The Lights that Failed

European International History, 1919-1933

Author: Zara S. Steiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199226865

Category: History

Page: 938

View: 6418

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Challenging the common assumption that the Treaty of Versailles led to the opening of a second European war, this book provides an analysis of the attempts to reconstruct Europe during the 1920s. It examines the efforts that failed but also those which gave hope for future promise that are usually underestimated, if not ignored.

The Lights that Failed

European International History, 1919-1933

Author: Zara S. Steiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198221142

Category: History

Page: 938

View: 806

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In 'The Lights that Failed', Steiner challenges the assumption that the Treaty of Versailles led to the opening of a second European war and provides an analysis of the attempts to reconstruct Europe during the 1920s.

The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919-1933

Author: Susan P. Kemp

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191500526

Category: History

Page: 954

View: 7769

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In The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919-1933, part of the Oxford History of Modern Europe series, Steiner challenges the common assumption that the Treaty of Versailles led to the opening of a second European war and provides an analysis of the attempts to reconstruct Europe during the 1920s. She examines the efforts that failed but also those which gave hope for future promise that are usually underestimated, if not ignored. She also shows that a degree of stabilization was achieved even though it was fragile, incomplete, and did not last through the 1929-1933 period when nationalist remedies replaced international strategies on both the economic and political levels of European relations. A second volume, The Triumph of the Night, will examine the period from 1934 to 1941. - ;The peace treaties represented an almost impossible attempt to solve the problems caused by a murderous world war. In The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919-1933, part of the Oxford History of Modern Europe series, Steiner challenges the common assumption that the Treaty of Versailles led to the opening of a second European war. In a radically original way, this book characterizes the 1920s not as a frustrated prelude to a second global conflict but as a fascinating decade in its own right, when politicians and diplomats strove to re-assemble a viable European order. Steiner examines the efforts that failed but also those which gave hope for future promise, many of which are usually underestimated, if not ignored. She shows that an equilibrium was achieved, attained between a partial American withdrawal from Europe and the self-imposed constraints which the Soviet system imposed on exporting revolution. The stabilization painfully achieved in Europe reached it fragile limits after 1925, even prior to the financial crises that engulfed the continent. The hinge years between the great crash of 1929 and Hitler's achievement of power in 1933 devastatingly altered the balance between nationalism and internationalism. This wide-ranging study helps us grasp the decisive stages in this process. In a second volume, The Triumph of the Night , Steiner will examine the immediate lead up to the Second World War and its early years. - ;...indisputably the most detailed and authoritative single-volume account of European international history in the fifteen years following the end of the Frist World War...[this work] affirms Zara Steiner's status as the pre-eminent historian of inter-war international affairs. - Martin Conway, EHR 494;Zara Steiner has produced a splendid volume, chock full of detail and with many thought-provoking insights. It will remain a classic for many years to come. For those studying international business history it will serve as an excellent background reference manual to the period... If one were to ask for more it would be the second volume in the same vein. - Derek H. Aldcroft, Business History;Zara Steiner's work has ensured that we will have to treat that neglected decade [the 1920s] with proper respect. She has told the story with impeccable scholarship, clarity and compassion ... Her book will rightly become the definitive work on the period. - Margaret MacMillan, TLS;... impressive - David Stevenson, LRB;...majestic and authoritative volume...The Lights that Failed skillfully and judiciously deploys the fruits of extensive reading and long reflection ... Embedded in its comprehensive survey of the main protagonists and themes is a radical and fascinating argument... - Mark Mazower, BBC History;Any reader who wants to understand the inter-War period should consult this book and any serious student of the period should buy it. For there is simply nothing to compare with it in terms of erudition or exposition. Above all Zara Steiner ensures that we read history forward not backward. - The Independent;a dazzling account...This combination of human drama and a broad international perspective, shifting between western, eastern and Atlantic viewpoints, is a governing strength of the narrative, at once providing fascinating detail, balance, and vivid variety of pace and content. Steiner's long, wise view of international relations during the last epoch when western Europe confidently believed itself the centre of the world is compelling reading for anyone concerned with the continent's past - or future. - FT Magazine;...this is quite clearly a standard of work which is unique in the research landscape and will continue to hold this position for years to come. - Eckart Conze, German Historical Institute Bulletin, Vol. XXIX, No. 1

The Triumph of the Dark

European International History 1933-1939

Author: Zara Steiner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019161355X

