Understanding Crime Statistics

Revisiting the Divergence of the NCVS and the UCR

Author: James P. Lynch,Lynn A. Addington

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139462628

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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In Understanding Crime Statistics, Lynch and Addington draw on the work of leading experts on U.S. crime statistics to provide much-needed research on appropriate use of this data. Specifically, the contributors explore the issues surrounding divergence in the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which have been the two major indicators of the level and of the change in level of crime in the United States for the past 30 years. This book examines recent changes in the UCR and the NCVS and assesses the effect these have had on divergence. By focusing on divergence, the authors encourage readers to think about how these data systems filter the reality of crime. Understanding Crime Statistics builds on this discussion of divergence to explain how the two data systems can be used as they were intended - in complementary rather than competitive ways.

The Future of Criminology

Author: Rolf Loeber,Brandon C. Welsh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199917930

Category: Law

Page: 278

View: 595

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The Future of Criminology takes stock of the major advances and developments that have taken place in the past several decades and asks where the field of criminology is headed. In thirty-three brief essays, the field's leading scholars provide their views into the future of what needs to be done in research, policy, and practice in the discipline.

Handbook of Quantitative Criminology

Author: Alex R. Piquero,David Weisburd

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387776507

Category: Social Science

Page: 787

View: 3588

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Quantitative criminology has certainly come a long way since I was ?rst introduced to a largely qualitative criminology some 40 years ago, when I was recruited to lead a task force on science and technology for the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. At that time, criminology was a very limited activity, depending almost exclusively on the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) initiated by the FBI in 1929 for measurement of crime based on victim reports to the police and on police arrests. A ty- cal mode of analysis was simple bivariate correlation. Marvin Wolfgang and colleagues were makingan importantadvancebytrackinglongitudinaldata onarrestsin Philadelphia,an in- vation that was widely appreciated. And the ?eld was very small: I remember attending my ?rst meeting of the American Society of Criminology in about 1968 in an anteroom at New York University; there were about 25–30 people in attendance, mostly sociologists with a few lawyers thrown in. That Society today has over 3,000 members, mostly now drawn from criminology which has established its own clear identity, but augmented by a wide variety of disciplines that include statisticians, economists, demographers, and even a few engineers. This Handbook provides a remarkable testimony to the growth of that ?eld. Following the maxim that “if you can’t measure it, you can’t understand it,” we have seen the early dissatisfaction with the UCR replaced by a wide variety of new approaches to measuring crime victimization and offending.

21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook

Author: J. Mitchell Miller

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412960193

Category: Social Science

Page: 915

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21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook provides straightforward and definitive overviews of 100 key topics comprising traditional criminology and its modern outgrowths. The individual chapters have been designed to serve as a "first-look" reference source for most criminological inquires. Both connected to the sociological origins of criminology (i.e., theory and research methods) and the justice systems' response to crime and related social problems, as well as coverage of major crime types, this two-volume set offers a comprehensive overview of the current state of criminology. From student term papers and masters theses to researchers commencing literature reviews, 21st Century Criminology is a ready source from which to quickly access authoritative knowledge on a range of key issues and topics central to contemporary criminology.

Criminology

Explaining Crime and Its Context

Author: Stephen E. Brown,Finn-Aage Esbensen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1455730149

Category: Social Science

Page: 592

View: 9136

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This highly acclaimed criminology text presents an up-to-date review of rational choice theories, including deterrence, shaming, and routine activities. It also incorporates current examples of deterrence research regarding domestic violence, drunk driving, and capital punishment, and features thought-provoking discussion of the relativity of crime. The authors explore the crime problem, its context, and causes of crime. The organization of the text reflects the fact that the etiology of crime must be at the heart of criminology. It examines contemporary efforts to redefine crime by focusing on family violence, hate crimes, white-collar misconduct with violent consequences, and other forms of human behavior often neglected by criminologists. Extensive discussion of evolving laws is included, and while the prevalence of the scientific method in the field of criminology is highlighted, the impact of ideology on explanations of crime is the cornerstone of the book. Comprehensive introductory textbook that looks at competing answers to the question, "Why do people commit crimes?" Student-friendly figures, features, highlights, and full-color photos. Each chapter includes learning objectives, discussion questions, and lists of key terms and concepts, key criminologists, and important legal cases. The eighth edition includes updates throughout and expanded coverage of biosocial theories of crime and life-course criminology.

