The Dark Abyss of Time

The History of the Earth and the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico

Author: Paolo Rossi

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226728322

Category: History

Page: 354

View: 6067

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"A rich historical pastiche of 17th- and 18th-century philosophy, science, and religion."—G. Y. Craig, New Scientist "This book, by a distinguished Italian historian of philosophy, is a worthy successor to the author's important works on Francis Bacon and on technology and the arts. First published in Italian (in 1979), it now makes available to English readers some subtly wrought arguments about the ways in which geology and anthropology challenged biblical chronology and forced changes in the philosophy of history in the early modern era. . . . [Rossi] shows that the search for new answers about human origins spanned many disciplines and involved many fascinating intellects—Bacon, Bayle, Buffon, Burnet, Descartes, Hobbes, Holbach, Hooke, Hume, Hutton, Leibniz, de Maillet, Newton, Pufendorf, Spinoza, Toland, and, most especially, Vico, whose works are impressively and freshly reevaluated here."—Nina Gelbart, American Scientist

Essays on the Context, Nature, and Influence of Isaac Newton’s Theology

Author: J.E. Force,R.H. Popkin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400919441

Category: Philosophy

Page: 226

View: 8435

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This collection of essays is the fruit of about fifteen years of discussion and research by James Force and me. As I look back on it, our interest and concern with Newton's theological ideas began in 1975 at Washington University in St. Louis. James Force was a graduate student in philosophy and I was a professor there. For a few years before, I had been doing research and writing on Millenarianism and Messianism in the 17th and 18th centuries, touching occasionally on Newton. I had bought a copy of Newton's Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John for a few pounds and, occasionally, read in it. In the Spring of 1975 I was giving a graduate seminar on Millenarian and Messianic ideas in the development of modem philosophy. Force was in the seminar. One day he came very excitedly up to me and said he wanted to write his dissertation on William Whiston. At that point in history, the only thing that came to my mind about Whiston was that he had published a, or the, standard translation of Josephus (which I also happened to have in my library. ) Force told me about the amazing views he had found in Whiston's notes on Josephus and in some of the few writings he could find in St. Louis by, or about, Whiston, who was Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of mathematics at Cambridge and who wrote inordinately on Millenarian theology.

Descartes' System of Natural Philosophy

Author: Stephen Gaukroger,Senior Lecturer in Philosophy Stephen Gaukroger

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521005258

Category: Philosophy

Page: 258

View: 6518

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Towards the end of his life, Descartes published the first four parts of a projected six-part work, The Principles of Philosophy. This was intended to be the definitive statement of his complete system of philosophy, dealing with everything from cosmology to the nature of human happiness. Stephen Gaukroger examines the whole system, and reconstructs the last two parts, 'On Living Things' and 'On Man', from Descartes' other writings. He relates the work to the tradition of late Scholastic textbooks which it follows, and also to Descartes' other philosophical writings.

Latitudinarianism in the Seventeenth-Century Church of England

Author: Griffin

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004246819

Category: History

Page: 226

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The Latitudinarians, a group of prominent clergymen in the late seventeenth-century Church of England, were articulate opponents of Anglicanism's intellectual foes. This definition and analysis of the Latitudinarians by the late Martin Griffin has now been completely updated since the latter's death by Professor Richard H. Popkin.

The Man Who Knew Too Much

The Strange and Inventive Life of Robert Hook 1653 - 1703

Author: Stephen Inwood

Publisher: Pan Macmillan

ISBN: 0330532189

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 512

View: 7702

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Robert Hooke was one of the most inventive, versatile and prolific scientists of the late 17th Century, but for 300 years his reputation has been overshadowed by those of his two great contemporaries, his friend Sir Christopher Wren and his rival Sir Isaac Newton. If he is remembered today, it is as the author of a law of elasticity or as amisanthrope who accused Newton of stealing his ideas on gravity. This book, the first life of Hooke for nearly fifty years, rescues its subject from centuries of obscurity and misjudgement. It shows us Hooke the prolific inventor, the mechanic, the astronomer, the anatomist, the pioneer of geology, meteorology and microscopy, the precursor of Lavoisier and Darwin. It also gives us Hooke the architect of Bedlam and the Monument, the supervisor of London's rebuilding after the Great Fire, the watchmaker, the consumer of prodigious quantities of medicines and purgatives, the candid diarist, the lover, the hoarder of money and secrets, the coffee house conversationalist. This is an absorbing study of a fascinating and unduly forgotten man.

