Publisher: Research & Education Assoc.
Category: Study Aids
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Master the SAT II Chemistry Subject Test and score higher... Our test experts show you the right way to prepare for this important college exam. REA's SAT II Chemistry test prep covers all chemistry topics to appear on the actual exam including in-depth coverage of the laws of chemistry, properties of solids, gases and liquids, chemical reactions, and more. The book features 6 full-length practice SAT II Chemistry exams. Each practice exam question is fully explained to help you better understand the subject material. Use the book's Periodic Table of Elements for speedy look-up of the properties of each element. Follow up your study with REA's proven test-taking strategies, powerhouse drills and study schedule that get you ready for test day. DETAILS - Comprehensive review of every chemistry topic to appear on the SAT II subject test - Flexible study schedule tailored to your needs - Packed with proven test tips, strategies and advice to help you master the test - 6 full-length practice SAT II Chemistry Subject tests. Each test question is answered in complete detail with easy-to-follow, easy-to-grasp explanations. - The book's handy Periodic Table of Elements allows for quick answers on the elements appearing on the exam TABLE OF CONTENTS About Research and Education Association Independent Study Schedule CHAPTER 1 - ABOUT THE SAT II: CHEMISTRY SUBJECT TEST About This Book About The Test How To Use This Book Format of the SAT II: Chemistry Scoring the SAT II: Chemistry Score Conversion Table Studying for the SAT II: Chemistry Test Taking Tips CHAPTER 2 - COURSE REVIEW Gases Gas Laws Gas Mixtures and Other Physical Properties of Gases Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Avogadro's Law (The Mole Concept) Avogadro's Hypothesis: Chemical Compounds and Formulas Mole Concept Molecular Weight and Formula Weight Equivalent Weight Chemical Composition Stoichiometry/Weight and Volume Calculations Balancing Chemical Equations Calculations Based on Chemical Equations Limiting-Reactant Calculations Solids Phase Diagram Phase Equilibrium Properties of Liquids Density Colligative Properties of Solutions Raoult's Law and Vapor Pressure Osmotic Pressure Solution Chemistry Concentration Units Equilibrium The Law of Mass Action Kinetics and Equilibrium Le Chatelier's Principle and Chemical Equilibrium Acid-Base Equilibria Definitions of Acids and Bases Ionization of Water, pH Dissociation of Weak Electrolytes Dissociation of Polyprotic Acids Buffers Hydrolysis Thermodynamics I Bond Energies Some Commonly Used Terms in Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Enthalpy Hess's Law of Heat Summation Standard States Heat of Vaporization and Heat of Fusion Thermodynamics II Entropy The Second Law of Thermodynamics Standard Entropies and Free Energies Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Electrolytic Cells Non-Standard-State Cell Potentials Atomic Theory Atomic Weight Types of Bonds Periodic Trends Electronegativity Quantum Chemistry Basic Electron Charges Components of Atomic Structure The Wave Mechanical Model Subshells and Electron Configuration Double and Triple Bonds Organic Chemistry: Nomenclature and Structure Alkanes Alkenes Dienes Alkynes Alkyl Halides Cyclic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Aryl Halides Ethers and Epoxides Alcohols and Glycols Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters Amides Arenes Aldehydes and Ketones Amines Phenols and Quinones Structural Isomerism SIX PRACTICE EXAMS Practice Test 1 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 2 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 3 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 4 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 5 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 6 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers THE PERIODIC TABLE EXCERPT About Research & Education Association Research & Education Association (REA) is an organization of educators, scientists, and engineers specializing in various academic fields. Founded in 1959 with the purpose of disseminating the most recently developed scientific information to groups in industry, government, high schools, and universities, REA has since become a successful and highly respected publisher of study aids, test preps, handbooks, and reference works. REA's Test Preparation series includes study guides for all academic levels in almost all disciplines. Research & Education Association publishes test preps for students who have not yet completed high school, as well as high school students preparing to enter college. Students from countries around the world seeking to attend college in the United States will find the assistance they need in REA's publications. For college students seeking advanced degrees, REA publishes test preps for many major graduate school admission examinations in a wide variety of disciplines, including engineering, law, and medicine. Students at every level, in every field, with every ambition can find what they are looking for among REA's publications. While most test preparation books present practice tests that bear little resemblance to the actual exams, REA's series presents tests that accurately depict the official exams in both degree of difficulty and types of questions. REA's practice tests are always based upon the most recently administered exams, and include every type of question that can be expected on the actual exams. REA's publications and educational materials are highly regarded and continually receive an unprecedented amount of praise from professionals, instructors, librarians, parents, and students. Our authors are as diverse as the fields represented in the books we publish. They are well-known in their respective disciplines and serve on the faculties of prestigious high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States