The Formation and Early Evolution of Stars

From Dust to Stars and Planets

Author: Norbert S. Schulz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642239269

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 7401

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Starburst regions in nearby and distant galaxies have a profound impact on our understanding of the early universe. This new, substantially updated and extended edition of Norbert Schulz’s unique book "From Dust to Stars" describes complex physical processes involved in the creation and early evolution of stars. It illustrates how these processes reveal themselves from radio wavelengths to high energy X-rays and gamma–rays, with special reference towards high energy signatures. Several sections devoted to key analysis techniques demonstrate how modern research in this field is pursued and new chapters are introduced on massive star formation, proto-planetary disks and observations of young exoplanets. Recent advances and contemporary research on the theory of star formation are explained, as are new observations, specifically from the three great observatories of the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory which all now operate at the same time and make high resolution space based observing in its prime. As indicated by the new title two new chapters have been included on proto-planetary disks and young exoplanets. Many more colour images illustrate attractive old and new topics that have evolved in recent years. The author gives updates in theory, fragmentation, dust, and circumstellar disks and emphasizes and strengthens the targeting of graduate students and young researchers, focusing more on computational approaches in this edition.

The Birth of Stars and Planets

Author: John Bally,Bo Reipurth

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521801058

Category: Nature

Page: 295

View: 6666

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A beautifully illustrated description of recent developments in our understanding of star and planet formation.

From Dust to Life

The Origin and Evolution of Our Solar System

Author: John Chambers,Jacqueline Mitton

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400885566

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 1317

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The birth and evolution of our solar system is a tantalizing mystery that may one day provide answers to the question of human origins. From Dust to Life tells the remarkable story of how the celestial objects that make up the solar system arose from common beginnings billions of years ago, and how scientists and philosophers have sought to unravel this mystery down through the centuries, piecing together the clues that enabled them to deduce the solar system's layout, its age, and the most likely way it formed. Drawing on the history of astronomy and the latest findings in astrophysics and the planetary sciences, John Chambers and Jacqueline Mitton offer the most up-to-date and authoritative treatment of the subject available. They examine how the evolving universe set the stage for the appearance of our Sun, and how the nebulous cloud of gas and dust that accompanied the young Sun eventually became the planets, comets, moons, and asteroids that exist today. They explore how each of the planets acquired its unique characteristics, why some are rocky and others gaseous, and why one planet in particular--our Earth--provided an almost perfect haven for the emergence of life. From Dust to Life is a must-read for anyone who desires to know more about how the solar system came to be. This enticing book takes readers to the very frontiers of modern research, engaging with the latest controversies and debates. It reveals how ongoing discoveries of far-distant extrasolar planets and planetary systems are transforming our understanding of our own solar system's astonishing history and its possible fate.

Interplanetary Dust

Author: Eberhard Grün,Bo A.S. Gustafson,Stan. Dermott,Hugo Fechtig

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642564283

Category: Science

Page: 804

View: 1301

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An excellent handbook on the physics of interplanetary dust, a topic of interest not only to astronomers and space scientists but also to engineers. The following topics are covered in the book: historical perspectives; cometary dust; near-Earth environment; meteoroids and meteors; properties of interplanetary dust, information from collected samples; in situ measurements of cosmic dust; numerical modeling of the Zodiacal Cloud structure; synthesis of observations; instrumentation; physical processes; optical properties of interplanetary dust; orbital evolution of interplanetary dust; circumplanetary dust, observations and simple physics; interstellar dust and circumstellar dust disks. No doubt, the text will be regarded as the standard reference on interplanetary dust for many years to come.

Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars

Author: Andre Maeder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540769498

Category: Science

Page: 832

View: 7820

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Rotation is ubiquitous at each step of stellar evolution, from star formation to the final stages, and it affects the course of evolution, the timescales and nucleosynthesis. Stellar rotation is also an essential prerequisite for the occurrence of Gamma-Ray Bursts. In this book the author thoroughly examines the basic mechanical and thermal effects of rotation, their influence on mass loss by stellar winds, the effects of differential rotation and its associated instabilities, the relation with magnetic fields and the evolution of the internal and surface rotation. Further, he discusses the numerous observational signatures of rotational effects obtained from spectroscopy and interferometric observations, as well as from chemical abundance determinations, helioseismology and asteroseismology, etc. On an introductory level, this book presents in a didactical way the basic concepts of stellar structure and evolution in "track 1" chapters. The other more specialized chapters form an advanced course on the graduate level and will further serve as a valuable reference work for professional astrophysicists.

