Understanding Crime Statistics

Revisiting the Divergence of the NCVS and the UCR

Author: James P. Lynch,Lynn A. Addington

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139462628

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 1519


In Understanding Crime Statistics, Lynch and Addington draw on the work of leading experts on U.S. crime statistics to provide much-needed research on appropriate use of this data. Specifically, the contributors explore the issues surrounding divergence in the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which have been the two major indicators of the level and of the change in level of crime in the United States for the past 30 years. This book examines recent changes in the UCR and the NCVS and assesses the effect these have had on divergence. By focusing on divergence, the authors encourage readers to think about how these data systems filter the reality of crime. Understanding Crime Statistics builds on this discussion of divergence to explain how the two data systems can be used as they were intended - in complementary rather than competitive ways.

Risiken der Sicherheitsgesellschaft

Sicherheit, Risiko & Kriminalpolitik

Author: Marcel Alexander Niggli,Lukas Marty

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3942865327

Category: Fiction

Page: 540

View: 1564


Die 13. Tagung der Kriminologischen Gesellschaft (KrimG) widmete sich dem Thema „Risiken der Sicherheitsgesellschaft – Sicherheit, Risiko und Kriminalpolitik“ und zog etwa 160 Teilneh-merinnen und Teilnehmer aus Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz nach Freiburg i. Üe. Die Thematik ist von höchst aktueller Relevanz, verschiebt sich doch der Fokus von der Repression hin zur Prävention, wobei sich die Grenzen zwischen Straf- und Polizei-, bzw. Straf- und Verwaltungsrecht zunehmend verwischen. Die Tagung bestand aus einer Mischung von Plenarvorträgen und Vorträgen in Panels, die das Spektrum der kriminologischen Forschungsfelder abdeckten. Von der Sanktionspraxis hin zu Polizei und Strafverfolgung, über Prävention und Ätiologie, Dunkelfeldbefragung in Deutschland 2012, Wirtschaftskriminalität, Strafvollzug sowie Jugend und Alter, Suizid, Sicherheitsgesellschaft und Kriminalpolitik, Massnahme- bzw. Massregelvollzug, Täter und Opfer, Umgang mit Unsicherheiten und Fehlern, Entlassung aus dem Vollzug und einzelnen Delikten. Der vorliegende Band enthält in etwa die Hälfte aller Beiträge (Plenar- und Panelvorträge), wobei die meisten der nun vorliegenden etwa 30 Vorträge für die Drucklegung überarbeitet wurden. Zudem finden sich im Band auch die Laudationes für die Beccaria-Preisträger.

Handbook of Quantitative Criminology

Author: Alex R. Piquero,David Weisburd

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387776507

Category: Social Science

Page: 787

View: 2682


Quantitative criminology has certainly come a long way since I was ?rst introduced to a largely qualitative criminology some 40 years ago, when I was recruited to lead a task force on science and technology for the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. At that time, criminology was a very limited activity, depending almost exclusively on the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) initiated by the FBI in 1929 for measurement of crime based on victim reports to the police and on police arrests. A ty- cal mode of analysis was simple bivariate correlation. Marvin Wolfgang and colleagues were makingan importantadvancebytrackinglongitudinaldata onarrestsin Philadelphia,an in- vation that was widely appreciated. And the ?eld was very small: I remember attending my ?rst meeting of the American Society of Criminology in about 1968 in an anteroom at New York University; there were about 25–30 people in attendance, mostly sociologists with a few lawyers thrown in. That Society today has over 3,000 members, mostly now drawn from criminology which has established its own clear identity, but augmented by a wide variety of disciplines that include statisticians, economists, demographers, and even a few engineers. This Handbook provides a remarkable testimony to the growth of that ?eld. Following the maxim that “if you can’t measure it, you can’t understand it,” we have seen the early dissatisfaction with the UCR replaced by a wide variety of new approaches to measuring crime victimization and offending.