Category: History

Page: 1248

View: 7839

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In this magisterial narrative, Zara Steiner traces the twisted road to war that began with Hitler's assumption of power in Germany. Covering a wide geographical canvas, from America to the Far East, Steiner provides an indispensable reassessment of the most disputed events of these tumultuous years. Steiner underlines the far-reaching consequences of the Great Depression, which shifted the initiative in international affairs from those who upheld the status quo to those who were intent on destroying it. In Europe, the l930s were Hitler's years. He moved the major chess pieces on the board, forcing the others to respond. From the start, Steiner argues, he intended war, and he repeatedly gambled on Germany's future to acquire the necessary resources to fulfil his continental ambitions. Only war could have stopped him-an unwelcome message for most of Europe. Misperception, miscomprehension, and misjudgment on the part of the other Great Powers leaders opened the way for Hitler's repeated diplomatic successes. It is ideology that distinguished the Hitler era from previous struggles for the mastery of Europe. Ideological presumptions created false images and raised barriers to understanding that even good intelligence could not penetrate. Only when the leaders of Britain and France realized the scale of Hitler's ambition, and the challenge Germany posed to their Great Power status, did they finally declare war.

The Origins of the First World War

Author: James Joll,Gordon Martel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317875362

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 5318

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James Joll's study is not simply another narrative, retracing the powder trail that was finally ignited at Sarajevo. It is an ambitious and wide-ranging analysis of the historical forces at work in the Europe of 1914, and the very different ways in which historians have subsequently attempted to understand them. The importance of the theme, the breadth and sympathy of James Joll's scholarship, and the clarity of his exposition, have all contributed to the spectacular success of the book since its first appearance in 1984. Revised by Gordon Martel, this new 3rd edition accommodates recent research and an expanded further reading section.

Britain and the Origins of the First World War

Author: Zara S. Steiner,Keith Neilson

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 0230213014

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 8391

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How and why did Britain become involved in the First World War? Taking into account the scholarship of the last twenty-five years, this second edition of Zara S. Steiner's classic study, thoroughly revised with Keith Neilson, explores a subject which is as highly contentious as ever. While retaining the basic argument that Britain went to war in 1914 not as a result of internal pressures but as a response to external events, Steiner and Neilson reject recent arguments that Britain became involved because of fears of an 'invented' German menace, or to defend her Empire. Instead, placing greater emphasis than before on the role of Russia, the authors convincingly argue that Britain entered the war in order to preserve the European balance of power and the nation's favourable position within it. Lucid and comprehensive, Britain and the Origins of the First World War brings together the bureaucratic, diplomatic, economic, strategical and ideological factors that led to Britain's entry into the Great War, and remains the most complete survey of the pre-war situation.

The Great War and American Foreign Policy, 1914-24

Author: Robert E. Hannigan

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812293282

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 6350

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World War I constituted a milestone in the development of the United States as a world power. As the European powers exhausted themselves during the conflict, the U.S. government deployed its growing economic leverage, its military might, and its diplomacy to shape the outcome of the war and to influence the future of international relations. In The Great War and American Foreign Policy, 1914-1924, Robert E. Hannigan challenges the conventional belief that the United States entered World War I only because its hand was forced, and he disputes the claim that Washington was subsequently driven by a desire to make the world "safe for democracy." Democratic President Woodrow Wilson's rhetoric emphasized peace, self-determination, and international cooperation. But his foreign policy, Hannigan claims, is better understood if analyzed against the backdrop of American policy—not only toward Europe, but also toward East Asia and the rest of the western hemisphere—as it had been developing since the turn of the twentieth century. On the broadest level, Wilson sought to shore up and stabilize an international order promoted and presided over by London since the early 1800s, this in the conviction that under such conditions the United States would inevitably ascend to a global position comparable to, if not eclipsing, that of Great Britain. Hannigan argues, moreover, that these fundamental objectives continued to guide Wilson's Republican successors in their efforts to stabilize the postwar world. The book reexamines the years when the United States was ostensibly neutral (1914-17), the subsequent period of American military involvement (1917-18), the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the ensuing battle for ratification of the Treaty of Versailles (in 1919-20), and the activities of Wilson's successors—culminating with the Dawes Plan of 1924.

The Internationalists

How a Radical Plan to Outlaw War Remade the World

Author: Oona A. Hathaway,Scott J. Shapiro

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501109863

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 9972

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"The Internationalists tells the story of the Peace Pact by placing it in the long history of international law from the seventeenth century through the present, tracing this rich history through a fascinating and diverse array of lawyers, politicians and intellectuals--Hugo Grotius, Nishi Amane, Salmon Levinson, James Shotwell, Sumner Welles, Carl Schmitt, Hersch Lauterpacht, and Sayyid Qutb. It tells of a centuries-long struggle of ideas over the role of war in a just world order. It details the brutal world of conflict the Peace Pact helped extinguish, and the subsequent era where tariffs and sanctions take the place of tanks and gunships." --Amazon.