and Canada. CHAPTER 1 - ABOUT THE SAT II: CHEMISTRY SUBJECT TEST ABOUT THIS BOOK This book provides you with an accurate and complete representation of the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test. Inside you will find a complete course review designed to provide you with the information and strategies needed to do well on the exam, as well as six practice tests based on the actual exam. The practice tests contain every type of question that you can expect to appear on the SAT II: Chemistry test. Following each test you will find an answer key with detailed explanations designed to help you master the test material. ABOUT THE TEST Who Takes the Test and What Is It Used For? Students planning to attend college take the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test for one of two reasons: (1) Because it is an admission requirement of the college or university to which they are applying; OR (2) To demonstrate proficiency in Chemistry. The SAT II: Chemistry exam is designed for students who have taken one year of college preparatory chemistry. Who Administers The Test? The SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test is developed by the College Board and administered by Educational Testing Service (ETS). The test development process involves the assistance of educators throughout the country, and is designed and implemented to ensure that the content and difficulty level of the test are appropriate. When Should the SAT II: Chemistry be Taken? If you are applying to a college that requires Subject Test scores as part of the admissions process, you should take the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test toward the end of your junior year or at the beginning of your senior year. If your scores are being used only for placement purposes, you may be able to take the test in the spring of your senior year. For more information, be sure to contact the colleges to which you are applying. When and Where is the Test Given? The SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test is administered five times a year at many locations throughout the country; mostly high schools. To receive information on upcoming administrations of the exam, consult the publication Taking the SAT II: Subject Tests, which may be obtained from your guidance counselor or by contacting: College Board SAT Program P.O. Box 6200 Princeton, NJ 08541-6200 Phone: (609) 771-7600 Website: http://www.collegeboard.com Is There a Registration Fee? Yes. There is a registration fee to take the SAT II: Chemistry. Consult the publication Taking the SAT II: Subject Tests for information on the fee structure. Financial assistance may be granted in certain situations. To find out if you qualify and to register for assistance, contact your academic advisor. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK What Do I Study First? Remember that the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test is designed to test knowledge that has been acquired throughout your education. Therefore, the best way to prepare for the exam is to refresh yourself by thoroughly studying our review material and taking the sample tests provided in this book. They will familiarize you with the types of questions, directions, and format of the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test. To begin your studies, read over the review and the suggestions for test-taking, take one of the practice tests to determine your area(s) of weakness, and then restudy the review material, focusing on your specific problem areas. The course review includes the information you need to know when taking the exam. Be sure to take the remaining practice tests to further test yourself and become familiar with the format of the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test. When Should I Start Studying? It is never too early to start studying for the SAT II: Chemistry test. The earlier you begin, the more time you will have to sharpen your skills. Do not procrastinate! Cramming is not an effective way to study, since it does not allow you the time needed to learn the test material. The sooner you learn the format of the exam, the more comfortable you will be when you take the exam. FORMAT OF THE SAT II: CHEMISTRY The SAT II: Chemistry is a one-hour exam consisting of 85 multiple-choice questions. The first part of the exam consists of classification questions. This question type presents a list of statements or questions that you must match up with a group of choices lettered (A) through (E). Each choice may be used once, more than once, or not at all. The exam then shifts to relationship analysis questions which you will answer in a specially numbered section of your answer sheet. You will have to determine if each of two statements is true or false and if the second statement is a correct explanation of the first. The last section is composed strictly of multiple-choice questions with choices lettered (A) through (E). Material Tested The following chart summarizes the distribution of topics covered on the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test. Topic / Percentage / Number of Questions Atomic & Molecular Structure / 25% / 21 questions States of Matter / 15% / 13 questions Reaction Types / 14% / 12 questions Stoichiometry / 12% / 10 questions Equilibrium & Reaction Times / 7% / 6 questions Thermodynamics / 6% / 5 questions Descriptive Chemistry / 13% / 11 questions Laboratory / 8% / 7 questions The questions on the SAT II: Chemistry are also grouped into three larger categories according to how they test your understanding of the subject material. Category / Definition / Approximate Percentage of Test 1) Factual Recall / Demonstrating a knowledge and understanding of important concepts and specific information / 20% 2) Application / Taking a specific principle and applying it to a practical situation / 45% 3) Integration / Inferring information and