Twenty-first-century Peace Operations

Author: William J. Durch

Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press

ISBN: 9781929223916

Category: History

Page: 651

View: 9047

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This superbly edited volume addresses the question of what has been accomplished and what lessons have been learned from ten years of peace operations in post-conflict societies.

The Militarisation of Peacekeeping in the Twenty-First Century

Author: James Sloan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847318444

Category: Law

Page: 336

View: 5608

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Since the end of the last century, UN peacekeeping has undergone a fundamental and largely unexamined change. Peacekeeping operations, long expected to use force only in self-defence and to act impartially, are now increasingly relied upon by the Security Council as a means to maintain and restore security within a country. The operations are established under Chapter VII of the UN Charter and some are empowered to use 'all necessary measures', language traditionally reserved for enforcement operations. Through a close examination of these twenty-first century peacekeeping operations - including operations in Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Haiti and the Darfur region of the Sudan - the book shows that they are, for the most part, fundamentally ill-suited to the enforcement-type tasks being asked of them. The operations, which are under-funded, under-equipped and whose troops are under-trained, frequently lurch from crisis to crisis. There is scant evidence, some 10 years on, that matters are likely to improve. The book argues that bestowing enforcement-type functions on a peacekeeping operation is misconceived. Such operations are likely to be unsuccessful in their enforcement-type tasks, thereby causing serious damage to the excellent reputation of UN peacekeeping, and the UN more broadly. In addition, because such operations are more likely to be perceived as partial, their ability to carry out traditional (non-forceful) peacekeeping tasks may be impeded. Finally, the Security Council's practice of charging peacekeeping operations with enforcement functions lessens the pressure on the Council to work to establish genuine enforcement operations - ie, operations that are considerably better suited to restoring peace and security. '...Dr Sloan is able to show, in knowledgeable detail, not only what has changed over the years, but also what has brought these changes about. His analysis leads him to offer not only well-informed insights, but critical observations, too...This book is a pleasing combination of detailed scrutiny of topics already familiar (provisional measures, consent, so-called 'Chapter VI1⁄2' action, implied powers) and a rigorous questioning as to their place in – or indeed, relevance at all to – militarised peacekeeping. The reader will find much new terrain traversed, and plenty of out-of-the-box thinking.' From the foreword by Dame Rosalyn Higgins

Military Forces in 21st Century Peace Operations

No Job for a Soldier?

Author: James V. Arbuckle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134161816

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 4297

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A major new study of the realities of contemporary warfare, which presents a range of fresh insights and is essential reading for all students and professionals engaged in the field. This book clearly shows us that: neither military nor civilian agencies can act effectively alone in resolving modern conflicts joint civil-military efforts are needed, and those efforts must be deliberately planned from the outset of an operation; they cannot be added on as afterthoughts when all else has failed the record of our efforts over nearly a decade and a half since the end of the Cold War demonstrates that we are doing badly at creating civil-military partnerships, and that we are not getting better. James V. Arbuckle shows how these issues are neither structural nor organizational - they are cultural. They involve attitudes, beliefs, perceptions – positive and negative, true and false. The solutions will involve changing attitudes, moving beyond prejudices, replacing competition with cooperation. The principal mechanisms for this will be common civil-military training and education.

Reforming 21st Century Peacekeeping Operations

Governmentalities of Security, Protection, and Police

Author: Marc. G Doucet

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317382633

Category: Political Science

Page: 140

View: 5542

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This book considers contemporary international interventions with a specific focus on analyzing the frameworks that have guided recent peacekeeping operations led by the United Nations. Drawing from the work of Michel Foucault and Foucauldian-inspired approaches in the field of International Relations, it highlights how interventions can be viewed through the lens of governmentality and its key attendant concepts. The book draws from these approaches in order to explore how international interventions are increasingly informed by governmental rationalities of security and policing. Two specific cases are examined: the UN's Security Sector Reform (SSR) approach and the UN's Protection of Civilians agenda. Focusing on the governmental rationalities that are at work in these two central frameworks that have come to guide contemporary UN-led peacekeeping efforts in recent years, the book considers: The use in IR of governmentality and its attendant notions of biopower and sovereign power The recent discussion regarding the concept and practice of international policing and police reform The rise of security as a rationality of government and the manner in which security and police rationalities interconnect and have increasingly come to inform peacekeeping efforts The Security Sector Reform (SSR) framework for peacebuilding and the rise of the UN's Protection of Civilians agenda. This book will be of interest to graduates and scholars of international relations, security studies, critical theory, and conflict and intervention.

