The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind

Author: Julian Jaynes

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0547527543

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 4556

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At the heart of this classic, seminal book is Julian Jaynes's still-controversial thesis that human consciousness did not begin far back in animal evolution but instead is a learned process that came about only three thousand years ago and is still developing. The implications of this revolutionary scientific paradigm extend into virtually every aspect of our psychology, our history and culture, our religion -- and indeed our future.

Discussions With Julian Jaynes

The Nature of Consciousness and the Vagaries of Psychology

Author: Brian J. McVeigh

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781536100549

Category:

Page: 70

View: 3420

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In 1976, the late Julian Jaynes of Princeton University published the groundbreaking The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind in which he argued that before the twelfth century BC, the minds of individuals were of a different neurocultural organisation. Rather than being consciously self-aware as people nowadays think of it, the behavior of our ancient predecessors was governed by religiously-inflected voices and visions. These were produced by a two-chambered or bicameral mentality: language areas in the right hemisphere (the ruler or god side) organised advice and admonishments and coded them into hallucinatory experiences that were conveyed over the anterior commissure to the left hemispheres corresponding language regions (the follower or person side). Brian J. McVeigh, a student of Julian Jaynes, took the opportunity in 1991 to record a series of informal, wide-ranging, and unstructured discussions with Jaynes, considered a controversial maverick of the psychology world. Weaving their way in and out of the discussions are the following themes: a clarification of the meaning of consciousness; the relation between linguistics, consciousness and language study as a crucial method to reveal this relation; the history of psychology and its prejudices (e.g., the marginalisation of consciousness as a research topic, ignoring socio-historical aspects of psyche, the significance of religion, the fraudulence of Freudianism, and the overuse, vagueness, and emptiness of cognitive); and some practical, therapeutic implications of Jayness ideas on consciousness. This book will appeal to anyone interested in the emergence of consciousness, language and cognition, cultural psychology, the history of psychology, and the neurocultural transformation of our species. A glossary of names provides useful historical context. Presenting a series of wide ranging and thought-provoking conversations with Julian Jaynes, who was one of the most insightful and original thinkers of the twentieth century, Discussions with Julian Jaynes constitutes an important contribution to the growing literature on Jaynes and his ideas.

The Jaynes Legacy

Shining New Light Through the Cracks of the Bicameral Mind

Author: Lawrence Wile

Publisher: Andrews UK Limited

ISBN: 184540971X

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 250

View: 3691

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Julian Jaynes' 1976 book, The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, continues to arouse an unsettling ambivalence. Richard Dawkins called it "either complete rubbish or a work of consummate genius, nothing in between". The present book suggests that the bicameral mind is a phantasm; the dating of the origin of consciousness contradicts archeological and literary evidence; and the theory contributes nothing toward explaining why some physical states are conscious while others are not because the nonconscious bicameral brain is neurophysiologically equivalent to the conscious brain. However, the author pays tribute to Jaynes's work as a work of "consummate genius" because it compels us to re-evaluate the significance of humankind's earliest traditions and texts that might shine light on the "very suspicious totem of evolutionary mythology" that consciousness has evolved continuously and gradually from worms to man. The present book suggests that the evolution of the relationship between consciousnesses, mass, energy, and spacetime radically changed nearly 6,000 years ago during the epigenetic, evolutionary degeneration of a little-known, threadlike structure originating from the center of the central nervous system called Reissner's fiber. The earliest Egyptian, Hebrew, Indian and Chinese traditions, buried beneath the dust of fallen Babel and thousands of years of distortions and disguisings, describe this process during the origin of religion and mystical traditions.

Psychologie für Dummies

Author: Adam Cash

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527820027

Category: Psychology

Page: 402

View: 1530

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Wenn Sie großes Interesse an Menschen und ihrem Verhalten haben, sich aber nicht für lange Abhandlungen und Fachchinesisch erwärmen können, sollten Sie »Psychologie für Dummies« lesen. Denn Psychologie ist viel mehr als Freud und Co.: Was motiviert einen Menschen, extreme Dinge zu tun? Welche Rolle spielt die Biologie? Was bewirken Emotionen und wie kann man sie messen? Welche Faktoren bedingen Verhaltensänderungen? Und ab wann gilt jemand als psychisch krank? Adam Cash geht all diesen Fragen nach und gibt Ihnen Einblick in die verschiedenen Forschungsbereiche, in denen Psychologen tätig sind: Kognitive Psychologie, Entwicklungspsychologie, Sozialpsychologie, Persönlichkeitspsychologie, Forensische und Klinische Psychologie. Sie erhalten einen ganz neuen Zugang zu menschlichem Verhalten, Gefühlen und Abnormitäten.