Cry Havoc

The Arms Race and the Second World War, 1931-41

Author: Joe Maiolo

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1848543816

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 4715

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The arms race, on the run up to the Second World War, followed the faultless logic of paranoia. Before the First World War, the Great Powers measured the strength of their rivals by comparing the size of armies and navies, and the money spent on them. Afterwards, having learned the lessons of 'total war', they looked at the capacity of nations to mobilise their economies and populations for war. Deep planning, they realised, was necessary to prepare for potential conflicts; but with this attitude came a sense that society might need to be in a state of perpetual readiness for conflict, and a potential openness to totalitarian levels of state control in ensuring that readiness. In Cry Havoc Joe Maiolo shows, in rich and fascinating detail, how the arms race between the Great Powers developed. Where previous histories have looked at how individual nations responded to the challenges of the time, Maiolo reveals the full complexity of the arms race by looking at competition between nations, at how nations reacted to the moves of their rivals. Maiolo provides a vivid portrait of the thinking of those making the key decisions - of the thinking of Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain, Stalin, Roosevelt - and reveals the full extent of the dilemmas confronted by the leaders of the western democracies, who seemed at times to be faced with a choice between defending their nations and preserving the essential democratic nature of the societies they sought to defend. Cry Havoc is an absorbing account of a time of extreme tensions, showing how the deadly game of the arms race led, ultimately, to an unleashing of the dogs of war.

The Economic Consequences of the Peace

The classic text on the Treaty of Versailles and post war Europe

Author: John Maynard Keynes

Publisher: Harriman House Limited

ISBN: 0857190113

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 174

View: 8034

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An attendee at the ill-fated Versailles Conference, John Maynard Keynes had a front-row seat for the negotiations that would squander a peace and sew discord across a continent. One of his best-written works, 'The Economic Consequences of the Peace' was key in propelling Keynes to prominence. Published in 1919, it gained notoriety owing to its withering portraits of both French premier Georges Clemenceau and US president Woodrow Wilson. A best seller throughout the world, it was instrumental in creating the perception of the Germans as unfairly treated after the First World War. This in turn was crucial in prompting public support for appeasement, so that both the Treaty - and his eloquent criticisms of it - form a key part of the background to both World Wars I and II.

A History of Medieval Europe

From Constantine to Saint Louis

Author: R.H.C. Davis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317867890

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 7289

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R.C. Davis provided the classic account of the European medieval world; equipping generations of undergraduate and ‘A’ level students with sufficient grasp of the period to debate diverse historical perspectives and reputations. His book has been important grounding for both modernists required to take a course in medieval history, and those who seek to specialise in the medieval period. In updating this classic work to a third edition, the additional author now enables students to see history in action; the diverse viewpoints and important research that has been undertaken since Davis’ second edition, and progressed historical understanding. Each of Davis original chapters now concludes with a ‘new directions and developments’ section by Professor RI Moore, Emeritus of Newcastle University. A key work updated in a method that both enhances subject understanding and sets important research in its wider context. A vital resource, now up-to-date for generations of historians to come.

Return to Diversity

A Political History of East Central Europe Since World War II

Author: Joseph Rothschild,Nancy Meriwether Wingfield

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195119930

Category: History

Page: 338

View: 4918

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This highly acclaimed book offers a complete political history of East Central Europe from World War II to the present. Return to Diversity, now in its third edition, introduces a new co-author, Nancy M. Wingfield, and has been fully updated to cover events up through the 1990s. It includes an account and analysis of the developments in post-communist regimes throughout the region, addressing the transformation of each country during the first post-communist decade. It discusses coalitionpolitics, ethnic discord, and issues of democratic development. This new edition features additional maps and extensively revised reading lists to reflect the most current scholarship in the field. Unsurpassed in scope, in depth of analysis, and in fairness and objectivity, Return to Diversity is an invaluable resource for students of this regions history and politics.

Hall of Mirrors

The Great Depression, the Great Recession, and the Uses-And Misuses-of History

Author: Barry Eichengreen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190621079

Category:

Page: 520

View: 1944

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"A brilliantly conceived dual-track account of the two greatest economic crises of the last century and their consequences"--

Securing the World Economy

The Reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920-1946

Author: Patricia Clavin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199577935

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 400

View: 7327

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The first study of the League of Nations' work in promoting economic and financial co-operation in the wake of the Great Depression, and the first major account of the League's relationship with the USA in the 1930s and 1940s.

