment? The Dialectic of Enlightenment

Author: Kristian Klett

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640203232

Category:

Page: 28

View: 2758

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Seminar paper from the year 1999 in the subject Philosophy - Philosophy of the Present, grade: Pass, University of Melbourne, course: Introduction to Critical Theory, language: English, abstract: While we live in a post-modern World - having the age of Enlightenment, the eighteenth century, far in our rear view mirror - the concept of Enlightenment is still a basic philosophical task. Its origin, its constitution and its goal are wildly disputed, unknown or undefined, whatever point of view might here be adequate. Still, Enlightenment is seen to be a determining part of human nature, of "what we are, what we think, what we do." (Foucault, p.32) We still live (and an interesting question here would be: will we always live?) within the 'shadow' of the eighteenth century Enlightenment, even though the new era of modernity or post-modernity has been introduced. Since Enlightenment "dissolve[d] the injustice of the old inequality" (Adorno, p.12) of church, nobility, Bourgeoisie and the people, of mastery and serfdom with reason as its mediator, we face the problem of its side effects and its results, and - most importantly - its limits. Must man define his border to experience freedom (which is still within limits though they are not consciously felt, if these limits are wide enough), or can he overcome a reasonable reason in some way? Alternatively has institutionalised knowledge (with the help of religion) established a "building" of ideologies1 that is of eternal character? This leads to the question of possible "exits" from Enlightenment which already happens to have been a "way out" (Foucault, p.34) from immaturity, but is now mutilated to a new "prison" of human beings in post-modernity. Is the human mind ever to reach a state of "nirvana" or its secular utopia, a never available dream world; liberty of universals, the ultimate freedom? Will man ever be able to come back to paradise, now that he has eaten from the "tree of knowledge"? (Kantos, p.239) This essay tri

What Is Enlightenment

Can China Answer Kant's Question?

Author: Wei Zhang

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 1438431074

Category: Philosophy

Page: 131

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A cross-cultural work which reinvigorates the consideration of enlightenment.

Kant's Foundations of Ethics

What Is Enlightenment? Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals

Author: Immanuel Kant

Publisher: Agora Publications, Inc.

ISBN: 9781887250030

Category: Philosophy

Page: 74

View: 5627

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The two works included in this volume articulate the most fundamental principles of Kant's ethical world view. "What Is Enlightenment?" (1784) & "Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals" (1785) were written in the period between the American Revolution & the French Revolution. Taken together they challenge all free people to think about the requirements for self-determination both in our individual lives & in our public & private institutions.

What Is Enlightenment?

Continuity or Rupture in the Wake of the Arab Uprisings

Author: Mohammed D. Cherkaoui

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739193686

Category: Political Science

Page: 418

View: 1790

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This volume examines whether the Arab Uprisings introduce a replica of the European Enlightenment or rather stimulate an Arab/Islamic Awakening with its own cultural specificity and political philosophy. By placing Immanuel Kant in Tahrir Square, Cairo, this book adopts a comparative analysis of two enlightenment projects: one Arab, still under construction, with possible progression toward modernity or regression toward neo-authoritarianism, and one European, shaped by the past two centuries.

What Is Enlightenment?

