Urbanism in the Preindustrial World

Cross-Cultural Approaches

Author: Glenn Storey

Publisher: University Alabama Press

ISBN: 9780817314767

Category: Social Science

Page: 560

View: 8034

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A baseline study of the growth of preindustrial cities worldwide. This work employs a subset of preindustrial cities on many continents to answer questions archaeologists grapple with concerning the populating and growth of cities before industrialization. It further explores how scholars differently conceive and execute their research on the population of cities. The subject cities are in Greece, Mesoamerica, the Andes, Italy, Egypt, Africa, United States, Denmark, and China. This broad sample provides a useful framework for answers to such questions as “Why did people agglomerate into cities?” and “What population size and what age of endurance constitute a city?” The study covers more than population magnitude and population makeup, the two major frameworks of urban demography. The contributors combine their archaeological and historical expertise to reveal commonalities, as well as theoretical extrapolations and methodological approaches, at work here and outside the sample. Urbanism in the Preindustrial World is a unique study revealing the variety of factors involved in the coalescing and dispersal of populations in preindustrial times.

State of the World 2007

Our Urban Future

Author: The Worldwatch Institute

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1610916328

Category: Nature

Page: 277

View: 5645

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In 2008, half of the Earth’s population will live in urban areas, marking the first time in history that humans are an urban species. State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future examines changes in the ways cities are managed, built, and lived in that could tip the balance towards a healthier and more peaceful urban future.

The Measure of Civilization

How Social Development Decides the Fate of Nations

Author: Ian Morris

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400844762

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 6968

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In the last thirty years, there have been fierce debates over how civilizations develop and why the West became so powerful. The Measure of Civilization presents a brand-new way of investigating these questions and provides new tools for assessing the long-term growth of societies. Using a groundbreaking numerical index of social development that compares societies in different times and places, award-winning author Ian Morris sets forth a sweeping examination of Eastern and Western development across 15,000 years since the end of the last ice age. He offers surprising conclusions about when and why the West came to dominate the world and fresh perspectives for thinking about the twenty-first century. Adapting the United Nations' approach for measuring human development, Morris's index breaks social development into four traits--energy capture per capita, organization, information technology, and war-making capacity--and he uses archaeological, historical, and current government data to quantify patterns. Morris reveals that for 90 percent of the time since the last ice age, the world's most advanced region has been at the western end of Eurasia, but contrary to what many historians once believed, there were roughly 1,200 years--from about 550 to 1750 CE--when an East Asian region was more advanced. Only in the late eighteenth century CE, when northwest Europeans tapped into the energy trapped in fossil fuels, did the West leap ahead. Resolving some of the biggest debates in global history, The Measure of Civilization puts forth innovative tools for determining past, present, and future economic and social trends.

The Comparative Archaeology of Complex Societies

Author: Michael E. Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139502034

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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Part of a resurgence in the comparative study of ancient societies, this book presents a variety of methods and approaches to comparative analysis through the examination of wide-ranging case studies. Each chapter is a comparative study, and the diverse topics and regions covered in the book contribute to the growing understanding of variation and change in ancient complex societies. The authors explore themes ranging from urbanization and settlement patterns, to the political strategies of kings and chiefs, to the economic choices of individuals and households. The case studies cover an array of geographical settings, from the Andes to Southeast Asia. The authors are leading archaeologists whose research on early empires, states, and chiefdoms is at the cutting edge of scientific archaeology.

Sustainable Urban Development

Author: Ram Babu Singh

Publisher: Concept Publishing Company

ISBN: 9788180692956

Category: Sustainable development

Page: 431

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The present compendium of 26 papers relates to conceptual and empirical case studies from India and other Asian countries. It also combines an academic understanding with an empirical case studies from India and other Asian countries.

Cities of the World

World Regional Urban Development

Author: Stanley D. Brunn,Jack Francis Williams,Donald J. Zeigler

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780847698981

Category: Social Science

Page: 548

View: 4386

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The only text to offer a regional survey of world urban development, this third edition has been fully revised and updated to include new chapter authors, new cities and regions, and an expanded art program. Focusing on the eleven major culture realms of the world, the volume examines each region's urban history, economy, and culture and society, and offers engaging case studies of major representative cities. Introductory and concluding chapters frame the regional discussion by summarizing world urban history and by looking to the future of urban development. Maps, graphs, tables, photos, color satellite images, recommended readings, web sites, and UN data on major cities offer rich additional resources for students. Visit our website for sample chapters!

The City in the Developing World

Author: Robert B. Potter,Sally Lloyd-Evans

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317879678

Category: Science

Page: 262

View: 6041

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The City in the Developing World is a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to urbanisation in developing countries. The goal of this text is to place an understanding of the developing world city in its wider global context. First, this is done by developing the concept of social surplus product as a key to understanding the character of the contemporary Third World city. Second, throughout this text, the city in developing areas is centrally placed in the context of global, social, economic, political and cultural change. Thus, the important themes of globalisation, modernity and postmodernity are examined both in relation to the structure of sets of towns and cities which make up the national or regional urban system, and in respect of ideas and concepts dealing with the morphology, structure and social patterning of individual urban areas. The City in the Developing World is a core text for second and third year undergraduates in the fields of geography, development studies, planning, economics and the social sciences, taking options which deal with development issues, development theory, gender and development and Third World development.