21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook

Author: J. Mitchell Miller

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1506320589

Category: Social Science

Page: 960

View: 5807


Criminology has experienced tremendous growth over the last few decades, evident, in part, by the widespread popularity and increased enrollment in criminology and criminal justice departments at the undergraduate and graduate levels across the U.S. and internationally. Evolutionary paradigmatic shift has accompanied this surge in definitional, disciplinary and pragmatic terms. Though long identified as a leading sociological specialty area, criminology has emerged as a stand-alone discipline in its own right, one that continues to grow and is clearly here to stay. Criminology, today, remains inherently theoretical but is also far more applied in focus and thus more connected to the academic and practitioner concerns of criminal justice and related professional service fields. Contemporary criminology is also increasingly interdisciplinary and thus features a broad variety of ideological orientations to and perspectives on the causes, effects and responses to crime. 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook provides straightforward and definitive overviews of 100 key topics comprising traditional criminology and its modern outgrowths. The individual chapters have been designed to serve as a "first-look" reference source for most criminological inquires. Both connected to the sociological origins of criminology (i.e., theory and research methods) and the justice systems' response to crime and related social problems, as well as coverage of major crime types, this two-volume set offers a comprehensive overview of the current state of criminology. From student term papers and masters theses to researchers commencing literature reviews, 21st Century Criminology is a ready source from which to quickly access authoritative knowledge on a range of key issues and topics central to contemporary criminology. This two-volume set in the SAGE 21st Century Reference Series is intended to provide undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that will serve their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but not so much jargon, detail, or density as a journal article or research handbook chapter. 100 entries or "mini-chapters" highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in this field ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. Curricular-driven, chapters provide students with initial footholds on topics of interest in researching term papers, in preparing for GREs, in consulting to determine directions to take in pursuing a senior thesis, graduate degree, career, etc. Comprehensive in coverage, major sections include The Discipline of Criminology, Correlates of Crime, Theories of Crime & Justice, Measurement & Research, Types of Crime, and Crime & the Justice System. The contributor group is comprised of well-known figures and emerging young scholars who provide authoritative overviews coupled with insightful discussion that will quickly familiarize researchers, students, and general readers alike with fundamental and detailed information for each topic. Uniform chapter structure makes it easy for students to locate key information, with most chapters following a format of Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References. Availability in print and electronic formats provides students with convenient, easy access wherever they may be.

Crime and Public Policy

Author: James Q. Wilson,Joan Petersilia

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199315043

Category: Law

Page: 656

View: 2304


Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.

The International Crime Drop

New Directions in Research

Author: Jan van Dijk,A. Tseloni,G. Farrell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113729146X

Category: Political Science

Page: 333

View: 4424


Drawing on new studies from major European countries and Australia, this exciting collection extends the ongoing debate on falling crime rates from the perspective of criminal opportunity or routine activity theory. It analyses the effect of post WW2 crime booms which triggered a universal improvement in security across the Western world.

Surveying crime in the 21st century

commemorating the 25th anniversary of the British Crime Survey

Author: Michael G. Maxfield,J. M. Hough

Publisher: Criminal Justice Pr


Category: Political Science

Page: 319

View: 5515


Since its first sweep in 1982, the British Crime Survey - and its counterparts in the US and other nations - have become invaluable sources of data for research and policy development. In this book, chapters by a distinguished international group of scholars describe key findings of national crime surveys in a variety of research and policy areas, including:internationa comparisons of victimization;covariation of victimization and offending;the measurement of police performance;the impact of crime in different types of communities;attitudes to crime and justice;fear of crime; andthe unequal distribution of risk.Though national crime surveys have made substantial contributions to knowledge, according to the authors the surveys must adapt to changing circumstances if they are to continue to be of value. Future directions include continuing to incorporate new technology in samples and survey designs; broadening the focus beyond 'normal' crimes and individual victims; and producing better measures of crimes such as fraud, organized crime, corruption and Internet-facilitated crime.

Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective

Key Findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS

Author: J. J. M. van Dijk,John van Kesteren,Paul Smit

Publisher: Eleven International Pub


Category: Social Science

Page: 292

View: 7527


This report presents the key findings of the 2004/2005 International Crime Victims Survey (ICVS) together with the results of the European Survey on Crime and Safety (EU ICS). The surveys cover 30 countries and 33 capital or main cities. Where appropriate, the results are compared with those of the four earlier ICVS surveys, conducted in 1989, 1992, 1996 and 2000. The report presents data from the following 30 countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, England & Wales, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA. Also data from 33 main cities of a selection of developed and developing countries are presented including cities from Argentina, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Hong Kong-China and Cambodia. The report shows how individual countries and cities compare with each other in relation to crime victimisation rates for ten types of common crimes including car theft, household burglary, robbery, assaults and sexual offences. Where possible, comparisons are also made regarding trends in crime over time in various countries. Besides, the levels of some non-conventional crimes such as corruption, internetbased fraud and hate crimes are addressed as well. The report also gives information on related topics such as reporting to the police, fear of crime, crime prevention measures and opinions about the police and sentencing.

New Strategies for Combating Violent Crime

Drawing Lessons from Recent Experience : Hearing Before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Second Session, September 10, 2008

