The Revenge of Geography

What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Random House Incorporated

ISBN: 1400069831

Category: Political Science

Page: 403

View: 7189

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The best-selling author of Balkan Ghosts presents a timely and provocative response to The World Is Flat that draws on the insights of leading geographers and geopolitical thinkers to present a holistic interpretation of the next cycle of conflict throughout Eurasia that considers such topics as European debt, Chinese power and the role of Iran.

The Revenge of Geography

What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 0679604839

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

View: 4559

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In this provocative, startling book, Robert D. Kaplan, the bestselling author of Monsoon and Balkan Ghosts, offers a revelatory new prism through which to view global upheavals and to understand what lies ahead for continents and countries around the world. In The Revenge of Geography, Kaplan builds on the insights, discoveries, and theories of great geographers and geopolitical thinkers of the near and distant past to look back at critical pivots in history and then to look forward at the evolving global scene. Kaplan traces the history of the world’s hot spots by examining their climates, topographies, and proximities to other embattled lands. The Russian steppe’s pitiless climate and limited vegetation bred hard and cruel men bent on destruction, for example, while Nazi geopoliticians distorted geopolitics entirely, calculating that space on the globe used by the British Empire and the Soviet Union could be swallowed by a greater German homeland. Kaplan then applies the lessons learned to the present crises in Europe, Russia, China, the Indian subcontinent, Turkey, Iran, and the Arab Middle East. The result is a holistic interpretation of the next cycle of conflict throughout Eurasia. Remarkably, the future can be understood in the context of temperature, land allotment, and other physical certainties: China, able to feed only 23 percent of its people from land that is only 7 percent arable, has sought energy, minerals, and metals from such brutal regimes as Burma, Iran, and Zimbabwe, putting it in moral conflict with the United States. Afghanistan’s porous borders will keep it the principal invasion route into India, and a vital rear base for Pakistan, India’s main enemy. Iran will exploit the advantage of being the only country that straddles both energy-producing areas of the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. Finally, Kaplan posits that the United States might rue engaging in far-flung conflicts with Iraq and Afghanistan rather than tending to its direct neighbor Mexico, which is on the verge of becoming a semifailed state due to drug cartel carnage. A brilliant rebuttal to thinkers who suggest that globalism will trump geography, this indispensable work shows how timeless truths and natural facts can help prevent this century’s looming cataclysms. Praise for The Revenge of Geography “[An] ambitious and challenging new book . . . [The Revenge of Geography] displays a formidable grasp of contemporary world politics and serves as a powerful reminder that it has been the planet’s geophysical configurations, as much as the flow of competing religions and ideologies, that have shaped human conflicts, past and present.”—Malise Ruthven, The New York Review of Books “Robert D. Kaplan, the world-traveling reporter and intellectual whose fourteen books constitute a bedrock of penetrating exposition and analysis on the post-Cold War world . . . strips away much of the cant that suffuses public discourse these days on global developments and gets to a fundamental reality: that geography remains today, as it has been throughout history, one of the most powerful drivers of world events.”—The National Interest “Kaplan plunges into a planetary review that is often thrilling in its sheer scale . . . encyclopedic.”—The New Yorker “[The Revenge of Geography] serves the facts straight up. . . . Kaplan’s realism and willingness to face hard facts make The Revenge of Geography a valuable antidote to the feel-good manifestoes that often masquerade as strategic thought.”—The Daily Beast From the Hardcover edition.

The Revenge of Geography

What the Map Tells Us about Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Random House Trade Paperbacks

ISBN: 0812982223

Category: History

Page: 414

View: 576

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The best-selling author of Balkan Ghosts presents a timely and provocative response to The World Is Flat that draws on the insights of leading geographers and geopolitical thinkers to present a holistic interpretation of the next cycle of conflict throughout Eurasia that considers such topics as European debt, Chinese power and the role of Iran.