Author: William Bodri

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780972190749

Category: Religion

Page: 558

View: 8975

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What is spiritual enlightenment? You often hear the term "enlightenment" in deep spiritual discussions, but it is almost impossible to find anyone who can definitively say what "enlightenment," "awakening," "union," or "self-realization" actually entails. In fact, many religions differ as to their proposals for the highest state of spiritual attainment -- which is often called salvation, liberation or becoming one with God (union) -- that often do not even include enlightenment, or they may simply recognize it under a different name. Enlightenment is the direct realization of our self-nature, source essence, or true self. This awakening constitutes directly experiencing the source and essence of reality, the original dimension of equal identity where mind and matter are one because you have found the ultimate underlying, true nature of all things. Enlightenment means to directly, experientially realize that basic substance of cosmic life where matter and consciousness are the same substance, which then consequently opens up various powers and a universal visage. That transcendental source nature you discover is often called God, Ein Sof, Allah, Brahman, dharmakaya, fundamental nature, Buddha-nature, Tao, Emptiness or Self. Some of the secular designations include Pure Consciousness, pristine awareness, one mind, uncreated light, clear light or infinite universal illumination to denote the fact that It is the ultimate substratum that gives birth to the knowingness of manifest consciousness. The way to this realization is through meditation and other spiritual practices that teach you to stop clinging to states of consciousness. You must always allow consciousness to arise, but should not cling to thoughts to thus become a perfectly free, effortless, natural and spontaneous individual. As your thoughts quiet down because of this practice, your body's chakras and chi channels will open up (you will experience a kundalini awakening) and you will gradually stop identifying your body and mind as your self. In time you can attain a pristine realization of selflessness (a state absent of the ego, I-thought or sense of separate "I-amness") that constitutes enlightenment. Regardless of your religious tradition, when you diligently cultivate spiritual practice you will gradually pass through many transitional stages of progress and particular spiritual experiences. These experiences can include special degrees of one-pointed concentration (absorption) called dhyana and samadhi attainments, which prepare you for enlightenment if you cultivate far enough. Many religions, both Eastern and Western, describe these possible achievements in great detail, and many such experiences that are not enlightenment are analyzed within so that practitioners do not incorrectly assume they have actually achieved awakening when they have only experienced inferior attainments. The various achievement levels to this awakening of self-realization that are explained. This book is the first of its kind to collect not only the rare autobiographical and biographical accounts from many traditions of individuals who achieved enlightenment (because it is a non-denominational accomplishment), but also the relevant passages in each tradition's scriptures that reveal the characteristics of the original nature that everyone awakens to (such as perfect purity, changelessness, infinity, eternality, and bliss). The reader quickly comes to the conclusion that despite sectarian differences, everyone is actually awakening to the very same thing. It cannot be anything else The pathway to enlightenment is analyzed using many different religious paths and frameworks. Many common errors of spiritual practice and misinterpretations of spiritual states are also revealed to help individuals become correctly oriented so that they can attain enlightenment as well.

What is Enlightenment?

Exploring the Goal of the Spiritual Path

Author: John White

Publisher: Paragon House

ISBN: 9781557787262

Category: Religion

Page: 244

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In this newly revised and expanded edition, John White, well-known author and researcher in the field of consciousness and spiritual development, has gathered together sixteen of the world's most respected spiritual teachers, each of whom offers an answer to the fundamental question: "What is enlightenment?" These essays offer a comprehensive look at the ultimate state of human consciousness - the pinnacle of happiness, mental health, and understanding of reality - and further explore the psychological, intellectual, religious, cultural and practical aspects of enlightenment.

The Enlightenment

Author: Dorinda Outram

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139620126

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 9810

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Debate over the meaning of 'Enlightenment' began in the eighteenth century and still continues to this day. This period saw the opening of arguments on the nature of man, truth, the place of God and the international circulation of ideas, people and gold. But did the Enlightenment mean the same for men and women, for rich and poor, for Europeans and non-Europeans? In the third edition of her acclaimed book, Dorinda Outram addresses these and other questions about the Enlightenment as controversy increases about its place at the foundation of modernity. She studies it as a global phenomenon, setting the period against broader social changes. This new edition offers a new chapter on political economy, a completely revised further reading section and a new feature on electronic sources to stimulate primary research. This accessible overview will be essential reading for students of eighteenth-century history, philosophy and the history of ideas.

Perpetual Peace and Other Essays

Author: Immanuel Kant

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 1603847189

Category: Philosophy

Page: 162

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TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction. Bibliography. A Note on the Text. 1. Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Intent (1784) 2. An Answer to the Question: What Is Enlightenment? (1784) 3. Speculative Beginning of Human History (1786) 4. On the Proverb: That May Be True in Theory, but Is of No Practical Use (1793) 5. The End of All Things (1794) 6. To Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795) Glossary of Some German-English Translations. Index.

What Is Enlightenment?

A History and Sociology of Knowledge

Author: J. M. Beach

Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub

ISBN: 9781481806732

Category: Philosophy

Page: 174

View: 2108

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This book is a historical, philosophical, and sociological inquiry into knowledge. For thousands of years we have thought that we were divinely enabled to know and control our destiny. Only relatively recently, over the past half century, have we begun to realize that we are deeply flawed organic organisms with the unique capacity for conscious thought and constrained agency. This book seeks to take a historical and functionalist approach of the phenomenon of knowledge. I want to explain what it is, how it is created, and what it can and cannot do. I hope this book can help enlighten a new generation about the possibilities and constraints of human progress, which depend on our flawed, but useful tool of knowledge. The fate of our species rests on our continued daring to know.