The Epistemological Skyhook

Determinism, Naturalism, and Self-Defeat

Author: Jim Slagle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317230078

Category: Philosophy

Page: 266

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Throughout philosophical history, there has been a recurring argument to the effect that determinism, naturalism, or both are self-referentially incoherent. By accepting determinism or naturalism, one allegedly acquires a reason to reject determinism or naturalism. The Epistemological Skyhook brings together, for the first time, the principal expressions of this argument, focusing primarily on the last 150 years. This book addresses the versions of this argument as presented by Arthur Lovejoy, A.E. Taylor, Kurt Gödel, C.S. Lewis, Norman Malcolm, Karl Popper, J.R. Lucas, William Hasker, Thomas Nagel, Alvin Plantinga, and others, along with the objections presented by their many detractors. It concludes by presenting a new version of the argument that synthesizes the best aspects of the others while also rendering the argument immune to some of the most significant objections made to it.

Time and the Philosophy of Action

Author: Roman Altshuler,Michael J. Sigrist

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317819470

Category: Philosophy

Page: 290

View: 6715

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Although scholarship in philosophy of action has grown in recent years, there has been little work explicitly dealing with the role of time in agency, a role with great significance for the study of action. As the articles in this collection demonstrate, virtually every fundamental issue in the philosophy of action involves considerations of time. The four sections of this volume address the metaphysics of action, diachronic practical rationality, the relation between deliberation and action, and the phenomenology of agency, providing an overview of the central developments in each area with an emphasis on the role of temporality. Including contributions by established, rising, and new voices in the field, Time and the Philosophy of Action brings analytic work in philosophy of action together with contributions from continental philosophy and cognitive science to elaborate the central thesis that agency not only develops in time but is shaped by it at every level.

Self-Reflection for the Opaque Mind

An Essay in Neo-Sellarsian Philosophy

Author: T. Parent

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317210964

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

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This volume attempts to solve a grave problem about critical self-reflection. The worry is that we critical thinkers are all in "epistemic bad faith" in light of what psychology tells us. After all, the research shows not merely that we are bad at detecting "ego-threatening" thoughts à la Freud. It also indicates that we are ignorant of even our ordinary thoughts—e.g., reasons for our moral judgments of others (Haidt 2001), and even mundane reasons for buying one pair of stockings over another! (Nisbett & Wilson 1977) However, reflection on one’s thoughts requires knowing what those thoughts are in the first place. So if ignorance is the norm, why attempt self-reflection? The activity would just display naivety about psychology. Yet while respecting all the data, this book argues that, remarkably, we are sometimes infallible in our self-discerning judgments. Even so, infallibility does not imply indubitability, and there is no Cartesian ambition to provide a "foundation" for empirical knowledge. The point is rather to explain how self-reflection as a rational activity is possible.

Reflective Equilibrium and the Principles of Logical Analysis

Understanding the Laws of Logic

Author: Jaroslav Peregrin,Vladimír Svoboda

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315453924

Category: Philosophy

Page: 186

View: 7859

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This book offers a comprehensive account of logic that addresses fundamental issues concerning the nature and foundations of the discipline. The authors claim that these foundations can not only be established without the need for strong metaphysical assumptions, but also without hypostasizing logical forms as specific entities. They present a systematic argument that the primary subject matter of logic is our linguistic interaction rather than our private reasoning and it is thus misleading to see logic as revealing "the laws of thought". In this sense, fundamental logical laws are implicit to our "language games" and are thus more similar to social norms than to the laws of nature. Peregrin and Svoboda also show that logical theories, despite the fact that they rely on rules implicit to our actual linguistic practice, firm up these rules and make them explicit. By carefully scrutinizing the project of logical analysis, the authors demonstrate that logical rules can be best seen as products of the so called reflective equilibrium. They suggest that we can profit from viewing languages as "inferential landscapes" and logicians as "geographers" who map them and try to pave safe routes through them. This book is an essential resource for scholars and researchers engaged with the foundations of logical theories and the philosophy of language.

The Golden Cord

A Short Book on the Secular and the Sacred

Author: Charles Taliaferro

Publisher: University of Notre Dame Pess

ISBN: 0268093776

Category: Religion

Page: 216

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The title of Charles Taliaferro’s book is derived from poems and stories in which a person in peril or on a quest must follow a cord or string in order to find the way to happiness, safety, or home. In one of the most famous of such tales, the ancient Greek hero Theseus follows the string given him by Ariadne to mark his way in and out of the Minotaur’s labyrinth. William Blake's poem “Jerusalem” uses the metaphor of a golden string, which, if followed, will lead one to heaven itself. Taliaferro extends Blake’s metaphor to illustrate the ways we can link what we see, feel, and do with deep spiritual realities. Taliaferro offers a foundational case for the recognition of the experience of the eternal God of Christianity, in which God is understood as the fount of all goodness and the subject and object of our best love, revealed through scripture, tradition, philosophical reflection, and encountered in everyday events. He addresses philosophical obstacles to the recognition of such experiences, especially objections from the “new atheists,” and explores the values involved in thinking and experiencing God as eternal. These include the belief that the eternal goodness of God subordinates temporal goods, such as the pursuit of fame and earthly glory; that God is the essence of life; and that the eternal God hallows domestic goods, blessing the everyday goods of ordinary life. An exploration of the moral and spiritual riches of the Christian tradition as an alternative to materialism and naturalism, The Golden Cord brings an originality and depth to the debate in accessible and engaging prose.