Monsoon

The Indian Ocean and the Future of American Power

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Random House Incorporated

ISBN: 1400067464

Category: Political Science

Page: 366

View: 1167

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The best-selling author of Imperial Grunts and Hog Pilots explores the international power shift to countries in the Indian Ocean region while explaining how and why America must focus its resources there in order to protect specific political and economic interests.

Earning the Rockies

How Geography Shapes America's Role in the World

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Random House Trade Paperbacks

ISBN: 0399588221

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 2023

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An incisive portrait of the American landscape that shows how geography continues to determine America's role in the world-from the bestselling author of The Revenge of Geographyaand Balkan Ghosts As a boy, Robert D. Kaplan listened to his truck-driver father tell evocative stories about traveling across America in his youth, travels in which he learned to understand the country literally from the ground up. There was a specific phrase from Kaplan's childhood that captured this perspective- A westward traveler must oearn the Rockieso by driving-not flying-across the flat Midwest and Great Plains. In Earning the Rockies,Kaplan undertakes his own cross-country journey to recapture an appreciation of American geography often lost in the jet age. Traveling west, in the same direction as the pioneers, Kaplan traverses a rich and varied landscape that remains the primary source of American power. Along the way, he witnesses both prosperity and decline-increasingly cosmopolitan cities that thrive on globalization, impoverished towns denuded by the loss of manufacturing-and paints a bracingly clear picture of America today. The history of westward expansion is examined here in a new light-as a story not just of genocide and individualism, but also of communalism and a respect for the limits of a water-starved terrain, a frontier experience that bent our national character toward pragmatism. Kaplan shows how the great midcentury works of geography and geopolitics by Bernard DeVoto, Walter Prescott Webb, and Wallace Stegner are more relevant today than ever before. Concluding his journey at Naval Base San Diego, Kaplan looks out across the Pacific Ocean to the next frontier- China, India, and the emerging nations of Asia. And in the final chapter, he provides a gripping description of an anarchic world and explains why America's foreign policy response ought to be rooted in its own geographical situation. In this short, intense meditation on the American landscape, Robert D. Kaplan reminds us of an overlooked source of American strength- the fact that we are a nation, empire, and continent all at once. Earning the Rockies is an urgent reminder of how a nation's geography still foreshadows its future, and how we must reexamine our own landscape in order to confront the challenges that lie before us. Praise for Earning the Rockies oA text both evocative and provocative for readers who like toathinka. . .aIn his final sections, Kaplan discusses in scholarly but accessible detail the significant role that America has played and must play in this shuddering world.o-Kirkus Reviews oEarning the Rockiesais a brilliant reminder of the impact of America's geography on its strategy. An essential complement to his previous work on the subject of geostrategy, Kaplan's latest contribution should be required reading.o-Henry A. Kissi

Prisoners of Geography

Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World

Author: Tim Marshall

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501121472

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 7354

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First published in Great Britain in 2015 by Elliott and Thompson Limited.

Asia's Cauldron

The South China Sea and the End of a Stable Pacific

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Random House Trade Paperbacks

ISBN: 0812984803

Category: History

Page: 225

View: 2467

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oEurope is a landscape; East Asia is a seascape.o Thus begins the first chapter of Asia's Cauldronand thus does renowned travel writer and foreign policy expert Robert D. Kaplan draw the line between European conflicts and the geopolitical struggles of the future. Kaplan explains Chinese dominance over the body of water that multiple countries claim and exposes the underreported military buildup in the region. As he describes the conflicting interests that are heating up in East Asia, Kaplan interprets America's interests and responsibilities to Asian allegiances in the context of a more dominant China. Asia's Cauldronis sure to become required reading for Asia watchers and general readers alike.

