The Physics of Solar Cells

Author: Jenny Nelson

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1848168233

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 1147

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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. It covers: basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices; physical models of solar cell operation; characteristics and design of common types of solar cell; and approaches to increasing solar cell efficiency. The text explains the terms and concepts of solar cell device physics and shows the reader how to formulate and solve relevant physical problems. Exercises and worked solutions are included.

Handbook of the Physics of Thin-Film Solar Cells

Author: Karl W. Böer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business

ISBN: 3642367488

Category: Science

Page: 882

View: 3803

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This handbook is a compendium giving a comprehensive description of the basics of semiconductor physics relevant to the design and analysis of thin film solar cell materials. It starts from the basics of material science, describing the material and its growth, defect and electrical properties, the basics of its interaction with photons and the involved statistics, proceeding to space charge effects in semiconductors and pn-junctions. Most attention is given to analyze homo- and hetero-junction solar cells using various models and applying the field-of-direction analysis for discussing current voltage characteristics, and helping to discover the involvement of high-field effects in solar cells. The comprehensive coverage of the main topics of - and relating to - solar cells with extensive reference to literature helps scientists and engineers at all levels to reach a better understanding and improvement of solar cell properties and their production. The author is one of the founders of thin film solar cell research.

Grundlagen der Photonik

Author: Bahaa E. A. Saleh,Malvin Carl Teich

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527406777

Category: Optoelectronics

Page: 1406

View: 7115

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Schon die erste Auflage des englischen Lehrbuchs 'Fundamentals of Photonics' zeichnete sich durch seine ausgewogene Mischung von Theorie und Praxis aus, und deckte in detaillierter Darstellung die grundlegenden Theorien des Lichts ab. Es umfasste sowohl die Themen Strahlenoptik, Wellenoptik, elektromagnetische Optik, Photonenoptik, sowie die Wechselwirkung von Licht und Materie, als auch die Theorie der optischen Eigenschaften von Halbleitern. Die Photonik-Technologie hat eine rasante Entwicklung genommen seit der Publikation der ersten Ausgabe von 'Fundamentals of Photonics' vor 15 Jahren. Die nun vorliegende Zweite Auflage des Marksteins auf dem Gebiet der Photonik trägt mit zwei neuen und zusätzlichen Kapiteln den neuesten technologischen Fortschritten Rechnung: Photonische Kristalle sowie Ultrakurzpuls-Optik. Zudem wurden alle Kapitel gründlich überarbeitet und viele Abschnitte hinzugefügt, so z.B. über Laguerre-Gauss Strahlen, die Sellmeier-Gleichung, Photonenkristall-Wellenleiter, photonische Kristallfasern, Mikrosphären-Resonatoren, Optische Kohärenz Tomographie, Bahndrehimpuls des Photons, Bohrsche Theorie, Raman-Verstärker, rauscharme Avalanche-Photodioden, Abstimmkurven und Dispersions-Management.

Solar Cell Device Physics

Author: Stephen Fonash

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323154638

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 5600

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Solar Cell Device Physics offers a balanced, in-depth qualitative and quantitative treatment of the physical principles and operating characteristics of solar cell devices. Topics covered include photovoltaic energy conversion and solar cell materials and structures, along with homojunction solar cells. Semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction cells and surface-barrier solar cells are also discussed. This book consists of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the basic physical principles and materials properties that are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion, with emphasis on various photovoltaic devices capable of efficiently converting solar energy into usable electrical energy. The electronic and optical properties of crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous materials with both organic and inorganic materials are considered, together with the manner in which these properties change from one material class to another and the implications of such changes for photovoltaics. Generation, recombination, and bulk transport are also discussed. The two mechanisms of photocarrier collection in solar cells, drift and diffusion, are then compared. The remaining chapters focus on specific solar cell device classes defined in terms of the interface structure employed: homojunctions, semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions, and surface-barrier devices. This monograph is appropriate for use as a textbook for graduate students in engineering and the sciences and for seniors in electrical engineering and applied physics, as well as a reference book for those actively involved in solar cell research and development.

Photoelectrochemistry and Photovoltaics of Layered Semiconductors

Author: A. Aruchamy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401513015

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 9533

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This volume aims at bringing together the results of extensive research done during the last fifteen years on the interfacial photoelectronic properties of the inorganic layered semiconducting materials, mainly in relation to solar energy conversion. Significant contributions have been made both on the fundamental aspects of interface characteristics and on the suitability of the layered materials in photoelectrochemical (semiconductor/electrolyte junctions) and in solid state photovoltaic(Schottky and p-n junctions) cells. New insights into the physical and chemical characteristics of the contact surfaces have been gained and many new applications of these materials have been revealed. In particular, the basal plane surface of the layered materials shows low chemical reactivity and specific electronic behaviour with respect to isotropic solids. In electrochemical systems, the inert nature of these surfaces characterized by saturated chemical bonds has been recognized from studies on charge transfer reactions and catalysis. In addition, studies on the role of the d-band electronic transitions and the dynamics of the photogene rated charge carriers in the relative stability of the photoelectrodes of the transition metal dichalcogenides have deepened the understanding of the interfacial photoreactions. Transition metal layered compounds are also recognized as ideal model compounds for the studies Involving surfaces: photoreactions, adsorption phenomena and catalysis, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy and epitaxial growth of thin films. Recently, quantum size effects have been investigated in layered semiconductor colloids.