Crime and Public Policy

Author: James Q. Wilson,Joan Petersilia

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199315043

Category: Law

Page: 656

View: 8847

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Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.

The International Crime Drop

New Directions in Research

Author: Jan van Dijk,A. Tseloni,G. Farrell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113729146X

Category: Political Science

Page: 333

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Drawing on new studies from major European countries and Australia, this exciting collection extends the ongoing debate on falling crime rates from the perspective of criminal opportunity or routine activity theory. It analyses the effect of post WW2 crime booms which triggered a universal improvement in security across the Western world.

Understanding Crime Incidence Statistics

Why the UCR Diverges From the NCS

Author: Albert D. Biderman,James P. Lynch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461229863

Category: Psychology

Page: 132

View: 447

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The prominence achieved by the novel measure of "households touched by crime" when it was introduced into the National Crime Survey (NCS) in 1981 was responsible for renewed attention to comparisons between the crime rates reported by the NCS and the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR). The new NCS measure suggested that crime was declining; this at a time of widespread awareness that the UCR Index was at all-time highs. Com parisons of the NCS and UCR in The New York Times (1981) and the Washington Post (1981) had the unfortunate consequence of reviving old and usually ill-informed arguments about which is the "better" measure of "trends in crime. " More recent discrepant changes of the two measures in 1986 and 1987 rekindled the debate, although with somewhat diminished stridency. The efforts of criminological statisticians to develop an appreciation for the two statistical systems as quite different but complementary measures have suffered a setback in these debates, but an opportunity is also afforded to improve the understanding of crime statistics by officials, the media, and the public. The need remains for the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) , the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the research community to explain in quantitative terms the ways in which the two systems attend to different, albeit overlapping, aspects of the crime problem.

Modernizing Crime Statistics

Report 1: Defining and Classifying Crime

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on Modernizing the Nation's Crime Statistics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309441099

Category: Law

Page: 286

View: 5903

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To derive statistics about crime â€" to estimate its levels and trends, assess its costs to and impacts on society, and inform law enforcement approaches to prevent it â€" a conceptual framework for defining and thinking about crime is virtually a prerequisite. Developing and maintaining such a framework is no easy task, because the mechanics of crime are ever evolving and shifting: tied to shifts and development in technology, society, and legislation. Interest in understanding crime surged in the 1920s, which proved to be a pivotal decade for the collection of nationwide crime statistics. Now established as a permanent agency, the Census Bureau commissioned the drafting of a manual for preparing crime statisticsâ€"intended for use by the police, corrections departments, and courts alike. The new manual sought to solve a perennial problem by suggesting a standard taxonomy of crime. Shortly after the Census Bureau issued its manual, the International Association of Chiefs of Police in convention adopted a resolution to create a Committee on Uniform Crime Records â€"to begin the process of describing what a national system of data on crimes known to the police might look like. The key distinction between the rigorous classification proposed in this report and the “classifications†that have come before in U.S. crime statistics is that it is intended to partition the entirety of behaviors that could be considered criminal offenses into mutually exclusive categories. Modernizing Crime Statistics: Report 1: Defining and Classifying Crime assesses and makes recommendations for the development of a modern set of crime measures in the United States and the best means for obtaining them. This first report develops a new classification of crime by weighing various perspectives on how crime should be defined and organized with the needs and demands of the full array of crime data users and stakeholders.

The Mismeasure of Crime

Author: Clayton J. Mosher,Terance D. Miethe,Timothy C. Hart

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1452239169

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

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Filled with real world examples derived from media reports on crime trends and other sources, this fully updated Second Edition analyzes the specific errors that can occur in the three most common methods used to report crime—official crime data, self report, and victimization studies. For each method, the authors examine strengths and weaknesses, the fundamental issues surrounding accuracy, and the method's application to theoretical and policy research. Throughout the book, the authors demonstrate the factors that underlie crime data and illustrate the fundamental links between theory, policy, and data measurement.