The Return of Marco Polo's World

War, Strategy, and American Interests in the Twenty-first Century

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0812996798

Category: HISTORY

Page: 280

View: 2283

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A bracing, ground-level assessment of American foreign policy over the past two decades, an era that includes 9/11, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the rise of Putin's Russia, increased Chinese aggression, the potential for war in North Korea, and more. ANCHORED BY A MAJOR NEW ESSAY ABOUT CHANGING POWER DYNAMICS AMONG CHINA, EURASIA, AND AMERICA, which Kaplan wrote for the Pentagon's Office of Net Assessment, and which is now released for public view. Drawing on decades of firsthand experience as a foreign correspondent and military embed for The Atlantic,and deep reading that ranges from the lessons of Thucydides and Sun Tzu to contemporary outcomes in the Middle East, Robert D. Kaplan makes a powerful case for what timeless principles and factors should shape America's role in the world- a respect for the limits of Western-style democracy; a delineation between American interests versus American values; an awareness of the psychological toll of warfare; a projection of military power via a strong navy; and much more. In a series of vivid and clear-eyed assessments, renowned foreign policy analyst Kaplan describes an increasingly unstable world-and how American strategy should adapt accordingly. Advance praise for The Return of Marco Polo's World oWhen it comes to geopolitics and the analysis of world affairs, Robert D. Kaplan is the best in the business. These essays are not only astonishing in their breadth, depth and range, but beautifully crafted and accessible.o-John Bew, professor at the war studies department, King's College London, author of Realpolitik- A Historyand Castlereagh- A Life oA characteristically thoughtful and provocative collection of essays from Robert D. Kaplan, born of his own Marco Polo-like wanderings and rich grasp of history. Elegant and compelling, these prescient pieces are a valuable guide to the endlessly complicated geopolitics of Eurasia, and what it all means for Americans in the decades ahead.o-Ambassador William J. Burns, president, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and former deputy secretary of state oRobert D. Kaplan has long been one of the most unrelenting realistic commentators on the rough, mean, conflictual world disorder that has evolved since the Cold War. This compelling collection of essays on prospects for war and peace distills his insights on a wide range of crucial issues, events, and personalities. He provides a compelling antidote to the facile optimists in the ethnocentric western intelligentsia. Read it with a stiff drink in hand, but be ready to be excited.o-Richard K. Betts, director of the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies, Columbia University

Balkan Ghosts

A Journey Through History

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Picador

ISBN: 1466868309

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 9363

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From the assassination that triggered World War I to the ethnic warfare in Serbia, Bosnia, and Croatia, the Balkans have been the crucible of the twentieth century, the place where terrorism and genocide first became tools of policy. Chosen as one of the Best Books of the Year by The New York Times, and greeted with critical acclaim as "the most insightful and timely work on the Balkans to date" (The Boston Globe), Kaplan's prescient, enthralling, and often chilling political travelogue is already a modern classic. This new edition of Balkan Ghosts includes six opinion pieces written by Robert Kaplan about the Balkans between 1996 and 2000 beginning just after the implementation of the Dayton Peace Accords and ending after the conclusion of the Kosovo war, with the removal of Slobodan Milosevic from power.

Warrior Politics

Why Leadership Demands a Pagan Ethos

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0375726276

Category: Philosophy

Page: 198

View: 8604

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The author of Balkan Ghosts draws on the historical wisdom of Sun-Tzu, Thucydides, Hobbes, Machiavelli, and other great thinkers to provide valuable guidelines for modern-day world leaders--in both politics and business environments--confronted with the complex challenges of modern life. Reprint. 60,000 first printing.

Soliders of god

a with Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 1400030250

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 278

View: 5164

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The author relates his time spent with Afghanistan's mujahidin during their fight against Soviet invaders and provides insight into the circumstances that led to the rise of the Taliban.

Is Geography Destiny?

Lessons from Latin America

Author: John Luke Gallup,Alejandro Gaviria,Eduardo Lora

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821383671

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 186

View: 1239

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For decades, the prevailing sentiment was that, since geography is unchangeable, there is no reason why public policies should take it into account. In fact, charges that geographic interpretations of development were deterministic, or even racist, made the subject a virtual taboo in academic and policymaking circles alike. 'Is Geography Destiny?' challenges that premise and joins a growing body of literature studying the links between geography and development. Focusing on Latin America, the book argues that based on a better understanding of geography, public policy can help control or channel its influence toward the goals of economic and social development.

