The Formation and Early Evolution of Stars

From Dust to Stars and Planets

Author: Norbert S. Schulz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642239269

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 9164

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Starburst regions in nearby and distant galaxies have a profound impact on our understanding of the early universe. This new, substantially updated and extended edition of Norbert Schulz’s unique book "From Dust to Stars" describes complex physical processes involved in the creation and early evolution of stars. It illustrates how these processes reveal themselves from radio wavelengths to high energy X-rays and gamma–rays, with special reference towards high energy signatures. Several sections devoted to key analysis techniques demonstrate how modern research in this field is pursued and new chapters are introduced on massive star formation, proto-planetary disks and observations of young exoplanets. Recent advances and contemporary research on the theory of star formation are explained, as are new observations, specifically from the three great observatories of the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory which all now operate at the same time and make high resolution space based observing in its prime. As indicated by the new title two new chapters have been included on proto-planetary disks and young exoplanets. Many more colour images illustrate attractive old and new topics that have evolved in recent years. The author gives updates in theory, fragmentation, dust, and circumstellar disks and emphasizes and strengthens the targeting of graduate students and young researchers, focusing more on computational approaches in this edition.

Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars

Author: Andre Maeder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540769498

Category: Science

Page: 832

View: 5684

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Rotation is ubiquitous at each step of stellar evolution, from star formation to the final stages, and it affects the course of evolution, the timescales and nucleosynthesis. Stellar rotation is also an essential prerequisite for the occurrence of Gamma-Ray Bursts. In this book the author thoroughly examines the basic mechanical and thermal effects of rotation, their influence on mass loss by stellar winds, the effects of differential rotation and its associated instabilities, the relation with magnetic fields and the evolution of the internal and surface rotation. Further, he discusses the numerous observational signatures of rotational effects obtained from spectroscopy and interferometric observations, as well as from chemical abundance determinations, helioseismology and asteroseismology, etc. On an introductory level, this book presents in a didactical way the basic concepts of stellar structure and evolution in "track 1" chapters. The other more specialized chapters form an advanced course on the graduate level and will further serve as a valuable reference work for professional astrophysicists.

Life as We Know It

Author: Joseph Seckbach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402044038

Category: Science

Page: 765

View: 789

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Life As we Know It covers several aspects of Life, ranging from the prebiotic level, origin of life, evolution of prokaryotes to eukaryotes and finally to various affairs of human beings. Although Life is hard to define, one can characterize it and describe its features. The information presented here on the various phenomena of Life were all written by highly qualified authors including scientists, a professional athlete and three Nobel Laureates.

Protostars and Planets V

Author: Bo Reipurth,David Jewitt,Klaus Keil

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816526543

Category: Science

Page: 951

View: 8211

DOWNLOAD NOW »

'Protostars and Planets V' builds on the latest results from recent advances in ground and space-based astronomy and in numerical computing techniques to offer the most detailed and up-to-date picture of star and planet formation - including the formation and early evolution of our own solar system.

Planetary Science

The Science of Planets Around Stars

Author: George H. A. Cole,Michael M. Woolfson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750308151

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 1566

DOWNLOAD NOW »

There are many planetary systems other than our own, but it is only through a detailed understanding of the relatively accessible bodies in our solar system that a thorough appreciation of planetary science can be gained. This is particularly pertinent with the recent discovery of extra-solar planets and the desire to understand their formation and the prospect of life on other worlds. Planetary Science: The Science of Planets Around Stars focuses on the structure of planets and the stars they orbit and the interactions between them. The book is written in two parts, making it suitable for students at different levels and approaching planetary science from differing backgrounds. Twelve independent descriptive chapters reveal our solar system and the diverse bodies it contains, including satellites, planetary rings, asteroids, comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust. These chapters are accompanied by 42 detailed topics that discuss specialized subjects in a quantitative manner and will be essential reading for those in higher level courses. Coverage includes mineralogy, stellar formation and evolution, solar system dynamics, atmospheric physics, planetary interiors, thermodynamics, planetary astrophysics, and exobiology. Problems and answers are also included. Planetary Science: The Science of Planets Around Stars presents a complete overview of planetary science for students of physics, astronomy, astrophysics, earth sciences, and geophysics. Assuming no prior knowledge of astrophysics or geophysics, this book is suitable for students studying planetary science for the first time.

Planetary Systems

Detection, Formation and Habitability of Extrasolar Planets

Author: Marc Ollivier,Therese Encrenaz,Francoise Roques,Franck Selsis,Fabienne Casoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540757481

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 4699

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Over the past ten years, the discovery of extrasolar planets has opened a new field of astronomy, and this area of research is rapidly growing, from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The presence of many giant exoplanets in the close vicinity of their star shows that these newly discovered planetary systems are very different from the solar system. New theoretical models are being developed in order to understand their formation scenarios, and new observational methods are being implemented to increase the sensitivity of exoplanet detections. In the present book, the authors address the question of planetary systems from all aspects. Starting from the facts (the detection of more than 300 extraterrestrial planets), they first describe the various methods used for these discoveries and propose a synthetic analysis of their global properties. They then consider the observations of young stars and circumstellar disks and address the case of the solar system as a specific example, different from the newly discovered systems. Then the study of planetary systems and of exoplanets is presented from a more theoretical point of view. The book ends with an outlook to future astronomical projects, and a description of the search for life on exoplanets. This book addresses students and researchers who wish to better understand this newly expanding field of research.

