The Origins of Grammar

An Anthropological Perspective

Author: Martin Edwardes

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441159142

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 192

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Quintessential work on the nature and origins of language grammar, and its role in language and our own evolution as humans.

Sprachphilosophie / Philosophy of Language / La philosophie du langage. 1. Halbband

Author: Marcelo Dascal

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110203405

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 908

View: 6553

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Mit dem systematischen Einsatz der Sprachanalyse bei der Behandlung philosophischer Probleme kommt es in den letzten hundert Jahren zu einer sich ständig beschleunigenden Entwicklung der Sprachphilosophie sowohl diachron, durch immer bessere Kenntnisse der historischen Vorläufer, als auch synchron, durch Differenzierung der begrifflichen Hilfsmittel. Sie findet in enger Wechselwirkung mit Logik, Linguistik, Psychologie und der aus ihnen entwickelten Kognitionswissenschaft statt, neuerdings auch in Konkurrenz zu der als Wissenschaft vom Zeichengebrauch eine integrierende Funktion beanspruchenden Semiotik und zur Theorie der Kommunikation, insofern Sprachhandlungen als Handlungen mit Kommunikationsabsicht gelten. Wird Zeichengebrauch noch in zeichenvermitteltes, empirisch beobachtbares Verhalten eingebettet aufgefaßt, so nimmt in diesem Zusammenhang wiederum Handlungstheorie (Pragmatik/Praxeologie) und Verhaltensforschung (Ethologie), ergänzt um die von der Theorie der künstlichen Intelligenz bereitgestellten Modellbildungen, die Stelle sowohl der Semiotik wie der Theorie der Kommunikation in ihrer Rolle als fundierende Disziplin ein. Das Handbuch Sprachphilosophie gibt eine nach Fragestellungen, Behandlungsmethoden und theoretischem Rahmen möglichst umfassende Übersicht über den aktuellen Stand dieser Disziplin. I. Raumzeitliche Übersichten II. Personen III. Positionen IV. Kontroversen V. Begriffe VI. Sprachphilosophische Aspekte in anderen Bereichen

A Grammar of Luwo

An anthropological approach

Author: Anne Storch

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9027269378

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 291

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This book is a description of Luwo, a Western Nilotic language of South Sudan. Luwo is used by multilingual, dynamic communities of practice as one language among others that form individual and flexible repertoires. It is a language that serves as a means of expressing the Self, as a medium of art and self-actualization, and sometimes as a medium of writing. It is spoken in the home and in public spaces, by fairly large numbers of people who identify themselves as Luwo and as members of all kinds of other groups. In order to provide insights into these dynamic and diverse realities of Luwo, this book contains both a concise description and analysis of the linguistic features and structures of Luwo, and an approach to the anthropological linguistics of this language. The latter is presented in the form of separate chapters on possession, number, experiencer constructions, spatial orientation, perception and cognition. In all sections of this study, sociolinguistic information is provided wherever this is useful and possible, detailed information on the semantics of grammatical features and constructions is given, and discussions of theory-oriented approaches to various linguistic features of Luwo are presented.

American Anthropology, 1971-1995

Papers from the American Anthropologist

Author: Regna Darnell

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 9780803266353

Category: Social Science

Page: 815

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American anthropology in the late twentieth century interrogated and depicted the worldsøof others, past and present, in subtle and incisive ways while increasingly questioning its own authority to do so. Marxist, symbolic, and structuralist thought shaped the fieldwork and conclusions of many researchers around the globe. Practicing anthropology blossomed and grew rapidly as a subdiscipline in its own right. There emerged a keener appreciation of both the history of the discipline and the histories of those studied. Archaeologists witnessed a resurgence of interest in the concept of culture. The American Anthropologist also made systematic efforts to represent the field as a whole, with biological anthropology and linguistics particularly adept at crossing subdiscipline boundaries. Proliferation of specialized areas within sociocultural anthropology encouraged work across the subdisciplines. The thirty selections in this volume reflect the notable trends and accomplishments in American anthropology during the closing decades of the millennium. An introduction by Regna Darnell offers a historical background and critical context that enable readers to better understand the changes and continuity in American anthropology during this time.