Das Bewusstsein und Die Bikamerale Psyche

Author: Christopher Poppe

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640851676

Category:

Page: 40

View: 6529

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Facharbeit (Schule) aus dem Jahr 2010 im Fachbereich Psychologie - Lernpsychologie, Intelligenzforschung, Note: 1-, Gymnasium Athenaeum, Stade, Veranstaltung: Lernpsychologie, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Was ist Bewusstsein und woher kommt es? Ist es moglich, dass Bewusst- sein, wie wir es kennen, sich erst entwickelte? Die vorgelegte Facharbeit beschaftigt sich mit der von Julian Jaynes entwickelten These, dass sich das menschliche Gehirn bis vor ungefahr 3000 Jahren in einem Zustand befand, den er als bikamerale Psyche bezeichnet. Diese These prasentierte er in dem 1982 publizierten Werk The Origin of Consciousness in The Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, welches drei Bucher umfasst. Im ersten Buch beschaftigt er sich mit dem Bewusstsein, in dem zwei- ten mit dem Beweismaterial und im dritten mit den Auswirkungen auf die aktuelle Zeit. Ich habe mich entschlossen meine Facharbeit ebenso zu gliedern, mich aber auf das vorgestellte Modell des Bewusstseins und der bikameralen Psyche zu konzentrieren. Jaynes Hauptthese ist die der bikameralen Psyche. Dennoch gibt es ne- ben ihnen noch 3. Nebenthesen." Die erste ist, dass Bewusstsein auf Sprache basiert. Die zweite ist, dass man den Zeitpunkt der Entstehung des Bewusstseins datieren kann und die dritte, dass es eine neurophysio- logische Grundlage fur die bikamerale Psyche gibt."

Der Fall des Baumeisters

Author: Peter Ackroyd

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3688105508

Category: Fiction

Page: 368

View: 3527

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Nicholas Dyer wird nach dem großen Brand von London im frühen 18. Jahrhundert mit dem Neubau von sieben Kirchen beauftragt. Sie sollen das aufblühende Zeitalter der Vernunft, den Geist der Wissenschaft repräsentieren. Doch der geheimnisvolle Dyer fühlt sich älteren Idealen verpflichtet: Seine Kirchen stehen auf den Überresten vorchristlicher Kultstätten, ihr Bau folgt obskuren Gesetzmäßigkeiten der Schwarzen Magie. Und ihre Fertigstellung fordert schreckliche Blutopfer. Zwei Jahrhunderte später: Nicholas Hawksmoor, Inspektor bei Scotland Yard, untersucht eine geradezu irrsinnige Serie von Morden an Kindern und Stadtstreichern. Ihr einziges gemeinsames Merkmal: Sie geschehen in unmittelbarer Nähe gewisser Kirchen aus dem 18. Jahrhundert. Logik hilft bei der Aufklärung ebensowenig weiter wie modernste kriminalistische Methoden. Eher scheint ein anonymer Brief mit seltsamen kabbalistischen Zeichen auf die richtige Spur zu weisen. Angesichts der Verbrechen zweifelt Inspektor Hawksmoor, wie Dyer, an der Kraft des aufgeklärten Verstandes. In schmutzigen Absteigen und Schenken der Londoner Slums geht er scheinbar albernen Gerüchten von einem fürchterlichen Geist aus der Vergangenheit nach, der gekommen sei, die Frevel der modernen Zivilisation zu rächen. Immer tiefer zieht es Hawksmoor in den Strudel einer horriblen magischen Unterwelt: Er hört gespenstische Stimmen, fühlt sich verfolgt und kann nicht mehr zwischen Traum und Wirklichkeit unterscheiden. Ist es möglich, daß Dyer noch lebt? Oder hat am Ende er selber in geistiger Umnachtung die Morde begangen?