Principles of Star Formation

Author: Peter Bodenheimer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642150630

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 3623

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Understanding star formation is one of the key fields in present-day astrophysics. This book treats a wide variety of the physical processes involved, as well as the main observational discoveries, with key points being discussed in detail. The current star formation in our galaxy is emphasized, because the most detailed observations are available for this case. The book presents a comparison of the various scenarios for star formation, discusses the basic physics underlying each one, and follows in detail the history of a star from its initial state in the interstellar gas to its becoming a condensed object in equilibrium. Both theoretical and observational evidence to support the validity of the general evolutionary path are presented, and methods for comparing the two are emphasized. The author is a recognized expert in calculations of the evolution of protostars, the structure and evolution of disks, and stellar evolution in general. This book will be of value to graduate students in astronomy and astrophysics as well as to active researchers in the field.

Accretion Processes in Star Formation

Author: Lee Hartmann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521785204

Category: Science

Page: 237

View: 6719

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This first comprehensive account of the dynamical processes in the formation of stars and disks from which planets ultimately form.

Astrophysics of Planet Formation

Author: Philip J. Armitage

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521887453

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 6297

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Graduate-level textbook providing a basic understanding of the astrophysical processes for readers in planetary science, and observational and theoretical astronomy.

Planetary Nebulae

A Study of Late Stages of Stellar Evolution

Author: Stuart R. Pottasch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027716729

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 4759

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The purpose of this book is to give a detailed description of the planetary nebulae including the relevant astronomical observations and their interpretation. Considerable attention is given to the evolution of these objects as well as to their physical characteristics. I t is hoped that the book be useful to both advanced research workers and to students with some background in astronomy. In this regard, the book should serve as a text as well as a reference work. The many tables included are expected to be useful for both purposes. The references are generally not included in the text except for historical purposes in an effort to improve readability. References are given at the end of each chapter together with sufficient text to describe their content. No attempt has been made to make the list of references complete; on the contrary it has generally been limited to the most recent literature on the subject which in turn refers to earlier research. Again, exceptions have been made for references of historical interest.

The Origin and Evolution of Planetary Nebulae

Author: Sun Kwok

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521039079

Category: Medical

Page: 260

View: 5160

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This authoritative volume provides a comprehensive review of the origin and evolution of planetary nebulae. It covers all the stages of their evolution, carefully synthesizes observations from across the spectrum, and clearly explains all the key physical processes at work. Particular emphasis is placed on observations from space, using the Hubble Space Telescope, the Infrared Space Observatory, and the ROSAT satellite. This book presents a thoroughly modern understanding of planetary nebulae, integrating developments in stellar physics with the dynamics of nebular evolution. It also describes exciting possibilities such as the use of planetary nebulae in determining the cosmic distance scale, the distribution of dark matter and the chemical evolution of galaxies. This book provides graduate students with an accessible introduction to planetary nebulae, and researchers with an authoritative reference. It can also be used as an advanced text on the physics of the interstellar medium.

Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

Author: Harm J. Habing,Hans Olofsson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475738765

Category: Science

Page: 562

View: 5267

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The underlying astrophysical mechanisms of the objects known as asymptotic giant branch stars - the structures that occur during the dramatic period prior to a star's death - is the main theme of this text. Over the past three decades, asymptotic giant branch stars have become a topic of their own, and the contributions to this volume all focus on these entities themselves, rather than their connections to other fields of astronomy. Among the many topics covered are new methods of high- quality infrared observation and the more detailed and realistic simulations made possible by increasingly fast computers. This collection should be useful to graduate students who work in the field, teachers who want to address the subject in their courses, and to astronomers from various backgrounds who are interested in the astrophysics of AGB stars.

An Introduction to Star Formation

Author: Derek Ward-Thompson,Anthony P. Whitworth

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139494473

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1746

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Guiding the reader through all the stages that lead to the formation of a star such as our Sun, this advanced textbook provides students with a complete overview of star formation. It examines the underlying physical processes that govern the evolution from a molecular cloud core to a main-sequence star, and focuses on the formation of solar-mass stars. Each chapter combines theory and observation, helping readers to connect with and understand the theory behind star formation. Beginning with an explanation of the interstellar medium and molecular clouds as sites of star formation, subsequent chapters address the building of typical stars and the formation of high-mass stars, concluding with a discussion of the by-products and consequences of star formation. This is a unique, self-contained text with sufficient background information for self-study, and is ideal for students and professional researchers alike.