A United Nations for the Twenty-First Century

Peace, Security, and Development

Author: Dimitris Bourantonis,Marios L. Evriviades

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789041103123

Category: Political Science

Page: 389

View: 6219

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This collective work brings together scholars, international civil servants and field practitioners who examine a wide range of theoretical and practical problems as well as challenges confronting the world and the United Nations at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The papers in this volume have been organized under themes which focus on problem areas and challenges that mankind must unavoidably deal with collectively in the years ahead, much as it has attempted to do during the past half-century. The contributors address the triangular relationship between peace, security and development and raise questions about the relevance of the UN system in the decades to come. The authors do so through reflection on past experiences and relevant philosophical inquiries. They examine specific cases and experiences that are representative of the relevance or irrelevance of past collective actions in the security and non-security fields and suggest new ideas and concepts that attempt to marry theory and practice. In this connection, aspects of peacemaking and peacekeeping, arms control, economic development, human rights and the critical role of education are amongst the topics analyzed and assessed. One of the underlying themes of the volume is that the challenges of the twenty-first century will be of unprecedented magnitude. Unless the UN system is reformed and revitalized it runs the risk of becoming irrelevant.

Exit Strategies and State Building

Author: Richard Caplan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199942706

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 8927

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In the past two decades, states and multilateral organizations have devoted considerable resources toward efforts to stabilize peace and rebuild war-torn societies in places such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, and Sierra Leone. Despite these prodigious efforts, there has been relatively little consideration of the critical questions arising from the "end game" of state-building operations. In Exit Strategies and State Building, sixteen leading scholars and practitioners focus on relevant historical and contemporary cases of exit to provide a comprehensive overview of this crucial issue. By examining the major challenges associated with the conclusion of international state-building operations and the requirements for the maintenance of peace in the period following exit, this book provides unique perspective on a critical aspect of military and political intervention. Deftly researched, Exit Strategies and State Building sheds new light on what is not merely an academic issue, but also a pressing global policy concern.

The UN Security Council

From the Cold War to the 21st Century

Author: David Malone

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers

ISBN: 9781588262400

Category: Political Science

Page: 746

View: 2972

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The nature and scope of UN Security Council decisions - significantly changed in the post-Cold War era - have enormous implications for the conduct of foreign policy. The UN Security Council offers a comprehensive view of the council both internally and as a key player in world politics. Focusing on the evolution of the council's treatment of key issues, the authors discuss new concerns that must be accommodated in the decisionmaking process, the challenges of enforcement, and shifting personal and institutional factors. Case studies complement the rich thematic chapters. The book sheds much-needed light on the central events and trends of the past decade and their critical importance for the future role of the council and the UN in the sphere of international security.

Understanding Peacekeeping

Author: Alex J. Bellamy,Paul D. Williams,Stuart Griffin

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745641865

Category: Political Science

Page: 447

View: 7048

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Peace operations are now a principal tool for managing armed conflict and building world peace. The fully revised, expanded and updated second edition of Understanding Peacekeeping provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the theory, practice and politics of contemporary peace operations. Drawing on more than twenty-five historical and contemporary case studies, this book evaluates the changing characteristics of the contemporary environment in which peacekeepers operate, what role peace operations play in wider processes of global politics, the growing impact of non-state actors, and the major challenges facing today's peacekeepers. All the chapters have been revised and expanded and seven new chapters have been added. Part 1 summarizes the central concepts and issues related to peace operations. It includes a new discussion of the theories of peace operations and analysis of the emerging norm of responsibility to protect. Part 2 charts the historical development of peacekeeping from 1945 and offers a new chapter on peace operations in the twenty-first century. In part 3, separate chapters analyse seven different types of peace operations: preventive deployments; traditional peacekeeping; assisting transition; transitional administrations; wider peacekeeping; peace enforcement; and peace support operations. Part 4 looks forward and examines the central challenges facing today's peacekeepers, namely, the regionalization of peace operations, the privatization of security, civilian protection, policing and gender issues. This second edition of Understanding Peacekeeping will be essential reading for students and scholars of peace and conflict studies, security studies and international relations. Visit http: //www.polity.co.uk/up2/ for more information and additional resources.