Dennett's Philosophy

A Comprehensive Assessment

Author: Don Ross,Andrew Brook,David Thompson

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262681179

Category: Philosophy

Page: 397

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These essays, which grew out of a conference attended by Dennett, consider evolution, intentionality, consciousness, ontology, and ethics and free will.

Genes, Memes, Culture, and Mental Illness

Toward an Integrative Model

Author: Hoyle Leigh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441956712

Category: Medical

Page: 300

View: 5301

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What produces mental illness: genes, environment, both,neither? The answer can be found in memes—replicable units of information linking genes and environment in the memory and in culture—whose effects on individual brain development can be benign or toxic. This book reconceptualizes mental disorders as products of stressful gene-meme interactions and introduces a biopsychosocial template for meme-based diagnosis and treatment. A range of therapeutic modalities, both broad-spectrum (meditation) and specific(cognitive-behavioral), for countering negative memes and their replication are considered, as are possibilities for memetic prevention strategies. In this book, the author outlines the roles of genes and memes in the evolution of the human brain; elucidates the creation, storage, and evolution of memes within individual brains; examines culture as a carrier and supplier of memes to the individual; provides examples of gene-meme interactions that can result in anxiety, depression, and other disorders; proposes a multiaxial gene-meme model for diagnosing mental illness; identifies areas of meme-based prevention for at-risk children; and defines specific syndromes in terms of memetic symptoms, genetic/ memetic development, and meme-based treatment.

Smoke and Mirrors

How Science Reflects Reality

Author: James Robert Brown

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134873573

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 8181

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Realism is an enlightening story, a tale which enriches our experience and makes it more intelligible. Yet this wonderful picture of humanity's best efforts at knowledge has been badly bruised by numerous critics. James Robert Brown in Smoke and Mirrors fights back against figures such as Richard Rorty, Bruno Latour, Michael Ruse and Hilary Putnam who have attacked realist accounts of science. But this volume is not wholly devoted to combating Rorty and others who blow smoke in our eyes; the second half is concerned with arguing that there are some amazing ways in which science mirrors the world. The role of abstraction, abstract objects and a priori ways of getting at reality are all explored in showing how science reflects reality. Smoke and Mirrors is a defence of science and knowledge in general as well as a defence of a particular way of understanding science. It is of interest to all those who wish or need to know how science works.

Human Dignity and Bioethics

Essays Commissioned by the President's Council on Bioethics

Author: President's Council on Bioethics (U.S.)

Publisher: Government Printing Office

ISBN: 9780160800719

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 555

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NOTE: NO FURTHER DISCOUNT FOR THIS PRINT PRODUCT--OVERSTOCK SALE -- Significantly reduced list price while supplies last Contains a collection of essays exploring human dignity and bioethics, a concept crucial to today's discourse in law and ethics in general and in bioethics in particular. This publication gives some examples of how human dignity can be a difficult concept to apply in bioethical controversies, explores some of the complex roots of the modern notion of human dignity, in order to shed light on why its application to bioethics is so problematic, and suggests, tentatively, that a certain conception of human dignity--dignity understood as humanity-- has an important role to play in bioethics, both now and especially in the future. Related products: Ethics and Code of Conduct resources collection can be found here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/catalog/laws-regulations/ethics-code-conduct

Digital Delirium

Author: Arthur Kroker,Marilouise Kroker

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9780312172374

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 318

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Digital Delirium is a manifest against the right-wing politics of cyberlibertarianism and for rewiring the question of ethics to digital reality. Bringing together the most creative minds of the digital generation, it explores what is lost and what is gained by being digital.

Schopenhauer

Author: Julian Young

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134328826

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

View: 7293

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Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) was one of the greatest writers and German philosophers of the nineteenth century. His work influenced figures as diverse as Wagner, Freud and Nietzsche. Best known as a pessimist, he was one of the few philosophers read and admired by Wittgenstein. In this comprehensive introduction, Julian Young covers all the main aspects of Schopenhauer's philosophy. Beginning with an overview of Schopenhauer's life and work, he introduces the central aspects of his metaphysics fundamental to understanding his work as a whole: his philosophical idealism and debt to the philosophy of Kant; his attempt to answer the question of what the world is; his account of science; and in particular his idea that 'will' is the essence of all things. Julian Young then introduces and assesses Schopenhauer's aesthetics, which occupy a central place in his philosophy. He carefully examines Schopenhauer's theories of the sublime, artistic genius and music, before assessing his ethics of compassion, his arguments for pessimism and his account of 'salvation'. In the final chapter, he considers Schopenhauer's legacy and his influence on the thought of Nietzsche and Wittgenstein, making this an ideal starting point for those coming to Schopenhauer for the first time.