Snow Crash

Roman

Author: Neal Stephenson

Publisher: Goldmann Verlag

ISBN: 3641033780

Category: Fiction

Page: 544

View: 7867

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Los Angeles, eines nicht zu fernen Tages: Hiro Protagonist, ein Starprogrammierer und Pizzakurier, kommt einer Verschwörung auf die Spur, die sowohl in der realen Welt als auch im virtuellen Raum immer mehr Todesopfer fordert. Hiro taucht als Schwertkämpfer in die Cyberwelt der Zukunft ein, um dort einen Schurken aus ferner Vergangenheit zu besiegen und die »Infokalypse« zu verhindern...

Experimentell-psychologische Untersuchungen über das Urteil

Eine Einleitung in die Logik

Author: K. Marbe

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3845740922

Category: Psychology

Page: 112

View: 6731

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K. Marbe nutzt die Methode der Psychologie, um das menschliche Urteil zu erforschen. In experimentellen Untersuchungen widmet er sich den Urteilsvorstellungen und – gebärden, analysiert Urteilsworte und Urteilssätze, bevor er sich dem Gesamtwesen des Urteils zuwendet. Am Ende diskutiert er das Problem des Verstehens und des Beurteilens der wahrgenommenen Urteile. Sorgfältig bearbeiteter Nachdruck der Originalausgabe von 1901.

LAST FRONTIERS OF THE MIND

CHALLENGES OF THE DIGITAL AGE

Author: MOHANDAS MOSES

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 9788120328518

Category: Philosophy

Page: 440

View: 6789

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In this original and brilliantly written book, Mohandas Moses has embarked on a daring theme-the challenge of artificial intelligence to the human mind and human creativity. The mind, he says, is the greatest invention in the universe; it has created the greatest works of art and science: its dimensions and potential are yet to be fathomed. But now the marvellous human mind stands challenged by the machine. To illustrate the central theme of his book, the author has brought together the views of a galaxy of eminent philosophers, cognitive scientists and neuroscientists who have explored the phenomenon and evolution of the human mind and consciousness, and the growth of Artificial Intelligence. The author describes the contribution made by the 'Artificial Intelligentsia', the human-computer interaction, and emphasizes the formidable power of the machine mind to usurp the grandeur of the human mind. He has described the manner in which memory, language, creativity, mathematics, teaching-learning and chess-playing could be altered by the digital culture. He says that 'the question we need to ask ourselves as thinking men is-would we like to sense sensations, experience experiences and think thoughts with under-standing as human beings should or are our personas to be blue matched to the template of the machine mind?' With erudition and wry humour the author takes the reader on a fascinating journey of exploration. Written with brilliance and clarity, there is freshness in his perspective and a lucid presentation of ideas. This book will be of great interest as much to academics, experts on artificial intelligence, as to the general reader who wishes to know about the challenges to the human intellect and creativity in the digital age.

Perils of the Soul

Ancient Wisdom and the New Age

Author: John R. Haule

Publisher: Weiser Books

ISBN: 9781578631070

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 279

View: 9188

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In this text, join Jungian analyst John Haule on a tour of New Age beliefs and practices to reach a comprehensive historical perspective that shows just how far from new the New Age actually is.

The Origins of Business, Money, and Markets

Author: Keith Roberts

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231526857

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 2418

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To understand business and its political, cultural, and economic context, it helps to view it historically, yet most business histories look no further back than the nineteenth century. The full sweep of business history actually begins much earlier, with the initial cities of Mesopotamia. In the first book to describe and explain these origins, Roberts depicts the society of ancient traders and consumers, tracing the roots of modern business and underscoring the relationship between early and modern business practice. Roberts's narrative begins before business, which he defines as selling to voluntary buyers at a profit. Before business, he shows, the material conditions and concepts for the pursuit of profit did not exist, even though trade and manufacturing took place. The earliest business, he suggests, arose with the long distance trade of early Mesopotamia, and expanded into retail, manufacturing and finance in these command economies, culminating in the Middle Eastern empires. (Part One) But it was the largely independent rise of business, money, and markets in classical Greece that produced business much as we know it. Alexander the Great's conquests and the societies that his successors created in their kingdoms brought a version of this system to the old Middle Eastern empires, and beyond. (Part Two) At Rome this entrepreneurial market system gained important new features, including business corporations, public contracting, and even shopping malls. The story concludes with the sharp decline of business after the 3rd century CE. (Part Three) In each part, Roberts portrays the major new types of business coming into existence. He weaves these descriptions into a narrative of how the prevailing political, economic, and social culture shaped the nature and importance of business and the status, wealth, and treatment of business people. Throughout, the discussion indicates how much (and how little) business has changed, provides a clear picture of what business actually is, presents a model for understanding the social impact of business as a whole, and yields stimulating insights for public policy today.