History, Memory, and State-Sponsored Violence

Time and Justice

Author: Berber Bevernage

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136634444

Category: History

Page: 250

View: 8100

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Modern historiography embraces the notion that time is irreversible, implying that the past should be imagined as something ‘absent’ or ‘distant.’ Victims of historical injustice, however, in contrast, often claim that the past got ‘stuck’ in the present and that it retains a haunting presence. History, Memory, and State-Sponsored Violence is centered around the provocative thesis that the way one deals with historical injustice and the ethics of history is strongly dependent on the way one conceives of historical time; that the concept of time traditionally used by historians is structurally more compatible with the perpetrators’ than the victims’ point of view. Demonstrating that the claim of victims about the continuing presence of the past should be taken seriously, instead of being treated as merely metaphorical, Berber Bevernage argues that a genuine understanding of the ‘irrevocable’ past demands a radical break with modern historical discourse and the concept of time. By embedding a profound philosophical reflection on the themes of historical time and historical discourse in a concrete series of case studies, this project transcends the traditional divide between ‘empirical’ historiography on the one hand and the so called ‘theoretical’ approaches to history on the other. It also breaks with the conventional ‘analytical’ philosophy of history that has been dominant during the last decades, raising a series of long-neglected ‘big questions’ about the historical condition – questions about historical time, the unity of history, and the ontological status of present and past –programmatically pleading for a new historical ethics.

Global Security in the Twenty-First Century

The Quest for Power and the Search for Peace

Author: Sean Kay

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442248033

Category: Political Science

Page: 426

View: 5440

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This thoroughly updated edition offers a balanced introduction to contemporary security dilemmas throughout the world. Writing in an engaging style, Sean Kay integrates traditional and emerging challenges in one easily accessible study that gives readers the tools they need to develop a thoughtful and nuanced understanding of global security.

Bending History

Barack Obama's Foreign Policy

Author: Martin S. Indyk,Kenneth G. Lieberthal,Michael E. O'Hanlon

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815721833

Category: Political Science

Page: 342

View: 1140

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By the time of Barack Obama's inauguration as the 44th president of the United States, he had already developed an ambitious foreign policy vision. By his own account, he sought to bend the arc of history toward greater justice, freedom, and peace; within a year he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, largely for that promise. In Bending History, Martin Indyk, Kenneth Lieberthal, and Michael O'Hanlon measure Obama not only against the record of his predecessors and the immediate challenges of the day, but also against his own soaring rhetoric and inspiring goals. Bending History assesses the considerable accomplishments as well as the failures and seeks to explain what has happened. Obama's best work has been on major and pressing foreign policy challenges—counterterrorism policy, including the daring raid that eliminated Osama bin Laden; the "reset" with Russia; managing the increasingly significant relationship with China; and handling the rogue states of Iran and North Korea. Policy on resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, however, has reflected serious flaws in both strategy and execution. Afghanistan policy has been plagued by inconsistent messaging and teamwork. On important "softer" security issues—from energy and climate policy to problems in Africa and Mexico—the record is mixed. As for his early aspiration to reshape the international order, according greater roles and responsibilities to rising powers, Obama's efforts have been well-conceived but of limited effectiveness. On issues of secondary importance, Obama has been disciplined in avoiding fruitless disputes (as with Chavez in Venezuela and Castro in Cuba) and insisting that others take the lead (as with Qaddafi in Libya). Notwithstanding several missteps, he has generally managed well the complex challenges of the Arab awakenings, striving to strike the right balance between U.S. values and interests. The authors see Obama's foreign policy to date as a triumph of discipline and realism over ideology. He has been neither the transformative beacon his devotees have wanted, nor the weak apologist for America that his critics allege. They conclude that his grand strategy for promoting American interests in a tumultuous world may only now be emerging, and may yet be curtailed by conflict with Iran. Most of all, they argue that he or his successor will have to embrace U.S. economic renewal as the core foreign policy and national security challenge of the future.

Security and Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Dealing with Fighters in the Aftermath of War

Author: Robert Muggah

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134044917

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 8712

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This book provides a critical analysis of the changing discourse and practice of post-conflict security-promoting interventions since the Cold War, such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), and security-sector reform (SSR) Although the international aid and security sectors exhibit an expanding appetite for peace-support operations in the 21st Century, the effectiveness of such interventions are largely untested. This book aims to fill this evidentiary gap and issues a challenge to 'conventional' approaches to security promotion as currently conceived by military and peace-keeping forces, drawing on cutting-edge statistical and qualitative findings from war-torn areas including Afghanistan, Timor Leste, Sudan, Uganda, Colombia and Haiti. By focusing on specific cases where the United Nations and others have sought to contain the (presumed) sources of post-conflict violence and insecurity, it lays out a new research agenda for measuring success or failure. This book will be of much interest to students of peacebuilding, peacekeeping, conflict resolution, conflict and development and security studies in general.