The Origins of Order

Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution

Author: Stuart A. Kauffman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199826676

Category: Science

Page: 734

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Stuart Kauffman here presents a brilliant new paradigm for evolutionary biology, one that extends the basic concepts of Darwinian evolution to accommodate recent findings and perspectives from the fields of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics. The book drives to the heart of the exciting debate on the origins of life and maintenance of order in complex biological systems. It focuses on the concept of self-organization: the spontaneous emergence of order that is widely observed throughout nature Kauffman argues that self-organization plays an important role in the Darwinian process of natural selection. Yet until now no systematic effort has been made to incorporate the concept of self-organization into evolutionary theory. The construction requirements which permit complex systems to adapt are poorly understood, as is the extent to which selection itself can yield systems able to adapt more successfully. This book explores these themes. It shows how complex systems, contrary to expectations, can spontaneously exhibit stunning degrees of order, and how this order, in turn, is essential for understanding the emergence and development of life on Earth. Topics include the new biotechnology of applied molecular evolution, with its important implications for developing new drugs and vaccines; the balance between order and chaos observed in many naturally occurring systems; new insights concerning the predictive power of statistical mechanics in biology; and other major issues. Indeed, the approaches investigated here may prove to be the new center around which biological science itself will evolve. The work is written for all those interested in the cutting edge of research in the life sciences.

The Grammar of Politics and Performance

Author: Shirin M Rai,Janelle Reinelt

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134751338

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 254

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This volume brings together important work at the intersection of politics and performance studies. While the languages of theatre and performance have long been deployed by other disciplines, these are seldom deployed seriously and pursued systematically to discover the actual nature of the relationship between performance as a set of behavioural practices and the forms and the transactions of these other disciplines. This book investigates the structural similarities and features of politics and performance, which are referred to here as ‘grammar’, a concept which also emphasizes the common communicational base or language of these fields. In each of the chapters included in this collection, key processes of both politics and performance are identified and analyzed, demonstrating the critical and indivisible links between the fields. The book also underlines that neither politics nor performance can take place without actors who perform and spectators who receive, evaluate and react to these actions. At the heart of the project is the ambition to bring about a paradigm change, such that politics cannot be analyzed seriously without a sophisticated understanding of its performance. All the chapters here display a concrete set of events, practices, and contexts within which politics and performance are inseparable elements. This work will be of great interest to students and scholars in both International Relations and Performance Studies.

New Vistas in Grammar

Invariance and Variation

Author: Linda R. Waugh,Stephen Rudy

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027235430

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 540

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The papers in this volume reflect the renewed interest in the semantics of grammatical categories and the issues of invariance and variation in grammar. In particular, this collection presents the current understanding of invariance of grammar with respect to the synchronic and diachronic analyses of specific languages, and as realized in work on typology and universals.The book is divided into five sections: The Question of Invariance; Invariance and Grammatical Categories; Grammar and Discourse; Grammar and Pragmatics; Typology and Universals.

Grammatik und deutsche Grammatiken

Author: Vilmos Ágel

Publisher: Max Niemeyer Verlag

ISBN: N.A

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 260

View: 680

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This collection assembles the papers given at the Budapest Grammar Conference, 22-24 September 1993. The contributors are authors of German grammars and/or Hungarian Germanists and the subjects they cover range from general problems of grammar theory through individual aspects of German grammar to concepts, methods and problems of grammatography.

Language and History

Integrationist Perspectives

Author: Nigel Love

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134370202

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 3426

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When linguistics was first established as an academic discipline in the nineteenth century, it was envisaged as an essentially historical study. Languages were to be treated as historical objects, evolving through gradual but constant processes of change over long periods of time. In recent years, however, there has been much discussion by historians of a 'linguistic turn' in their own discipline, and, in linguistics, integrationist theory has mounted a radical challenge to the traditional notion of 'languages' as possible objects of inquiry. Language and History develops the integrationist critique of orthodox linguistics, while at the same time extending its implications to the field of history. By doing so, it throws light on what is now recognized by many historians to be a 'crisis' in their own discipline. Underlying the post-modernist scepticism about traditional forms of historiography, the integrationist approach reveals a more deep-seated problem concerning the interface between philosophy of history and philosophy of language. With chapters from a range of leading international contributors, Language and History represents a significant contribution to the developing work of the integrationists.

Dance, Modernity and Culture

Author: Helen Thomas

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134881835

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 232

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First published in 1995. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Blood Relations