Creative Writing

A Workbook with Readings

Author: Linda Anderson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317797027

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 664

View: 8810

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Creative Writing is a complete writing course that will jump-start your writing and guide you through your first steps towards publication. Suitable for use by students, tutors, writers’ groups or writers working alone, this book offers: a practical and inspiring section on the creative process, showing you how to stimulate your creativity and use your memory and experience in inventive ways in-depth coverage of the most popular forms of writing, in extended sections on fiction, poetry and life writing, including biography and autobiography, giving you practice in all three forms so that you might discover and develop your particular strengths a sensible, up-to-date guide to going public, to help you to edit your work to a professional standard and to identify and approach suitable publishers a distinctive collection of exciting exercises, spread throughout the workbook to spark your imagination and increase your technical flexibility and control a substantial array of illuminating readings, bringing together extracts from contemporary and classic writings in order to demonstrate a range of techniques that you can use or adapt in your own work. Creative Writing: A Workbook with Readings presents a unique opportunity to benefit from the advice and experience of a team of published authors who have also taught successful writing courses at a wide range of institutions, helping large numbers of new writers to develop their talents as well as their abilities to evaluate and polish their work to professional standards. These institutions include Lancaster University and the University of East Anglia, renowned as consistent producers of published writers.

The Figure of Consciousness

William James, Henry James and Edith Wharton

Author: Jill M. Kress

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136711279

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 288

View: 5104

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First Published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Hope in the Age of Anxiety

Author: Anthony Scioli,Henry Biller

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199758573

Category: Self-Help

Page: 440

View: 8433

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Economic collapse, poverty, disease, natural disasters, the constant threat of community unrest and international terrorism--a quick look at any newspaper is enough to cause almost anyone to feel trapped and desperate. Yet the recent election also revealed a growing search for hope spreading through society. In the timely Hope in the Age of Anxiety, Anthony Scioli and Henry Biller illuminate the nature of hope and offer a multitude of techniques designed to improve the lives of individuals, and bring more light into the world. In this fascinating and humane book, Scioli and Biller reveal the ways in which human beings acquire and make use of hope. Hope in the Age of Anxiety is meant to be a definitive guide. The evolutionary, biological, and cultural roots of hope are covered along with the seven kinds of hope found in the world's religions. Just as vital, the book provides many personal tools for addressing the major challenges of the human condition: fear, loss, illness, and death. Some of the key areas illuminated in Hope in the Age of Anxiety: How do you build and sustain hope in trying times? How can hope help you to achieve your life goals? How can hope improve your relationships with others? How can hope aid your recovery from trauma or illness? How does hope relate to spirituality? Hope in the Age of Anxiety identifies the skills needed to cultivate hope, and offers suggestions for using these capacities to realize your life goals, support health and healing, strengthen relationships, enhance spirituality, and inoculate yourself against the despair that engulfs many individuals.

The Power of Human Imagination

New Methods in Psychotherapy

Author: Jerome L. Singer,Kenneth S. Pope

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461339413

Category: Psychology

Page: 426

View: 3610

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For at least half of the twentieth century, psychology and the other mental health professions all but ignored the significant adaptive pos sibilities of the human gift of imagery. Our capacity seemingly to duplicate sights, sounds, and other sensory experiences through some form of central brain process continues to remain a mysterious, alma st miraculous skill. Because imagery is so much a private experience, experimental psychologists found it hard to measure and turned their attentian to observable behaviors that could easily be studied in ani maIs as well as in humans. Psychoanalysts and others working with the emotionally disturbed continued to take imagery informatian se riously in the form of dream reports, transferenee fantasies, and as indications of hallucinations or delusions. On the whole, however, they emphasized the maladaptive aspects of the phenomena, the dis tortions and defensiveness or the "regressive" qualities of daydreams and sequences of images. The present volume grows out of a long series of investigations by the senior author that have suggested that daydreaming and the stream of consciousness are not simply manifestations in adult life of persist ing phenomena of childhood. Rather, the data suggest that imagery sequences represent a major system of encoding and transforming information, a basic human capacity that is inevitably part of the brain's storage process and one that has enormous potential for adap tive utility. A companian volume, The Stream of Consciousness, edited by Kenneth S. Pope and Jerome L.