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices

The Role of the PN Junction

Author: Adrian Kitai

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 1119451027

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 1404

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The second edition of the text that offers an introduction to the principles of solar cells and LEDs, revised and updated The revised and updated second edition of Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices offers an introduction to the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The author – a noted expert in the field – presents information on the semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends it to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. In addition, the text offers information on the treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures including OLED devices and organic solar cells. This second edition contains a new chapter on the quantum mechanical description of the electron that will make the book accessible to students in any engineering discipline. The text also includes a new chapter on bipolar junction and junction field effect transistors as well as expanded chapters on solar cells and LEDs that include more detailed information on high efficiency devices. This important text: Offers an introduction to solar cells and LEDs, the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes Provides a solid theoretical basis for p-n junction devices Contains updated information and new chapters including better coverage of LED out-coupling design and performance and improvements in OLED efficiency Presents student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout the text Written for students in electrical engineering, physics and materials science and researchers in the electronics industry, Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices is the updated second edition that offers a guide to the physical concepts of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells.

2-6 compound semiconductor photovoltaic materials

Author: Robert Birkmire,Materials Research Society. Meeting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781558996045

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 597

View: 3961

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The MRS Symposium Proceeding series is an internationally recognised reference suitable for researchers and practitioners.

Physics of Semiconductor Devices

17th International Workshop on the Physics of Semiconductor Devices 2013

Author: V. K. Jain,Abhishek Verma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319030027

Category: Science

Page: 932

View: 1152

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The purpose of this workshop is to spread the vast amount of information available on semiconductor physics to every possible field throughout the scientific community. As a result, the latest findings, research and discoveries can be quickly disseminated. This workshop provides all participating research groups with an excellent platform for interaction and collaboration with other members of their respective scientific community. This workshop’s technical sessions include various current and significant topics for applications and scientific developments, including • Optoelectronics • VLSI & ULSI Technology • Photovoltaics • MEMS & Sensors • Device Modeling and Simulation • High Frequency/ Power Devices • Nanotechnology and Emerging Areas • Organic Electronics • Displays and Lighting Many eminent scientists from various national and international organizations are actively participating with their latest research works and also equally supporting this mega event by joining the various organizing committees.

Physics of Organic Semiconductors

Author: Wolfgang Brütting,Chihaya Adachi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527654968

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 657

View: 5033

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The field of organic electronics has seen a steady growth over the last 15 years. At the same time, our scientific understanding of how to achieve optimum device performance has grown, and this book gives an overview of our present-day knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Based on the very successful first edition, the editors have invited top scientists from the US, Japan, and Europe to include the developments from recent years, covering such fundamental issues as: - growth and characterization of thin films of organic semiconductors, - charge transport and photophysical properties of the materials as well as their electronic structure at interfaces, and - analysis and modeling of devices like organic light-emitting diodes or organic lasers. The result is an overview of the field for both readers with basic knowledge and for an application-oriented audience. It thus bridges the gap between textbook knowledge largely based on crystalline molecular solids and those books focusing more on device applications.

Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

Author: Arvind Shah

Publisher: EPFL Press

ISBN: 9781420066746

Category: Science

Page: 430

View: 7667

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Photovoltaic technology has now developed to the extent that it is close to fulfilling the vision of a "solar-energy world," as devices based on this technology are becoming efficient, low-cost and durable. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of thin-film silicon, a prevalent PV material, in terms of its semiconductor nature, starting out with the physical properties, but concentrating on device applications. A special emphasis is given to amorphous silicon and microcrystalline silicon as photovoltaic materials, along with a model that allows these systems to be physically described in the simplest manner possible, thus allowing the student or scientist/engineer entering the field of thin-film electronics to master a few basic concepts that are distinct from those in the field of conventional semiconductors. The main part of the book deals with solar cells and modules by illustrating the basic functioning of these devices, along with their limitations, design optimization, testing and fabrication methods. Among the manufacturing processes discussed are plasma-assisted and hot-wire deposition, sputtering, and structuring techniques.

Semiconductor Physical Electronics

Author: Sheng S. Li

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146130489X

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 3504

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The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with a self-contained treatment of fundamen tal solid state and semiconductor device physics. The material presented in the text is based upon the lecture notes of a one-year graduate course sequence taught by this author for many years in the ·Department of Electrical Engineering of the University of Florida. It is intended as an introductory textbook for graduate students in electrical engineering. However, many students from other disciplines and backgrounds such as chemical engineering, materials science, and physics have also taken this course sequence, and will be interested in the material presented herein. This book may also serve as a general reference for device engineers in the semiconductor industry. The present volume covers a wide variety of topics on basic solid state physics and physical principles of various semiconductor devices. The main subjects covered include crystal structures, lattice dynamics, semiconductor statistics, energy band theory, excess carrier phenomena and recombination mechanisms, carrier transport and scattering mechanisms, optical properties, photoelectric effects, metal-semiconductor devices, the p--n junction diode, bipolar junction transistor, MOS devices, photonic devices, quantum effect devices, and high speed III-V semiconductor devices. The text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics of semiconductor materials and devices. It is intended to provide physicists and mat erials scientists with more device backgrounds, and device engineers with a broader knowledge of fundamental solid state physics.