Menstruation and the Origins of Culture

Author: Chris Knight

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 030018655X

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 592

View: 9476

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The emergence of symbolic culture is generally linked with the development of the hunger-gatherer adaptation based on a sexual division of labor. This original and ingenious book presents a new theory of how this symbolic domain originated. Integrating perspectives of evolutionary biography and social anthropology within a Marxist framework, Chris Knight rejects the common assumption that human culture was a modified extension of primate behavior and argues instead that it was the product of an immense social, sexual, and political revolution initiated by women. Culture became established, says Knight, when evolving human females began to assert collective control over their own sexuality, refusing sex to all males except those who came to them with provisions. Women usually timed their ban on sexual relations with their periods of infertility while they were menstruating, and to the extent that their solidarity drew women together, these periods tended to occur in synchrony. The result was that every month with the onset of menstruation, sexual relations were ruptured in a collective, ritualistic way as the prelude to each successful hunting expedition. This ritual act was the means through which women motivated men not only to hunt but also to concentrate energies on bringing back the meat. Knight shows how this hypothesis sheds light on the roots of such cultural traditions as totemic rituals, incest and menstrual taboos, blood-sacrifice, and hunters’ atonement rites. Providing detailed ethnographic documentation, he also explains how Native American, Australian Aboriginal, and other magico-religious myths can be read as derivatives of the same symbolic logic.

Linguistische Arbeiten

Author: Vilmos Ágel,Rita Brdar-Szabó

Publisher: Max Niemeyer Verlag

ISBN: 9783484303300

Category: Linguistics

Page: 260

View: 9348

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This collection assembles the papers given at the Budapest Grammar Conference, 22-24 September 1993. The contributors are authors of German grammars and/or Hungarian Germanists and the subjects they cover range from general problems of grammar theory through individual aspects of German grammar to concepts, methods and problems of grammatography.

The Origin of Concepts

Author: Susan Carey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199887918

Category: Psychology

Page: 608

View: 9389

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Only human beings have a rich conceptual repertoire with concepts like tort, entropy, Abelian group, mannerism, icon and deconstruction. How have humans constructed these concepts? And once they have been constructed by adults, how do children acquire them? While primarily focusing on the second question, in The Origin of Concepts , Susan Carey shows that the answers to both overlap substantially. Carey begins by characterizing the innate starting point for conceptual development, namely systems of core cognition. Representations of core cognition are the output of dedicated input analyzers, as with perceptual representations, but these core representations differ from perceptual representations in having more abstract contents and richer functional roles. Carey argues that the key to understanding cognitive development lies in recognizing conceptual discontinuities in which new representational systems emerge that have more expressive power than core cognition and are also incommensurate with core cognition and other earlier representational systems. Finally, Carey fleshes out Quinian bootstrapping, a learning mechanism that has been repeatedly sketched in the literature on the history and philosophy of science. She demonstrates that Quinian bootstrapping is a major mechanism in the construction of new representational resources over the course of childrens cognitive development. Carey shows how developmental cognitive science resolves aspects of long-standing philosophical debates about the existence, nature, content, and format of innate knowledge. She also shows that understanding the processes of conceptual development in children illuminates the historical process by which concepts are constructed, and transforms the way we think about philosophical problems about the nature of concepts and the relations between language and thought.

Language issues

readings for teachers

Author: Diane Bennett Durkin

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon

ISBN: N.A

Category: Education

Page: 484

View: 9387

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The Handbook of Language Emergence

Author: Brian MacWhinney,William O'Grady

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118346092

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 656

View: 9138

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This authoritative handbook explores the latest integrated theory for understanding human language, offering the most inclusive text yet published on the rapidly evolving emergentist paradigm. Brings together an international team of contributors, including the most prominent advocates of linguistic emergentism Focuses on the ways in which the learning, processing, and structure of language emerge from a competing set of cognitive, communicative, and biological constraints Examines forces on widely divergent timescales, from instantaneous neurolinguistic processing to historical changes and language evolution Addresses key theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues, making this handbook the most rigorous examination of emergentist linguistic theory ever

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial

Author: Sarah Tarlow,Liv Nilsson Stutz

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191650390

Category: Social Science

Page: 872

View: 8677

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The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.

The Gestural Origin of Language

Author: David F. Armstrong,Sherman E. Wilcox

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198036913

Category: Psychology

Page: 168

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In The Gestural Origin of Language, Sherman Wilcox and David Armstrong use evidence from and about sign languages to explore the origins of language as we know it today. According to their model, it is sign, not spoken languages, that is the original mode of human communication. The authors demonstrate that modern language is derived from practical actions and gestures that were increasingly recognized as having the potential to represent, and hence to communicate. In other words, the fundamental ability that allows us to use language is our ability to use pictures or icons, rather than linguistic symbols. Evidence from the human fossil record supports the authors' claim by showing that we were anatomically able to produce gestures and signs before we were able to speak fluently. Although speech evolved later as a secondary linguistic communication device that eventually replaced sign language as the primary mode of communication, speech has never entirely replaced signs and gestures. As the first comprehensive attempt to trace the origin of grammar to gesture, this volume will be an invaluable resource for students and professionals in psychology, linguistics, and philosophy.