The Dark Valley

Author: Piers Brendon

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1446496325

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 752

View: 2267

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Piers Brendon's magisterial overview of the 1930s is the story of the dark, dishonest decade - child of one world war and parent of the next - that determined the course of the twentieth century. Dealing individually with each of the period's great powers - the USA, Germany, Italy, France, Britain, Japan, Spain and Russia - Brendon takes us through the ten years dominated by the Great Depression and political turmoil. When Broadway, Piccadilly Circus, the Kurfurstendamm and the Ginza - neon metaphors of hope after four years of carnage - grew dim as the giants of unemployment, hardship, strife and fear took their hold. From the concentration camps of Dachau and Kolyma, the Ukraine famine and the American Dust Bowl, to the Moscow metro, the Empire State Building and the Paris Exposition, The Dark Valley brings the 1930's back to life through meticulous scholarship. Brendon examines the great leaders - Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini, Mao Tse-Tung, Haile Selassie and countless others - not with hindsight but in the context of their age; but also, through a vivid chronicling of contemporary experience, he gives us a sense of what it was to be living then.

International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond

Author: Antony Best,Jussi Hanhimaki,Joseph A. Maiolo,Kirsten E. Schulze

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134070810

Category: History

Page: 640

View: 4460

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This major global history of the twentieth century is written by four prominent international historians for first-year undergraduate level and upward. Using their thematic and regional expertise, the authors cover events in Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the Americas from the last century and beyond. Among the areas this book covers are: the decline of European hegemony over the international order the diffusion of power to the two superpowers the rise of newly independent states in Asia and Africa the course and consequences of the major global conflicts of the twentieth century. This second edition is thoroughly updated, and includes extended coverage of European integration, the rise of supra-governmental organizations, and the ‘global War on Terror'. A support website provides supplementary exercises, questions and tutor guidance.

Barbarism and Civilization

A History of Europe in our Time

Author: Bernard Wasserstein

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191622516

Category: History

Page: 928

View: 1109

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The twentieth century in Europe witnessed some of the most brutish episodes in history. Yet it also saw incontestable improvements in the conditions of existence for most inhabitants of the continent - from rising living standards and dramatically increased life expectancy, to the virtual elimination of illiteracy, and the advance of women, ethnic minorities, and homosexuals to greater equality of respect and opportunity. It was a century of barbarism and civilization, of cruelty and tenderness, of technological achievement and environmental spoliation, of imperial expansion and withdrawal, of authoritarian repression - and of individualism resurgent. Covering everything from war and politics to social, cultural, and economic change, Barbarism and Civilization is by turns grim, humorous, surprising, and enlightening: a window on the century we have left behind and the earliest years of its troubled successor.

The Origins of World War Two

The Debate Continues

Author: Robert Boyce,Joseph A. Maiolo

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1403937389

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 4370

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No issue in modern history has been more intensively studied, or subject to wider interpretation, than the origins of the Second World War. A conflict involving three - arguably four - major aggressor Powers, operating simultaneously but largely separately on two continents, inevitably raises complex theories and debates. Each participating power has its own history, and each one must take account of various influences upon the behaviour of its soldiers and statesmen. His wide-ranging collection of original essays, each by an international expert in their field, covers all aspects of the subject and highlights the controversy that continues to characterise current thinking on the origins of the war. Going beyond the usual Eurocentric approach, Part I examines the roles of all seven of the Great Powers (including Japan and the USA), as well as the parts played by several of the lesser Powers, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland and China. Part II contains chapters which explore key themes that cannot be fully understood within the context of any single country. These themes include the role of ideology, propaganda, intelligence, armaments, economics, diplomacy, the neutral states, peace movements, and the social science approach to war. Written in clear, jargon-free prose, together these essays provide a comprehensive single-volume text for students and teachers, and are essential reading for all with an interest in the debates surrounding the causes of World War Two.

The Treaty of Versailles

A Reassessment After 75 Years

Author: Manfred F. Boemeke,Gerald D. Feldman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521621328

Category: History

Page: 674

View: 6459

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This book on the Treaty of Versailles constitutes a new synthesis of peace conference scholarship. It illuminates events from the armistice in 1918 to the signing of the treaty in 1919, and scrutinizes the motives, actions, and constraints that informed decision making by the French, American, and English politicians who bore the principal responsibility for drafting the peace settlement. It also addresses German reactions to the draft treaty and the final agreement. A detailed examination of the proceedings from the point of view of the main protagonists forms the core of the investigation.