Dust in the Galactic Environment, 2nd Edition

Author: D.C.B Whittet

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750306249

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 4769

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Dust is a ubiquitous feature of the cosmos, impinging directly or indirectly on most fields of modern astronomy and astrophysics. Dust in the Galactic Environment, Second Edition provides a thorough overview of the subject, covering general concepts, methods of investigation, important results and their significance, relevant literature, and some suggestions for promising avenues of future research. Since the publication of the first edition of this popular graduate text, major advances have been made in our understanding of astrophysical dust, especially in the light of exciting new results from space- and ground-based telescopes, together with advances in laboratory astrophysics and theoretical modeling. This new, expanded edition highlights the latest results and provides a context for future research opportunities. The first chapter provides a historical perspective for current research and an overview of interstellar environments and the role of dust in astrophysical processes, followed by a discussion of the cosmic history of the chemical elements expected to be present in dust and an examination of the effect of gas-dust interactions on gas phase abundances. The next several chapters describe the observed properties of interstellar grains, such as their extinction, polarization, absorption, and emission characteristics. Then, the book explores the origin and evolution of dust, tracing its life cycle in a succession of environments from circumstellar shells to diffuse interstellar clouds, molecular clouds, protostars, and protoplanetary disks. The final chapter summarizes progress toward a unified model. Dust in other galaxies is discussed as an integral part of the text rather than as a distinct topic requiring separate chapters. Containing extensive references and problems to aid understanding and illustrate basic principles, the book is ideally suited for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses. It will also be an invaluable reference for postgraduate students and researchers working in this important field.

Astrobiology: Future Perspectives

Author: P. Ehrenfreund,W.M. Irvine,Tobias Owen,Luann Becker,Jen Blank,J.R. Brucato,Luigi Colangeli,Sylvie Derenne,Anne Dutrey,Didier Despois,Antonio Lazcano,Francois Robert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402023057

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 7123

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space missions. Today’s rich array of new spacecraft, telescopes and dedicated scientists promises a steady flow of discoveries and insights that will ultimately lead us to the answers we seek.

B[e] Stars

Author: Anne Marie Hubert,Carlos Jaschek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792352082

Category: Science

Page: 289

View: 5501

DOWNLOAD NOW »

These proceedings provide a broad overview of the research carried out to date on B-type stars with forbidden emission lines and dusty envelopes. These objects may represent an important transition stage in the evolution of many early-type stars, but they have been little studied until now. The book brings together the information available on the distribution, absolute magnitude, spectra in all wavelength ranges, photometric properties and variability of these objects. Also discussed are the different theoretical models proposed for explaining the amazing variety of phenomena observed.

Physics of the Interstellar and Intergalactic Medium

Author: Bruce T. Draine

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400839087

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 4289

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This is a comprehensive and richly illustrated textbook on the astrophysics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium--the gas and dust, as well as the electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, and magnetic and gravitational fields, present between the stars in a galaxy and also between galaxies themselves. Topics include radiative processes across the electromagnetic spectrum; radiative transfer; ionization; heating and cooling; astrochemistry; interstellar dust; fluid dynamics, including ionization fronts and shock waves; cosmic rays; distribution and evolution of the interstellar medium; and star formation. While it is assumed that the reader has a background in undergraduate-level physics, including some prior exposure to atomic and molecular physics, statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism, the first six chapters of the book include a review of the basic physics that is used in later chapters. This graduate-level textbook includes references for further reading, and serves as an invaluable resource for working astrophysicists. Essential textbook on the physics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium Based on a course taught by the author for more than twenty years at Princeton University Covers radiative processes, fluid dynamics, cosmic rays, astrochemistry, interstellar dust, and more Discusses the physical state and distribution of the ionized, atomic, and molecular phases of the interstellar medium Reviews diagnostics using emission and absorption lines Features color illustrations and detailed reference materials in appendices Instructor's manual with problems and solutions (available only to teachers)

Encyclopedia of the Solar System

Author: Lucy-Ann McFadden,Torrence Johnson,Paul Weissman

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080474984

Category: Science

Page: 992

View: 5166

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Long before Galileo published his discoveries about Jupiter, lunar craters, and the Milky Way in the Starry Messenger in 1610, people were fascinated with the planets and stars around them. That interest continues today, and scientists are making new discoveries at an astounding rate. Ancient lake beds on Mars, robotic spacecraft missions, and new definitions of planets now dominate the news. How can you take it all in? Start with the new Encyclopedia of the Solar System, Second Edition. This self-contained reference follows the trail blazed by the bestselling first edition. It provides a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system, historical discoveries, and details about planetary bodies and how they interact—and has jumped light years ahead in terms of new information and visual impact. Offering more than 50% new material, the Encyclopedia includes the latest explorations and observations, hundreds of new color digital images and illustrations, and more than 1,000 pages. It stands alone as the definitive work in this field, and will serve as a modern messenger of scientific discovery and provide a look into the future of our solar system. · Forty-seven chapters from 75+ eminent authors review fundamental topics as well as new models, theories, and discussions · Each entry is detailed and scientifically rigorous, yet accessible to undergraduate students and amateur astronomers · More than 700 full-color digital images and diagrams from current space missions and observatories amplify the chapters · Thematic chapters provide up-to-date coverage, including a discussion on the new International Astronomical Union (IAU) vote on the definition of a planet · Information is easily accessible with numerous cross-references and a full glossary and index