Cities and Economic Development

From the Dawn of History to the Present

Author: Paul Bairoch,Christopher Braider

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226034669

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 574

View: 862

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When and how were cities born? Does urbanization foster innovation and economic development? What was the level of urbanization in traditional societies? Did the Industrial Revolution facilitate urbanization? Has the growth of cities in the Third World been a handicap or an asset to economic development? In this revised translation of De Jéricho à Mexico, Paul Bairoch seeks the answers to these questions and provides a comprehensive study of the evolution of the city and its relation to economic life. Bairoch examines the development of cities from the dawn of urbanization (Jericho) to the explosive growth of the contemporary Third World city. In particular, he defines the roles of agriculture and industrialization in the rise of cities. "A hefty history, from the Neolithic onward. It's ambitious in scope and rich in subject, detailing urbanization and, of course, the links between cities and economies. Scholarly, accessible, and significant."—Newsday "This book offers a path-breaking synthesis of the vast literature on the history of urbanization."—John C. Brown, Journal of Economic Literature "One leaves this volume with the feeling of positions intelligently argued and related to the existing state of theory and knowledge. One also has the pleasure of reading a book unusually well-written. It will long both be a standard and stimulate new thought on the central issue of urban and economic growth."—Thomas A. Reiner, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science

The Sumerian World

Author: Harriet Crawford

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136219110

Category: History

Page: 688

View: 8654

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The Sumerian World explores the archaeology, history and art of southern Mesopotamia and its relationships with its neighbours from c.3,000 - 2,000BC. Including material hitherto unpublished from recent excavations, the articles are organised thematically using evidence from archaeology, texts and the natural sciences. This broad treatment will also make the volume of interest to students looking for comparative data in allied subjects such as ancient literature and early religions. Providing an authoritative, comprehensive and up to date overview of the Sumerian period written by some of the best qualified scholars in the field, The Sumerian World will satisfy students, researchers, academics, and the knowledgeable layperson wishing to understand the world of southern Mesopotamia in the third millennium.

Economies Beyond Agriculture in the Classical World

Author: David J. Mattingly,John Salmon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113461554X

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 5694

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This book presents a challenge to the long held view that the predominantly agricultural economies of ancient Greece and Rome were underdeveloped. It shows that the exploitation of natural resources, manufacturing and the building trade all made significant contributions to classical economies. It will be an indispensable resource for those interested in the period.

The Anxious City

English Urbanism in the Late Twentieth Century

Author: Richard J. Williams

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415279275

Category: Architecture

Page: 281

View: 5243

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In the Western world, cities have arguably never been more anxious: practical anxieties about personal safety and metaphysical anxieties about the uncertain place of the city in culture are the small change of journalism and political debate. Cities have long been regarded as problems, in need of drastic solutions. In this context, the contemporary revival of city centres is remarkable. But in a culture that largely fears the urban, how can the contemporary city be imagined? How is it supposed to be used or inhabited? What does it mean? Taking England since WWII as its principal focus, this provocative and original book considers the Western city at a critical moment in its history.

Redefining Public Space in Hanoi

Places, Practices and Meaning

Author: Sandra Kurfürst

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 3643902719

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 1950

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Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is known for its bustling street life. Public spaces, such as streets and sidewalks, are appropriated by citizens mostly for small-scale economic activities. Green parks are privatized in order to cater to the growing demand for leisure space. At the same time, official spaces like Ba Dinh Square or Ly Thai To Square are occupied by Hanoi's residents for sports and gatherings. This dissertation takes a close look at the practices and the meaning of public spaces and the development of public spheres in Hanoi. Dissertation. (Series: Southeast Asian Modernities - Vol. 13)

Spaces of Global Cultures

Architecture, Urbanism, Identity

Author: Anthony King

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134644450

Category: Architecture

Page: 280

View: 8733

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This book brings together a series of new and historical case studies to show how different phases of globalization are transforming the built environment. Taking a broad interdisciplinary approach, the author draws on sociological, geographical, cultural and postcolonial studies to provide a critical account of the development of three key concepts: global culture, post colonialism, and modernity. Subsequent case studies examine how global economic, political and cultural forces shape the forms of architectural and urban modernity in globalized suburbs and spaces in major cities worldwide. The first book to combine global and postcolonial theoretical approaches to the built environment and to illustrate these with examples, Spaces of Global Cultures argues for a more historical and interdisciplinary understanding of globalization: one that places material space and the built environment at the centre and calls for new theories to address new conditions.