Down from Olympus

Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750-1970

Author: Suzanne L. Marchand

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691114781

Category: Art

Page: 400

View: 389

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Since the publication of Eliza May Butler's Tyranny of Greece over Germany in 1935, the obsession of the German educated elite with the ancient Greeks has become an accepted, if severely underanalyzed, clich�. In Down from Olympus, Suzanne Marchand attempts to come to grips with German Graecophilia, not as a private passion but as an institutionally generated and preserved cultural trope. The book argues that nineteenth-century philhellenes inherited both an elitist, normative aesthetics and an ascetic, scholarly ethos from their Romantic predecessors; German "neohumanists" promised to reconcile these intellectual commitments, and by so doing, to revitalize education and the arts. Focusing on the history of classical archaeology, Marchand shows how the injunction to imitate Greek art was made the basis for new, state-funded cultural institutions. Tracing interactions between scholars and policymakers that made possible grand-scale cultural feats like the acquisition of the Pergamum Altar, she underscores both the gains in specialized knowledge and the failures in social responsibility that were the distinctive products of German neohumanism. This book discusses intellectual and institutional aspects of archaeology and philhellenism, giving extensive treatment to the history of prehistorical archaeology and German "orientalism." Marchand traces the history of the study, excavation, and exhibition of Greek art as a means to confront the social, cultural, and political consequences of the specialization of scholarship in the last two centuries.

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Contemporary World

Author: Paul Graves-Brown,Rodney Harrison,Angela Piccini

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191663956

Category: Social Science

Page: 864

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It has been clear for many years that the ways in which archaeology is practised have been a direct product of a particular set of social, cultural, and historical circumstances - archaeology is always carried out in the present. More recently, however, many have begun to consider how archaeological techniques might be used to reflect more directly on the contemporary world itself: how we might undertake archaeologies of, as well as in the present. This Handbook is the first comprehensive survey of an exciting and rapidly expanding sub-field and provides an authoritative overview of the newly emerging focus on the archaeology of the present and recent past. In addition to detailed archaeological case studies, it includes essays by scholars working on the relationships of different disciplines to the archaeology of the contemporary world, including anthropology, psychology, philosophy, historical geography, science and technology studies, communications and media, ethnoarchaeology, forensic archaeology, sociology, film, performance, and contemporary art. This volume seeks to explore the boundaries of an emerging sub-discipline, to develop a tool-kit of concepts and methods which are applicable to this new field, and to suggest important future trajectories for research. It makes a significant intervention by drawing together scholars working on a broad range of themes, approaches, methods, and case studies from diverse contexts in different parts of the world, which have not previously been considered collectively.

Watching Vesuvius

A History of Science and Culture in Early Modern Italy

Author: Sean Cocco

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226923711

Category: History

Page: 322

View: 9611

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Mount Vesuvius has been famous ever since its eruption in 79 CE, when it destroyed and buried the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. But less well-known is the role it played in the science and culture of early modern Italy, as Sean Cocco reveals in this ambitious and wide-ranging study. Humanists began to make pilgrimages to Vesuvius during the early Renaissance to experience its beauty and study its history, but a new tradition of observation emerged in 1631 with the first great eruption of the modern period. Seeking to understand the volcano’s place in the larger system of nature, Neapolitans flocked to Vesuvius to examine volcanic phenomena and to collect floral and mineral specimens from the mountainside. In Watching Vesuvius, Cocco argues that this investigation and engagement with Vesuvius was paramount to the development of modern volcanology. He then situates the native experience of Vesuvius in a larger intellectual, cultural, and political context and explains how later eighteenth-century representations of Naples—of its climate and character—grew out of this tradition of natural history. Painting a rich and detailed portrait of Vesuvius and those living in its shadow, Cocco returns the historic volcano to its place in a broader European culture of science, travel, and appreciation of the natural world.

Freud's Moses

Judaism Terminable and Interminable

Author: Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300057560

Category: Psychology

Page: 159

View: 2530

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Moses and Monotheism, Freud's last major book and the only one specifically devoted to a Jewish theme, has proved to be one of the most controversial and enigmatic works in the Freudian canon. Among other things, Freud claims in the book that Moses was an Egyptian, that he derived the notion of monotheism from Egyptian concepts, and that after he introduced monotheism to the Jews he was killed by them. Since these historical and ethnographic assumptions have been generally rejected by biblical scholars, anthropologists, and historians of religion, the book has increasingly been approached psychoanalytically, as a psychological document of Freud's inner life--of his allegedly unresolved Oedipal complex and ambivalence over his Jewish identity. In Freud's Moses a distinguished historian of the Jews brings a new perspective to this puzzling work. Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi argues that while attempts to psychoanalyze Freud's text may be potentially fruitful, they must be preceded by a genuine effort to understand what Freud consciously wanted to convey to his readers. Using both historical and philological analysis, Yerushalmi offers new insights into Freud's intentions in writing Moses and Monotheism. He presents the work as Freud's psychoanalytic history of the Jews, Judaism, and the Jewish psyche--his attempt, under the shadow of Nazism, to discover what has made the Jews what they are. In the process Yerushalmi's eloquent and sensitive exploration of Freud's last work provides a reappraisal of Freud's feelings toward anti-Semitism and the gentile world, his ambivalence about psychoanalysis as a "Jewish" science, his relationship to his father, and above all a new appreciation of the depth and intensity of Freud's identity as a "godless Jew."