Astrophysics of Planet Formation

Author: Philip J. Armitage

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521887453

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 9974

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Graduate-level textbook providing a basic understanding of the astrophysical processes for readers in planetary science, and observational and theoretical astronomy.

Protostars and Planets V

Author: Bo Reipurth,David Jewitt,Klaus Keil

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816526543

Category: Science

Page: 951

View: 4737

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'Protostars and Planets V' builds on the latest results from recent advances in ground and space-based astronomy and in numerical computing techniques to offer the most detailed and up-to-date picture of star and planet formation - including the formation and early evolution of our own solar system.

Life as We Know It

Author: Joseph Seckbach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402044038

Category: Science

Page: 765

View: 8034

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Life As we Know It covers several aspects of Life, ranging from the prebiotic level, origin of life, evolution of prokaryotes to eukaryotes and finally to various affairs of human beings. Although Life is hard to define, one can characterize it and describe its features. The information presented here on the various phenomena of Life were all written by highly qualified authors including scientists, a professional athlete and three Nobel Laureates.

Planetary Science

The Science of Planets Around Stars

Author: George H. A. Cole,Michael M. Woolfson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750308151

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 684

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There are many planetary systems other than our own, but it is only through a detailed understanding of the relatively accessible bodies in our solar system that a thorough appreciation of planetary science can be gained. This is particularly pertinent with the recent discovery of extra-solar planets and the desire to understand their formation and the prospect of life on other worlds. Planetary Science: The Science of Planets Around Stars focuses on the structure of planets and the stars they orbit and the interactions between them. The book is written in two parts, making it suitable for students at different levels and approaching planetary science from differing backgrounds. Twelve independent descriptive chapters reveal our solar system and the diverse bodies it contains, including satellites, planetary rings, asteroids, comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust. These chapters are accompanied by 42 detailed topics that discuss specialized subjects in a quantitative manner and will be essential reading for those in higher level courses. Coverage includes mineralogy, stellar formation and evolution, solar system dynamics, atmospheric physics, planetary interiors, thermodynamics, planetary astrophysics, and exobiology. Problems and answers are also included. Planetary Science: The Science of Planets Around Stars presents a complete overview of planetary science for students of physics, astronomy, astrophysics, earth sciences, and geophysics. Assuming no prior knowledge of astrophysics or geophysics, this book is suitable for students studying planetary science for the first time.

Planetary Systems

Detection, Formation and Habitability of Extrasolar Planets

Author: Marc Ollivier,Therese Encrenaz,Francoise Roques,Franck Selsis,Fabienne Casoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540757481

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 5761

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Over the past ten years, the discovery of extrasolar planets has opened a new field of astronomy, and this area of research is rapidly growing, from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The presence of many giant exoplanets in the close vicinity of their star shows that these newly discovered planetary systems are very different from the solar system. New theoretical models are being developed in order to understand their formation scenarios, and new observational methods are being implemented to increase the sensitivity of exoplanet detections. In the present book, the authors address the question of planetary systems from all aspects. Starting from the facts (the detection of more than 300 extraterrestrial planets), they first describe the various methods used for these discoveries and propose a synthetic analysis of their global properties. They then consider the observations of young stars and circumstellar disks and address the case of the solar system as a specific example, different from the newly discovered systems. Then the study of planetary systems and of exoplanets is presented from a more theoretical point of view. The book ends with an outlook to future astronomical projects, and a description of the search for life on exoplanets. This book addresses students and researchers who wish to better understand this newly expanding field of research.