The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

Author: Peter Mitchell,Paul Lane

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191626155

Category: Social Science

Page: 1080

View: 9684

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Africa has the longest and arguably the most diverse archaeological record of any of the continents. It is where the human lineage first evolved and from where Homo sapiens spread across the rest of the world. Later, it witnessed novel experiments in food-production and unique trajectories to urbanism and the organisation of large communities that were not always structured along strictly hierarchical lines. Millennia of engagement with societies in other parts of the world confirm Africa's active participation in the construction of the modern world, while the richness of its history, ethnography, and linguistics provide unusually powerful opportunities for constructing interdisciplinary narratives of Africa's past. This Handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism. As well as covering almost all periods and regions of the continent, it includes a mixture of key methodological and theoretical issues and debates, and situates the subject's contemporary practice within the discipline's history and the infrastructural challenges now facing its practitioners. Bringing together essays on all these themes from over seventy contributors, many of them living and working in Africa, it offers a highly accessible, contemporary account of the subject for use by scholars and students of not only archaeology, but also history, anthropology, and other disciplines.

Shanghai

Its Urbanization and Culture

Author: Xuanmeng Yu,Xirong He

Publisher: CRVP

ISBN: 9781565182073

Category: Social Science

Page: 299

View: 8503

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The World of Pompeii

Author: Pedar Foss,John J. Dobbins

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134689748

Category: History

Page: 704

View: 573

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This all embracing survey of Pompeii provides the most comprehensive survey of the region available. With contributions by well-known experts in the field, this book studies not only Pompeii, but also – for the first time – the buried surrounding cities of Campania. The World of Pompeii includes the latest understanding of the region, based on the up-to-date findings of recent archaeological work. Accompanied by a CD with the most detailed map of Pompeii so far, this book is instrumental in studying the city in the ancient world and is an excellent source book for students of this fascinating and tragic geographic region.

The City in Roman and Byzantine Egypt

Author: Richard Alston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134560532

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 2901

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For those wishing to study the Roman city in Egypt, the archaeological record is poorer than that of many other provinces. Yet the large number of surviving texts allows us to reconstruct the social lives of Egyptians to an extent undreamt of elsewhere. We are not, therefore, limited to a history of the public faces of cities, their inscriptions, and the writings of their elites, but can begin to understand what the transformations of the city meant for ordinary people, and to uncover the forces that shaped the everyday lives of city dwellers. After Egypt became part of the Roman Empire in 30 BC, Classical and then Christian influences both made their mark on the urban environment. This book examines the impact of these new cultures at every level of Egyptian society. The result is a new and fascinating insight into the creation of a specific urban society in the Roman Empire, as well as a case study for the model of urban development in antiquity.

Encyclopedia of Diasporas

Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities

Author: Melvin Ember,Carol R. Ember,Ian Skoggard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306483211

Category: Social Science

Page: 590

View: 3548

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Immigration is a topic that is as important among anthropologists as it is the general public. Almost every culture has experienced adaptation and assimilation when immigrating to a new country and culture; usually leaving for what is perceived as a "better life". Not only does this diaspora change the country of adoption, but also the country of origin. Many large nations in the world have absorbed, and continue to absorb, large numbers of immigrants. The foreseeable future will see a continuation of large-scale immigration, as many countries experience civil war and secessionist pressures. Currently, there is no reference work that describes the impact upon the immigrants and the immigrant societies relevant to the world's cultures and provides an overview of important topics in the world's diasporas. The encyclopedia consists of two volumes covering three main sections: Diaspora Overviews covers over 20 ethnic groups that have experienced voluntary or forced immigration. These essays discuss the history behind the social, economic, and political reasons for leaving the original countries, and the cultures in the new places; Topics discusses the impact and assimilation that the immigrant cultures experience in their adopted cultures, including the arts they bring, the struggles they face, and some of the cities that are in the forefront of receiving immigrant cultures; Diaspora Communities include over 60 portraits of specific diaspora communities. Each portrait follows a standard outline to facilitate comparisons. The Encyclopedia of Diasporas can be used both to gain a general understanding of immigration and immigrants, and to find out about particular cultures, topics and communities. It will prove of great value to researchers and students, curriculum developers, teachers, and government officials. It brings together the disciplines of anthropology, social studies, political studies, international studies, and immigrant and immigration studies.

Pre-Industrial Cities and Technology

Author: Colin Chant,David Goodman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134636202

Category: Science

Page: 354

View: 887

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This, the first book in the series, explores cities from the earliest earth built settlements to the dawn of the industrial age exploring ancient, Medieval, early modern and renaissance cities. Among the cities examined are Uruk, Babylon, Thebes, Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Baghdad, Siena, Florence, Antwerp, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Mexico City, Timbuktu, Great Zimbabwe, Hangzhou, Beijing and Hankou Among the technologies discussed are: irrigation, water transport, urban public transport, aqueducts, building materials such as brick and Roman concrete, weaponry and fortifications, street lighting and public clocks.

World Yearbook of Education 1970

Education in Cities

Author: Joseph A. Lauwerys,David G. Scanlon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136168206

Category: Education

Page: 434

View: 5735

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"First Published in 2005, Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company."