Geschichtswissenschaft jenseits des Nationalstaats

Studien zu Beziehungsgeschichte und Zivilisationsvergleich

Author: Jürgen Osterhammel

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 3647351628

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 1562

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Die deutsche Geschichtswissenschaft ist in weiten Teilen von einer nationalgeschichtlichen Perspektive gekennzeichnet. Die in diesem Band gesammelten Aufsätze sind als Einspruch gegen diese einseitige Prägung zu verstehen. Jürgen Osterhammel behandelt zwischen den Polen Vergleich und Beziehungsgeschichte verschiedene Themen der Weltgeschichte, wobei der Begriff »Beziehung« sich nicht auf dem Bereich der internationalen Politik beschränkt, sondern andere Arten von Beziehungen wie etwa Kulturtransfers in gleicher Weise einbezieht. Auch geht es in diesem Band nicht um »Außereuropäische Geschichte« – letztlich eine Kategorie einer auf Europa zentrierten Historie – sondern vielmehr darum, Amerika, Asien, Afrika und Ozeanien in den Horizont einer »normalen« Geschichtswissenschaft zu integrieren. Neben eine nationalgeschichtliche und eine auf Europa zielende Historie könnte so eine Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht treten. Dabei geht es nicht um Antworten von globaler Gültigkeit, sondern um Fragen in einem universalen Horizont.

British Identities before Nationalism

Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600–1800

Author: Colin Kidd

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139425728

Category: History

Page: N.A

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Inspired by debates among political scientists over the strength and depth of the pre-modern roots of nationalism, this study attempts to gauge the status of ethnic identities in an era whose dominant loyalties and modes of political argument were confessional, institutional and juridical. Colin Kidd's point of departure is the widely shared orthodox belief that the whole world had been peopled by the offspring of Noah. In addition, Kidd probes inconsistencies in national myths of origin and ancient constitutional claims, and considers points of contact which existed in the early modern era between ethnic identities which are now viewed as antithetical, including those of Celts and Saxons. He also argues that Gothicism qualified the notorious Francophobia of eighteenth-century Britons. A wide-ranging example of the new British history, this study draws upon evidence from England, Scotland, Ireland and America, while remaining alert to European comparisons and influences.

Adam's Ancestors

Race, Religion, and the Politics of Human Origins

Author: David N. Livingstone

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9781421401430

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 1054

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He reveals how what began as biblical criticism became a theological apologetic to reconcile religion with science—evolution in particular—and was later used to support arguments for white supremacy and segregation. From heresy to orthodoxy, from radicalism to conservatism, from humanitarianism to racism, Adam's Ancestors tells an intriguing tale of twists and turns in the cultural politics surrounding the age-old question, "Where did we come from?"

Picturing Science, Producing Art

Author: Peter Galison,Caroline A. Jones

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135207496

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 608

View: 1748

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First Published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Language and earth

effective affinities between the emerging sciences of linguistics and geology

Author: Bernd Naumann (Dr. phil. habil.)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 445

View: 2052

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The Birth of Modern Science

Author: Paolo Rossi

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631227113

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 1059

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This history of the birth of modern science shatters the illusion that science is 'dry' and divorced from culture by exploring the powerful clashes between traditions and value systems that gave rise to it. The author shows how many of the characteristics that distinguish science today emerged in the midst of the wars and plagues of the seventeenth century and defines what was new about this form of knowledge.

Klio und Natio

Studien zu Spenser und der englischen Renaissance

Author: Claus Uhlig

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783825303297

Category: English literature

Page: 206

View: 8982

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The Forgotten Genius

Author: Stephen Inwood

Publisher: Macadam Cage Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 482

View: 4165

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A study of the life and times of seventeenth-century scientist Robert Hooke captures the diverse facets of his life as an astronomer, inventor, anatomist, and diarist.

Naturhistoriker und Zeitenseher

Geologie und Poesie um 1800 : der Kreis um Abraham Gottlob Werner (Goethe, A.v. Humboldt, Novalis, Steffens, G.H. Schubert)

Author: Michaela Haberkorn

Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 335

View: 3305

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In einer Verbindung von literaturwissenschaftlichem und wissenschaftshistorischem Interesse beschreibt und untersucht diese Studie die Vernetzung des akademischen geowissenschaftlichen Diskurses mit dem literarischen Diskurs um 1800 sowie die Schnittstellen zwischen Gelehrtenkulturen im Umkreis des Professors für Bergbaukunde und Mineralogie an der Bergakademie Freiberg Abraham Gottlob Werner. Die durch neue Erkenntnisse in der Geologie und Paläontologie angestoßenen Debatten darüber, welche Ursachen und Zeitskalen für die Formung der Erdkruste anzunehmen seien, wirkten weit über die Grenzen der akademischen Fachgeologie hinaus und warfen Fragen nach dem Zeit- und Sinnhorizont menschlicher Existenz sowie nach der Darstellbarkeit und den Repräsentationsformen des Wissens auf.