Physics of the Interstellar and Intergalactic Medium

Author: Bruce T. Draine

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400839087

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 9384

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This is a comprehensive and richly illustrated textbook on the astrophysics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium--the gas and dust, as well as the electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, and magnetic and gravitational fields, present between the stars in a galaxy and also between galaxies themselves. Topics include radiative processes across the electromagnetic spectrum; radiative transfer; ionization; heating and cooling; astrochemistry; interstellar dust; fluid dynamics, including ionization fronts and shock waves; cosmic rays; distribution and evolution of the interstellar medium; and star formation. While it is assumed that the reader has a background in undergraduate-level physics, including some prior exposure to atomic and molecular physics, statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism, the first six chapters of the book include a review of the basic physics that is used in later chapters. This graduate-level textbook includes references for further reading, and serves as an invaluable resource for working astrophysicists. Essential textbook on the physics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium Based on a course taught by the author for more than twenty years at Princeton University Covers radiative processes, fluid dynamics, cosmic rays, astrochemistry, interstellar dust, and more Discusses the physical state and distribution of the ionized, atomic, and molecular phases of the interstellar medium Reviews diagnostics using emission and absorption lines Features color illustrations and detailed reference materials in appendices Instructor's manual with problems and solutions (available only to teachers)

Protostars and Planets VI

Author: Henrik Beuther,Ralf S. Klessen,Cornelis Petrus Dullemond,Thomas K. Henning

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816531242

Category: Science

Page: 944

View: 6147

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"This volume integrates the cross-disciplinary aspects of this broad field. Covering a wide range of scales, from the formation of large clouds in our Milky Way galaxy down to small chondrules in our solar system, it takes an encompassing view with the goal of highlighting what we know and emphasizing the frontiers of what we do not know"--

Principles of Star Formation

Author: Peter Bodenheimer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642150630

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 1575

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Understanding star formation is one of the key fields in present-day astrophysics. This book treats a wide variety of the physical processes involved, as well as the main observational discoveries, with key points being discussed in detail. The current star formation in our galaxy is emphasized, because the most detailed observations are available for this case. The book presents a comparison of the various scenarios for star formation, discusses the basic physics underlying each one, and follows in detail the history of a star from its initial state in the interstellar gas to its becoming a condensed object in equilibrium. Both theoretical and observational evidence to support the validity of the general evolutionary path are presented, and methods for comparing the two are emphasized. The author is a recognized expert in calculations of the evolution of protostars, the structure and evolution of disks, and stellar evolution in general. This book will be of value to graduate students in astronomy and astrophysics as well as to active researchers in the field.

Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

Author: Harm J. Habing,Hans Olofsson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475738765

Category: Science

Page: 562

View: 4053

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The underlying astrophysical mechanisms of the objects known as asymptotic giant branch stars - the structures that occur during the dramatic period prior to a star's death - is the main theme of this text. Over the past three decades, asymptotic giant branch stars have become a topic of their own, and the contributions to this volume all focus on these entities themselves, rather than their connections to other fields of astronomy. Among the many topics covered are new methods of high- quality infrared observation and the more detailed and realistic simulations made possible by increasingly fast computers. This collection should be useful to graduate students who work in the field, teachers who want to address the subject in their courses, and to astronomers from various backgrounds who are interested in the astrophysics of AGB stars.

Accretion Processes in Star Formation

Author: Lee Hartmann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521785204

Category: Science

Page: 237

View: 6426

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This first comprehensive account of the dynamical processes in the formation of stars and disks from which planets ultimately form.

Formation Of The Solar System, The: Theories Old And New (2nd Edition)

Author: Woolfson Michael Mark

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1783265248

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 2047

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This fully-updated second edition remains the only truly detailed exploration of the origins of our Solar System, written by an authority in the field. Unlike other authors, Michael Woolfson focuses on the formation of the solar system, engaging the reader in an intelligent yet accessible discussion of the development of ideas about how the Solar System formed from ancient times to the present.Within the last five decades new observations and new theoretical advances have transformed the way scientists think about the problem of finding a plausible theory. Spacecraft and landers have explored the planets of the Solar System, observations have been made of Solar-System bodies outside the region of the planets and planets have been detected and observed around many solar-type stars. This new edition brings in the most recent discoveries, including the establishment of dwarf planets and challenges to the ‘standard model’ of planet formation — the Solar Nebula Theory.While presenting the most up-to-date material and the underlying science of the theories described, the book avoids technical jargon and terminology. It thus remains a digestible read for the non-expert interested reader, whilst being detailed and comprehensive enough to be used as an undergraduate physics and astronomy textbook, where the formation of the solar system is a key part of the course.Michael Woolfson is Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at University of York and is an award-winning crystallographer and astronomer.