Stroh im Kopf?

Vom Gehirn-Besitzer zum Gehirn-Benutzer

Author: Vera F. Birkenbihl

Publisher: MVG Verlag

ISBN: 3864154731

Category: Self-Help

Page: 336

View: 3260

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Achtung – es geht um den Klassiker Stroh im Kopf?, der ab der 36. Auflage zum 3. Mal komplett überarbeitet wurde. Dabei ist ein weitgehend neues Buch entstanden. Natürlich wurden sowohl herausragende "alte" Gedanken dieses Standardwerkes beibehalten als auch viel Neues integriert. Das neue Stroh im Kopf? präsentiert zahlreiche neue Ansätze. Egal, was wir lernen/ lehren (ob Medizin, Jura oder Computersprache), wir können alles gehirn-gerecht machen (= verständlich aufbereiten). Von der Gehirnforschung ausgehend hat Vera F. Birkenbihl faszinierende methodische Ansätze entwickelt. In einzelnen Modulen stellt sie neue Techniken und Ideen vor, z.B. wie sich neue Informationen gehirngerecht aufbereiten lassen. Denn: "Es gibt keine trockene Theorie – nur trockene Theoretiker!" Das Buch ist voller Experimente, praktischer Anregungen und neuer Techniken gemäß dem Motto: ausprobieren, umsetzen und vertiefen.

Metaphors of Conciousness

Author: Ronald S. Valle,Rolf von Eckartsberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461338026

Category: Psychology

Page: 544

View: 2658

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As we move into the 1980s, there is an increasing awareness that our civilization is going through a profound cultural transformation. At the heart of this transformation lies what is often called a "paradigm shift"-a dramatic change in the thoughts, perceptions, and values which form a particular vision of reality. The paradigm that is now shifting comprises a large number of ideas and values that have dominated our society for several hundred years; values that have been associated with various streams of Western culture, among them the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century, The Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution. They include the belief in the scientific method as the only valid approach to knowledge, the split between mind and matter, the view of nature as a mechanical system, the view of life in society as a competitive struggle for survival, and the belief in unlimited material progress to be achieved through economic and technological growth. All these ideas and values are now found to be severely limited and in need of radical revision.

The Nature of Clinical Medicine

The Return of the Clinician

Author: Eric J. Cassell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199974888

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 2717

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Clinical medicine, as a thinking discipline, is concerned not only with what clinicians do, but why. When physicians act in medicine they have some purpose or goal in mind. What they actually do and how they go about it is in the service of their purposes and their goals. Such goals cover a wide range of topics centering on patients, the doctor-patient relationship, the acts of doctoring patients, and the goals involved in being a physician among other physicians working within the institutions of medicine. The Nature of Clinical Medicine takes its direction from a catalog of goals of medicine that range from the expected diagnosis and treatment of diseases to wider concerns for patients, for physicians, and for medicine itself. The chapters are specific in teaching the kinds of knowledge that clinicians require in order to be able to achieve these goals. The central focus of the clinician and of this book is the patient. According to Eric Cassell, everything else, including the disease, is secondary. Using many examples from real-life medical practice, each chapter examines the different kinds of thought involved in caring for the patient. Cassell takes on a variety of difficult issues, from thinking about values to developing wisdom. The care of the dying, what thinking itself is, and finally, why would one want to do this exciting and rewarding but difficult work, come under discussion in this book.

The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language

Author: Miriam Faust

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444345885

Category: Psychology

Page: 1128

View: 9176

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This handbook provides a comprehensive review of new developments in the study of the relationship between the brain and language, from the perspectives of both basic research and clinical neuroscience. Includes contributions from an international team of leading figures in brain-language research Features a novel emphasis on state-of-the-art methodologies and their application to the central questions in the brain-language relationship Incorporates research on all parts of language, from syntax and semantics to spoken and written language Covers a wide range of issues, including basic level and high level linguistic functions, individual differences, and neurologically intact and different clinical populations