The Physics of Semiconductors

An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

Author: Marius Grundmann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319238809

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 989

View: 4048

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The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two-semester course. In the third edition several topics are extended and treated in more depth including surfaces, disordered materials, amorphous semiconductors, polarons, thermopower and noise. More than 1800 references guide the reader to historic and current literature including original and review papers and books.

Survey of Semiconductor Physics

Barriers, Junctions, Surfaces, and Devices

Author: Karl W. Böer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780442006723

Category: Science

Page: 1438

View: 1630

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Taking up where the first volume left off, this work provides coverage of the inhomogeneous semiconductor. It deals mainly with Si and GaAs, but also investigates other materials of theoretical and practical interest, such as Ge, other III-V and II-VI compounds, and amorphous SiH. Equipped with this source, physicists, semiconductor engineers, device engineers and fabrication engineers will have access to a vast reservoir of practical information on the design, production and operations of semiconductor devices.

Physics of Semiconductor Devices

Proceedings of the Eleventh International Workshop on the Physics of Semiconductor Devices : (December 11-15, 2001)

Author: Vikram Kumar,Prasanta Kumar Basu

Publisher: Allied Publishers

ISBN: 9780819445001

Category: Semiconductors

Page: N.A

View: 6533

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Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Author: Kentaro Ito

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111843787X

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 1492

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Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground–mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth–abundant, low–cost and non–toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS–based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS–based solar cells have the potential to be used for large–scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.

Dilute III-V Nitride Semiconductors and Material Systems

Physics and Technology

Author: Ayse Erol

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540745297

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 592

View: 731

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This book reviews the current status of research and development in dilute III-V nitrides. It covers major developments in this new class of materials within 24 chapters from prominent research groups. The book integrates materials science and applications in optics and electronics in a unique way. It is valuable both as a reference work for researchers and as a study text for graduate students.

Advanced Silicon Materials for Photovoltaic Applications

Author: Sergio Pizzini

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118312163

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 424

View: 3920

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Today, the silicon feedstock for photovoltaic cells comes from processes which were originally developed for the microelectronic industry. It covers almost 90% of the photovoltaic market, with mass production volume at least one order of magnitude larger than those devoted to microelectronics. However, it is hard to imagine that this kind of feedstock (extremely pure but heavily penalized by its high energy cost) could remain the only source of silicon for a photovoltaic market which is in continuous expansion, and which has a cumulative growth rate in excess of 30% in the last few years. Even though reports suggest that the silicon share will slowly decrease in the next twenty years, finding a way to manufacture a specific solar grade feedstock in large quantities, at a low cost while maintaining the quality needed, still remains a crucial issue. Thin film and quantum confinement-based silicon cells might be a complementary solution. Advanced Silicon Materials for Photovoltaic Applications has been designed to describe the full potentialities of silicon as a multipurpose material and covers: Physical, chemical and structural properties of silicon Production routes including the promise of low cost feedstock for PV applications Defect engineering and the role of impurities and defects Characterization techniques, and advanced analytical techniques for metallic and non-metallic impurities Thin film silicon and thin film solar cells Innovative quantum effects, and 3rd generation solar cells With contributions from internationally recognized authorities, this book gives a comprehensive analysis of the state-of-the-art of process technologies and material properties, essential for anyone interested in the application and development of photovoltaics.

Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon-Based Materials

Author: Pio Capezzuto,Arun Madan

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080539106

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 6607

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Semiconductors made from amorphous silicon have recently become important for their commercial applications in optical and electronic devices including FAX machines, solar cells, and liquid crystal displays. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon-Based Materials is a timely, comprehensive reference book written by leading authorities in the field. This volume links the fundamental growth kinetics involving complex plasma chemistry with the resulting semiconductor film properties and the subsequent effect on the performance of the electronic devices produced. Focuses on the plasma chemistry of amorphous silicon-based materials Links fundamental growth kinetics with the resulting semiconductor film properties and performance of electronic devices produced Features an international group of contributors Provides the first comprehensive coverage of the subject, from deposition technology to materials characterization to applications and implementation in state-of-the-art devices

Thin-Film Solar Cells

Next Generation Photovoltaics and Its Applications

Author: Yoshihiro Hamakawa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540439455

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 244

View: 7758

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The first comprehensive book on thin-film solar cells, potentially a key technology for solving the energy production problem in the 21st century in an environmentally friendly way. It covers a wide range of scientific and technological aspects of thin film semiconductors - deposition technologies, growth mechanisms and the basic properties of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon - as well as the optimum design theory and device physics of high-efficiency solar cells, especially of single-junction and multi-junction solar cells. The development of large-area solar cell modules using single and multi-junction solar cells is also considered. Examples of recent photovoltaic systems are presented and analysed.