Das Kapital im 21. Jahrhundert

Author: Thomas Piketty

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406671322

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 816

View: 4675

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Wie entstehen die Akkumulation und die Distribution von Kapital? Welche Dynamiken sind dafür maßgeblich? Fragen der langfristigen Evolution von Ungleichheit, der Konzentration von Wohlstand in wenigen Händen und nach den Chancen für ökonomisches Wachstum bilden den Kern der Politischen Ökonomie. Aber befriedigende Antworten darauf gab es bislang kaum, weil aussagekräftige Daten und eine überzeugende Theorie fehlten. In Das Kapital im 21. Jahrhundert analysiert Thomas Piketty ein beeindruckendes Datenmaterial aus 20 Ländern, zurückgehend bis ins 18. Jahrhundert, um auf dieser Basis die entscheidenden ökonomischen und sozialen Abläufe freizulegen. Seine Ergebnisse stellen die Debatte auf eine neue Grundlage und definieren zugleich die Agenda für das künftige Nachdenken über Wohlstand und Ungleichheit. Piketty zeigt uns, dass das ökonomische Wachstum in der Moderne und die Verbreitung des Wissens es uns ermöglicht haben, den Ungleichheiten in jenem apokalyptischen Ausmaß zu entgehen, das Karl Marx prophezeit hatte. Aber wir haben die Strukturen von Kapital und Ungleichheit andererseits nicht so tiefgreifend modifiziert, wie es in den prosperierenden Jahrzehnten nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg den Anschein hatte. Der wichtigste Treiber der Ungleichheit – nämlich die Tendenz von Kapitalgewinnen, die Wachstumsrate zu übertreffen – droht heute extreme Ungleichheiten hervorzubringen, die am Ende auch den sozialen Frieden gefährden und unsere demokratischen Werte in Frage stellen. Doch ökonomische Trends sind keine Gottesurteile. Politisches Handeln hat gefährliche Ungleichheiten in der Vergangenheit korrigiert, so Piketty, und kann das auch wieder tun.

The Global Promise of Federalism

Author: Grace Skogstad,David Cameron,Martin Papillon,keith Banting

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442619201

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 5365

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The Global Promise of Federalism honours the life and work of Richard Simeon, one of Canada’s foremost experts on federalism. It features a group of distinguished scholars of federalism from Canada and abroad who take up some of the fundamental questions at the heart of both Simeon’s work and contemporary debates. Does federalism foster democracy? Can it help bring together divided societies? How do federations evolve and adapt to changing circumstances? In the course of answering these questions, the chapters in this collection offer a comparative perspective on the challenges and opportunities facing well-established federations such as Canada and Australia, as well as new federal and quasi-federal systems in Europe, Africa, and Asia. They examine the interplay between federal values, such as trust and mutual recognition, and institutional design; the challenges facing post-conflict federations; and the adaptability of federal systems in the face of changing social, economic, and cultural contexts.

Peace Operations in the Francophone World

Global governance meets post-colonialism

Author: Bruno Charbonneau,Tony Chafer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317750128

Category: Political Science

Page: 210

View: 6127

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This book critically examines peacebuilding, humanitarian intervention and peace operation practices and experiences in francophone spaces. Francophone Africa as a specific space is relatively little studied in the peace and security literature, despite the fact that almost half of all peacekeepers are deployed or were deployed in this part of Africa during the last decade. It is an arena for intervention that deserves more serious attention, if only because it provides fertile ground for exploring the key questions raised in the peacekeeping and peacebuilding literature. For instance, in 2002 a French operation (Licorne) was launched and in 2003 a UN force was deployed in Côte d’Ivoire alongside the French force there. Filling a gap in the current literature, Peace Operations in the Francophone World critically examines peacekeeping and peacebuilding practices in the francophone world, including but not limited to conflict prevention and resolution, security sector reform (SSR), francophone politics, and North–South relations. The book explores whether peace and security operations in francophone spaces have exceptional characteristics when compared with those carried out in other parts of the world and assesses whether an analysis of these operations in the francophone world can make a specific and original contribution to wider international debates about peacekeeping and peacebuilding. This book will be of much interest to students of peacekeeping, peacebuilding, peace and conflict studies, African politics, security studies, and IR in general.