The Accidental Admiral

A Sailor Takes Command at NATO

Author: James Stavridis

Publisher: Naval Institute Press

ISBN: 161251782X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 288

View: 7174

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Despite demonstrated prowess in the handling of ships and sailors, five years after receiving his commission, Jim Stavridis was planning on getting out of the Navy and going to law school. His assignments officer, a young lieutenant commander by the name of Mike Mullen (who would go on to become Chairman of the Joint Chiefs) noticed something special in Stavridis, however, and convinced him to stay on active duty by dangling the prospect of Uncle Sam sending him to graduate school. Going ashore for a few years, Stavridis earned his MALD and PhD in international relations from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. The experience that taught him to look beyond the horizon and to think and act globally. Throughout his career Stavridis was anything but uniform in the way he approached his duties. An avid reader and prolific author he wrote more than 55 articles, commentaries, and book reviews in the Navy’s professional journal “Proceedings” beginning when he was still a midshipman and continuing to this day. He has also written for some of the leading papers and journals in the United States, including the, New York Times, Washington Post, Atlantic Magazine, Naval War College Review, and many others His career was marked by unusually challenging assignments including command of a U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer in the early ‘90s; two stints as a top aide to two different Secretaries of the Navy (one a Republican and the other a Democrat); and command of an aircraft carrier battle group. Stavridis narrowly missed being killed on September 11, 2001 when an American Airlines aircraft plunged into the Pentagon not far from his office. He was subsequently put in charge of a Navy think tank, “Deep Blue,” which was tasked with reimagining the service’s role in a post-9/11 environment. Already selected for his first star as 9/11 unfolded, his rise through the ranks was swift – even going directly from one-star to three-star admiral without ever wearing two stars – when he was selected to be the senior military assistant to the very demanding Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld. Surviving that crucible, he was nominated for his fourth star at the age of 50, one of the youngest persons to serve at that rank in modern history. He then became the first naval officer to lead the U.S. Southern Command – responsible for all U.S. military operations in the Caribbean and Central and South America. At the end of that assignment he was picked to be the first naval officer to serve as Supreme Allied Commander of NATO – a job first held by Dwight D. Eisenhower and then by a string of prominent generals. When he was given that assignment, the New York Times referred to Stavridis as a “renaissance Admiral,” something Stavridis turned into “the accidental Admiral” given he was the first sailor to head to that command. That is where this book, “The Accidental Admiral” picks up – as Stavridis enlightens readers about securing such a position and serving as NATO’s top man in uniform for four years. They were challenging years indeed. Stavridis was responsible for NATO operations in Afghanistan, its conduct of a military intervention in Libya and preparation for possible war in Syria – as well as worrying about the Balkans, cyber threats, piracy, all while cutting NATO by 30% due to budget reductions by the 28 nations of the Alliance. More than just describing the history of what happened, Stavridis shares with reader the “why” and gives insights into the personalities of those with whom he dealt, ranging from President Barack Obama; Secretary of State Hillary Clinton; Secretaries of Defense Robert Gates, Leon Panetta, and Chuck Hagel; Afghan President Hamid Karzai; Generals David Petraeus, Stanley McChrystal, John Allen and many more. The Accidental Admiral is more than just a memoir. The book is also a very personal reflection of the burdens and benefits of leadership, and Stavridis also shares his insights on strategic communications, planning, and the convergence of threats that will confront the U.S. and its allies in the near future.

An Empire Wilderness

Travels Into America's Future

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 9780679776871

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 393

View: 7715

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The author describes his journey westward from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in search of the large-scale political, economic, social, and cultural changes affecting America.