drawing conclusions from particular relationships / 35% STUDYING FOR THE SAT II: CHEMISTRY It is very important to choose the time and place for studying that works best for you. Some students may set aside a certain number of hours every morning to study, while others may choose to study at night before going to sleep. Other students may study during the day, while waiting on line, or even while eating lunch. Only you can determine when and where your study time will be most effective. Be consistent and use your time wisely. Work out a study routine and stick to it! When you take the practice tests, try to make your testing conditions as much like the actual test as possible. Turn your television and radio off, and sit down at a quiet desk or table free from distraction. Make sure to clock yourself with a timer. As you complete each practice test, score it and thoroughly review the explanations to the questions you answered incorrectly; however, do not review too much at any one time. Concentrate on one problem area at a time by reviewing the questions and explanations, and by studying our review until you are confident you completely understand the material. Keep track of your scores. By doing so, you will be able to gauge your progress and discover general weaknesses in particular sections. You should carefully study the reviews that cover your areas of difficulty, as this will build your skills in those areas. TEST TAKING TIPS Although you may be unfamiliar with standardized tests such as the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test, there are many ways to acquaint yourself with this type of examination and help alleviate your test-taking anxieties. Become comfortable with the format of the exam. When you are practicing to take the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test, simulate the conditions under which you will be taking the actual test. Stay calm and pace yourself. After simulating the test only a couple of times, you will boost your chances of doing well, and you will be able to sit down for the actual exam with much more confidence. Know the directions and format for each section of the test. Familiarizing yourself with the directions and format of the exam will not only save you time, but will also ensure that you are familiar enough with the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test to avoid nervousness (and the mistakes caused by being nervous). Do your scratchwork in the margins of the test booklet. You will not be given scrap paper during the exam, and you may not perform scratchwork on your answer sheet. Space is provided in your test booklet to do any necessary work or draw diagrams. If you are unsure of an answer, guess. However, if you do guess - guess wisely. Use the process of elimination by going through each answer to a question and ruling out as many of the answer choices as possible. By eliminating three answer choices, you give yourself a fifty-fifty chance of answering correctly since there will only be two choices left from which to make your guess. Mark your answers in the appropriate spaces on the answer sheet. Fill in the oval that corresponds to your answer darkly, completely, and neatly. You can change your answer, but remember to completely erase your old answer. Any stray lines or unnecessary marks may cause the machine to score your answer incorrectly. When you have finished working on a section, you may want to go back and check to make sure your answers correspond to the correct questions. Marking one answer in the wrong space will throw off the rest of your test, whether it is graded by machine or by hand. You don't have to answer every question. You are not penalized if you do not answer every question. The only penalty results from answering a question incorrectly. Try to use the guessing strategy, but if you are truly stumped by a question, remember that you do not have to answer it. Work quickly and steadily. You have a limited amount of time to work on each section, so you need to work quickly and steadily. Avoid focusing on one problem for too long. Before the Test Make sure you know where your test center is well in advance of your test day so you do not get lost on the day of the test. On the night before the test, gather together the materials you will need the next day: - Your admission ticket - Two forms of identification (e.g., driver's license, student identification card, or current alien registration card) - Two No. 2 pencils with erasers - Directions to the test center - A watch (if you wish) but not one that makes noise, as it may disturb other test-takers On the day of the test, you should wake up early (after a good night's rest) and have breakfast. Dress comfortably, so that you are not distracted by being too hot or too cold while taking the test. Also, plan to arrive at the test center early. This will allow you to collect your thoughts and relax before the test, and will also spare you the stress of being late. If you arrive after the test begins, you will not be admitted to the test center and you will not receive a refund. During the Test When you arrive at the test center, try to find a seat where you feel most comfortable. Follow all the rules and instructions given by the test supervisor. If you do not, you risk being dismissed from the test and having your scores canceled. Once all the test materials are passed out, the test instructor will give you directions for filling out your answer sheet. Fill this sheet out carefully since this information will appear on your score report. After the Test When you have completed the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test, you may hand in your test materials and leave. Then, go home and relax! When Will I Receive My Score Report and What Will It Look Like? You should receive your score report about five weeks after you take the test. This report will include your scores, percentile ranks, and interpretive information.