Understanding Crime Trends:

Workshop Report

Author: Committee on Understanding Crime Trends,Committee on Law and Justice,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309125863

Category: Law

Page: 254

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Changes over time in the levels and patterns of crime have significant consequences that affect not only the criminal justice system but also other critical policy sectors. Yet compared with such areas as health status, housing, and employment, the nation lacks timely information and comprehensive research on crime trends. Descriptive information and explanatory research on crime trends across the nation that are not only accurate, but also timely, are pressing needs in the nation's crime-control efforts. In April 2007, the National Research Council held a two-day workshop to address key substantive and methodological issues underlying the study of crime trends and to lay the groundwork for a proposed multiyear NRC panel study of these issues. Six papers were commissioned from leading researchers and discussed at the workshop by experts in sociology, criminology, law, economics, and statistics. The authors revised their papers based on the discussants' comments, and the papers were then reviewed again externally. The six final workshop papers are the basis of this volume, which represents some of the most serious thinking and research on crime trends currently available.

Surveying crime in the 21st century

commemorating the 25th anniversary of the British Crime Survey

Author: Michael G. Maxfield,J. M. Hough

Publisher: Criminal Justice Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 319

View: 6524

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Since its first sweep in 1982, the British Crime Survey - and its counterparts in the US and other nations - have become invaluable sources of data for research and policy development. In this book, chapters by a distinguished international group of scholars describe key findings of national crime surveys in a variety of research and policy areas, including:internationa comparisons of victimization;covariation of victimization and offending;the measurement of police performance;the impact of crime in different types of communities;attitudes to crime and justice;fear of crime; andthe unequal distribution of risk.Though national crime surveys have made substantial contributions to knowledge, according to the authors the surveys must adapt to changing circumstances if they are to continue to be of value. Future directions include continuing to incorporate new technology in samples and survey designs; broadening the focus beyond 'normal' crimes and individual victims; and producing better measures of crimes such as fraud, organized crime, corruption and Internet-facilitated crime.

Measuring Crime: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author: Lynn A. Addington

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199805652

Category:

Page: 20

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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of criminology find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In criminology, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Criminology, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study and practice of criminology. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.

The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression

Author: Daniel J. Flannery,Alexander T. Vazsonyi,Irwin D. Waldman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139465678

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

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From a team of leading experts comes a comprehensive, multidisciplinary examination of the most current research including the complex issue of violence and violent behavior. The handbook examines a range of theoretical, policy, and research issues and provides a comprehensive overview of aggressive and violent behavior. The breadth of coverage is impressive, ranging from research on biological factors related to violence and behavior-genetics to research on terrrorism and the impact of violence in different cultures. The authors examine violence from international cross-cultural perspectives, with chapters that examine both quantitative and qualitative research. They also look at violence at multiple levels: individual, family, neighborhood, cultural, and across multiple perspectives and systems, including treatment, justice, education, and public health.

Key Issues in Criminal Career Research

New Analyses of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

Author: Alex R. Piquero,David P. Farrington,Alfred Blumstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139459929

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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This book examines several contentious and under-studied criminal career issues using one of the world's most important longitudinal studies, the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD), a longitudinal study of 411 South London boys followed in criminal records to age 40. The analysis reported in the book explores issues related to prevalence, offending frequency, specialization, onset sequences, co-offending, chronicity, career length, and trajectory estimation. The results of the study are considered in the context of developmental/life-course theories, and the authors outline an agenda for criminal career research generally, and within the context of the CSDD specifically.

Crime Statistics in the News

Journalism, Numbers and Social Deviation

Author: Jairo Lugo-Ocando

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137398418

Category: Social Science

Page: 213

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This book offers a comparative exploration of how journalists across different newsrooms around the world access and interpret statistics when producing stories related to crime. Looking at the nature of news sources regularly used by journalists, Lugo-Ocando analyses how these numbers are used to report crime. As the author argues, far from being straightforward, the relationship between numbers and journalists in the context of crime reporting is complex, and at times, problematic. Because the reporting of crime statistics impacts upon policymaking, we need to better understand how these statistics are used and reported in order to improve the process of decision. Finally, Lugo-Ocando maintains that the only way to create a fairer justice system and a better-informed general public is by improving the way crime is covered in the news. A compelling and informed text, this book will be of interest to scholars and students of criminology and journalism alike.