Arabists

The Romance of an American Elite

Author: Robert D. Kaplan

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439108706

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 865

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A tight-knit group closely linked by intermarriage as well as class and old school ties, the “Arabists” were men and women who spent much of their lives living and working in the Arab world as diplomats, military attaches, intelligence agents, scholar-adventurers, and teachers. As such, the Arabists exerted considerable influence both as career diplomats and as bureaucrats within the State Department from the early nineteenth century to the present. But over time, as this work shows, the group increasingly lost touch with a rapidly changing American society, growing both more insular and headstrong and showing a marked tendency to assert the Arab point of view. Drawing on interviews, memoirs, and other official and private sources, Kaplan reconstructs the 100-year history of the Arabist elite, demonstrating their profound influence on American attitudes toward the Middle East, and tracing their decline as an influx of ethnic and regional specialists has transformed the State Department and challenged the power of the old elite.

The Righteous Mind

Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion

Author: Jonathan Haidt

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307455777

Category: Philosophy

Page: 500

View: 1113

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Presents a groundbreaking investigation into the origins of morality at the core of religion and politics, offering scholarly insight into the motivations behind cultural clashes that are polarizing America.

The World America Made

Author: Robert Kagan

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0345802713

Category: Political Science

Page: 149

View: 1867

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What would the world look like if America were to reduce its role as a global leader in order to focus all its energies on solving its problems at home? And is America really in decline? Robert Kagan, New York Times best-selling author and one of the country's most influential strategic thinkers, paints a vivid, alarming picture of what the world might look like if the United States were truly to let its influence wane. Although Kagan asserts that much of the current pessimism is misplaced, he warns that if America were indeed to commit preemptive superpower suicide, the world would see the return of war among rising nations as they jostle for power; the retreat of democracy around the world as Vladimir Putin's Russia and authoritarian China acquire more clout; and the weakening of the global free-market economy, which the United States created and has supported for more than sixty years. We've seen this before - in the breakdown of the Roman Empire and the collapse of the European order in World War I. Potent, incisive, and engaging, The World America Made is a reminder that the American world order is worth preserving, and America dare not decline.

Foreign Policy Begins at Home

The Case for Putting America's House in Order

Author: Richard N. Haass

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465038646

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 9908

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A rising China, climate change, terrorism, a nuclear Iran, a turbulent Middle East, and a reckless North Korea all present serious challenges to America's national security. But it depends even more on the United States addressing its burgeoning deficit and debt, crumbling infrastructure, second class schools, and outdated immigration system. While there is currently no great rival power threatening America directly, how long this strategic respite lasts, according to Council on Foreign Relations President Richard N. Haass, will depend largely on whether the United States puts its own house in order. Haass lays out a compelling vision for restoring America's power, influence, and ability to lead the world and advocates for a new foreign policy of Restoration that would require the US to limit its involvement in both wars of choice, and humanitarian interventions. Offering essential insight into our world of continual unrest, this new edition addresses the major foreign and domestic debates since hardcover publication, including US intervention in Syria, the balance between individual privacy and collective security, and the continuing impact of the sequester.

The Demon of Geopolitics

How Karl Haushofer "Educated" Hitler and Hess

Author: Holger H. Herwig

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442261145

Category: History

Page: 292

View: 2275

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Karl Haushofer, a Bavarian general and professor, is widely recognized as the “father of geopolitics.” In 1945 the United States sought to put him on trial at Nuremberg as a major war criminal for being “Hitler’s intellectual godfather” and the true author of Mein Kampf. In this definitive biography, noted historian Holger H. Herwig assesses the fiction and reality behind these claims. Making comprehensive use of Haushofer’s previously unavailable private papers, Herwig analyzes Haushofer’s geopolitical concepts, his relations with his student Rudolf Hess, and his mentorship of Hitler and Hess at Landsberg Prison in 1924. Herwig offers unique insights into Haushofer’s crucial behind-the-scenes influence in providing the Nazis with his theories of Autarky and Lebensraum, the rationale for Germany’s control of Europe and the world. This riveting book ends with Haushofer’s final verdict on himself: “I want to be forgotten and forgotten.” But the author concludes with the admonition that the “demon” of Geopolitik demands much closer scrutiny in this new age of geopolitics.