The Origin and Evolution of Planetary Nebulae

Author: Sun Kwok

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521039079

Category: Medical

Page: 260

View: 8497

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This authoritative volume provides a comprehensive review of the origin and evolution of planetary nebulae. It covers all the stages of their evolution, carefully synthesizes observations from across the spectrum, and clearly explains all the key physical processes at work. Particular emphasis is placed on observations from space, using the Hubble Space Telescope, the Infrared Space Observatory, and the ROSAT satellite. This book presents a thoroughly modern understanding of planetary nebulae, integrating developments in stellar physics with the dynamics of nebular evolution. It also describes exciting possibilities such as the use of planetary nebulae in determining the cosmic distance scale, the distribution of dark matter and the chemical evolution of galaxies. This book provides graduate students with an accessible introduction to planetary nebulae, and researchers with an authoritative reference. It can also be used as an advanced text on the physics of the interstellar medium.

Secular Evolution of Galaxies

Author: Jesús Falcón-Barroso,Johan H. Knapen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107035279

Category: Science

Page: 638

View: 8404

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Graduate-level text on galaxy evolution, one of the most popular research topics in astrophysics, with chapters contributed by leading astronomers.

Planetary Nebulae

A Study of Late Stages of Stellar Evolution

Author: Stuart R. Pottasch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027716729

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 9009

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The purpose of this book is to give a detailed description of the planetary nebulae including the relevant astronomical observations and their interpretation. Considerable attention is given to the evolution of these objects as well as to their physical characteristics. I t is hoped that the book be useful to both advanced research workers and to students with some background in astronomy. In this regard, the book should serve as a text as well as a reference work. The many tables included are expected to be useful for both purposes. The references are generally not included in the text except for historical purposes in an effort to improve readability. References are given at the end of each chapter together with sufficient text to describe their content. No attempt has been made to make the list of references complete; on the contrary it has generally been limited to the most recent literature on the subject which in turn refers to earlier research. Again, exceptions have been made for references of historical interest.

Dust in the Galactic Environment, 2nd Edition

Author: D.C.B Whittet

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750306249

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 1000

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Dust is a ubiquitous feature of the cosmos, impinging directly or indirectly on most fields of modern astronomy and astrophysics. Dust in the Galactic Environment, Second Edition provides a thorough overview of the subject, covering general concepts, methods of investigation, important results and their significance, relevant literature, and some suggestions for promising avenues of future research. Since the publication of the first edition of this popular graduate text, major advances have been made in our understanding of astrophysical dust, especially in the light of exciting new results from space- and ground-based telescopes, together with advances in laboratory astrophysics and theoretical modeling. This new, expanded edition highlights the latest results and provides a context for future research opportunities. The first chapter provides a historical perspective for current research and an overview of interstellar environments and the role of dust in astrophysical processes, followed by a discussion of the cosmic history of the chemical elements expected to be present in dust and an examination of the effect of gas-dust interactions on gas phase abundances. The next several chapters describe the observed properties of interstellar grains, such as their extinction, polarization, absorption, and emission characteristics. Then, the book explores the origin and evolution of dust, tracing its life cycle in a succession of environments from circumstellar shells to diffuse interstellar clouds, molecular clouds, protostars, and protoplanetary disks. The final chapter summarizes progress toward a unified model. Dust in other galaxies is discussed as an integral part of the text rather than as a distinct topic requiring separate chapters. Containing extensive references and problems to aid understanding and illustrate basic principles, the book is ideally suited for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses. It will also be an invaluable reference for postgraduate students and researchers working in this important field.