Free Will

The Scandal in Philosophy

Author: Bob Doyle

Publisher: I-Phi Press

ISBN: 9780983580201

Category: Philosophy

Page: 482

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A college-level sourcebook and textbook on the problem of free will and determinism. Contains a history of the free will problem, a taxonomy of current free will positions, the standard argument against free will, the physics, biology, and neuroscience of free will, the most plausible and practical libertarian solution of the problem, and reviews of the work of the leading determinist, Ted Honderich, the leading libertarian, Robert Kane, the leading compatibilist, Daniel Dennett, and the agnostic, Alfred Mele. 480 pages, 40 figures, 15 sidebars, glossary, bibliography, index.

The Science of the Brain

Author: Louise Spilsbury

Publisher: Gareth Stevens Publishing LLLP

ISBN: 1538206870

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 866

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"The human mind is more complex and powerful than any technology humanity has ever created. How much do we really know about these incredible organic computers that power our bodies? This engaging book explores the human brain using clean, simple flowcharts to break down difficult concepts into accessible chunks. Each chapter condenses key concepts into flowcharts to help readers retain essential information. Curious readers will love learning about this high-interest topic through fun graphics and clear, easy-to-understand language. This innovative format makes important science curriculum material fun and easy to absorb, making this book an invaluable addition to any library."

Philosophy as a Way of Life

Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault

Author: Pierre Hadot

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631180333

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 8184

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This book presents a history of spiritual exercises from Socrates to early Christianity, an account of their decline in modern philosophy, and a discussion of the different conceptions of philosophy that have accompanied the trajectory and fate of the theory and practice of spiritual exercises. Hadot's book demonstrates the extent to which philosophy has been, and still is, above all else a way of seeing and of being in the world.

The Robot's Rebellion

Finding Meaning in the Age of Darwin

Author: Keith E. Stanovich

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226771253

Category: Philosophy

Page: 374

View: 3923

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Responds to the idea that humans are merely survival mechanisms for their own genes, providing the tools to advance human interests over the interests of the replicators through rational self-determination.

Two Dozen (or so) Arguments for God

The Plantinga Project

Author: Jerry Walls,Trent Dougherty

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190842245

Category: Religion

Page: 496

View: 3196

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Thirty years ago, Alvin Plantinga gave a lecture called "Two Dozen (or so) Theistic Arguments," which served as an underground inspiration for two generations of scholars and students. In it, he proposed a number of novel and creative arguments for the existence of God which have yet to receive the attention they deserve. In Two Dozen (or so) Arguments for God, each of Plantinga's original suggestions, many of which he only briefly sketched, is developed in detail by a wide variety of accomplished scholars. The authors look to metaphysics, epistemology, semantics, ethics, aesthetics, and beyond, finding evidence for God in almost every dimension of reality. Those arguments new to natural theology are more fully developed, and well-known arguments are given new life. Not only does this collection present ground-breaking research, but it lays the foundations for research projects for years to come.

The Really Hard Problem

Meaning in a Material World

Author: Owen Flanagan

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262262754

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

View: 9903

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If consciousness is "the hard problem" in mind science -- explaining how the amazing private world of consciousness emerges from neuronal activity -- then "the really hard problem," writes Owen Flanagan in this provocative book, is explaining how meaning is possible in the material world. How can we make sense of the magic and mystery of life naturalistically, without an appeal to the supernatural? How do we say truthful and enchanting things about being human if we accept the fact that we are finite material beings living in a material world, or, in Flanagan's description, short-lived pieces of organized cells and tissue?Flanagan's answer is both naturalistic and enchanting. We all wish to live in a meaningful way, to live a life that really matters, to flourish, to achieve eudaimonia -- to be a "happy spirit." Flanagan calls his "empirical-normative" inquiry into the nature, causes, and conditions of human flourishing eudaimonics. Eudaimonics, systematic philosophical investigation that is continuous with science, is the naturalist's response to those who say that science has robbed the world of the meaning that fantastical, wishful stories once provided.Flanagan draws on philosophy, neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and psychology, as well as on transformative mindfulness and self-cultivation practices that come from such nontheistic spiritual traditions as Buddhism, Confucianism, Aristotelianism, and Stoicism, in his quest. He gathers from these disciplines knowledge that will help us understand the nature, causes, and constituents of well-being and advance human flourishing. Eudaimonics can help us find out how to make a difference, how to contribute to the accumulation of good effects -- how to live a meaningful life.