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A


Category: Community policing

Page: 102

View: 1509


Encyclopedia of crime and punishment

Author: David Levinson

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: 9780761922582

Category: Law

Page: 1914

View: 586


"The Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment provides the much-needed practices, policies, and research and will be of interest to students, teachers, and the general reader alike. This work should be on the shelves of all libraries with collections in the social sciences."Larry E. Sullivan, Ph.D.Chief Librarian, John Jay College of Criminal JusticeCrime. It started with Cain and Abel, and it won't end with the Sopranos. Our fascination with transgression and its punishment is universal. And now, from Sage ' the publisher of criminal justice abstracts and other standards in the field ' comes the ultimate reference source on this all-consuming subject: comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-the second.Comprehensive and balanced coverage of: Concepts and theories Correction Law Crimes Methods and statistics National surveys Organizations Police science Social and cultural contextFeatures and benefits:- 100% original content- Broader, more up-to-date coverage than any other source on the market 275 Contributors 425 Signed entries 150 Illustrations Prestigious advisory board overseeing quality 1.5 million words 250 sidebars offering key primary source documents 100 "factoids," spotlighting important, and sometimes startling, information International coverage, with focus on the contemporary United States Chronology, master bibliography, and general index Appendixes: Careers in criminal justice; Professional organizations; Guidance on using the Web to collect accurate informationEncyclopedia of Crime and Punishment covers the waterfront. Entries include: Broken windows theory Child witness Environmental crime Interpol Media Pathology Prison industry Religion in prison Securities fraud Spectator violence Television Victimization War crimes Wrongful convictionsADVISORY BOARDAnita BlowersUniversity of North Carolina, CharlotteEve BuzawaUniversity of Massachusetts, LowellRic CurtisJohn Jay College of Criminal JusticeHarry DammerNiagara UniversityObi EbbeUniversity of Tennessee, ChattanoogaFrank HorvathMichigan State UniversityPhyllis SchultzeRutgers UniversityLarry SullivanJohn Jay College of Criminal Justice

The New Jim Crow

Masseninhaftierung und Rassismus in den USA

Author: Michelle Alexander

Publisher: Antje Kunstmann

ISBN: 3956141598

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 7606


Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.

Was ist Theorie?

Theoriebegriff und Dialogische Theorie in den Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften

Author: Peter V. Zima

Publisher: UTB

ISBN: 382524797X

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 2573


Was ist Theorie und welche Bedeutung haben Ideologien und Werturteile für sie? Wie könnte ein kultur- und sozialwissenschaftlicher Theoriebegriff aussehen? Die Tatsache, dass eine zweite Auflage des vorliegenden Werks zustande kam, lässt das Bedürfnis nach einer konkreten Beantwortung der Frage erkennen. Das Buch antwortet auf die oben genannten Fragen, indem es zunächst klärt, wie sich Theorien in den verschiedenen Wissenschaftsbereichen definieren lassen. Anschließend werden die wichtigsten Theoriedebatten des 20. Jahrhunderts dargestellt, aber auch kritisch bewertet. Am Schluss des Bandes steht die Zusammenführung der unterschiedlichen Ansätze im Konzept einer Dialogischen Theorie, die den Besonderheiten der Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften Rechnung trägt.

Empirische Forschung über Kriminalität

Methodologische und methodische Grundlagen

Author: Stefanie Eifler,Daniela Pollich

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531189948

Category: Social Science

Page: 474

View: 6751


Die empirische Forschung über Kriminalität steht vor methodologischen und methodischen Herausforderungen, die eine kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung und Überprüfung von Verfahren der Datenerhebung und Datenanalyse erfordern. Der vorliegende Band bietet einen Überblick über die aktuellen Entwicklungen von Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung zur Analyse der Kriminalität als sozialer Erscheinung. Methodologische Grundlagen einer Theorie geleiteten empirischen Analyse der Kriminalität werden dabei ebenso betrachtet wie die methodischen Grundlagen der empirischen Forschung über Kriminalität. Im Mittelpunkt stehen aktuelle Lösungsansätze für klassische Problemfelder der empirischen Forschung über Kriminalität, wie die Betrachtung von Kriminalität in Hell- und Dunkelfeld, die Anwendung experimenteller und nicht-experimenteller Forschungsdesigns und die Analyse von Kriminalität in Bezug auf Raum und Zeit im Rahmen von Mehrebenenanalysen und Wachstumskurvenmodellen.

Kriminalität in Deutschland

Author: Britta Bannenberg,Dieter Rössner

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 9783406508844

Category: Crime

Page: 125

View: 3675


Überblick über die Kriminalitätslage in Deutschland, über Statistiken und Dunkelfeldforschung sowie über strafrechtliche Sanktionen.

Tod und Leben großer amerikanischer Städte

Author: Jane Jacobs

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3035602123

Category: Architecture

Page: 220

View: 5993


In The Death and Life of Great American Cities durchleuchtet Jane Jacobs 1961 die fragwürdigen Methoden der Stadtplanung und Stadtsanierung in Amerika, der "New Yorker" nannte es das unkonventionellste und provozierendste Buch über Städtebau seit langem. Die deutsche Ausgabe wurde schnell auch im deutschsprachigem Raum zu einer viel gelesenen und diskutierten Lektüre. Sie ist jetzt wieder in einem Nachdruck zugänglich, mit einem Vorwort von Gerd Albers (1993), das nach der Aktualität dieser Streitschrift fragt.