The Curse of Natural Resources

A Developmental Analysis in a Comparative Context

Author: Sevil Acar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137587237

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 244

View: 6135

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This book examines the paradox that resource-rich countries often struggle to manage their resources in a way that will help their economies thrive. It looks at how a country's political regime and quality of governance can determine the degree to which it benefits - or suffers - from having natural resources, shifting away from the traditional focus on economic growth data to study the complex implications of these resources for human well-being and sustainable development. To this end, Acar examines a panel of countries in terms of the effects of their natural resources on human development and genuine saving, which is a sustainability indicator that takes into account the welfare of future generations by incorporating the changes in different kinds of capital. Acar finds that the exportation of agricultural raw materials is associated with significant deterioration in human development, while extractive resource exports, such as energy and minerals, have negative implications for genuine savings. Next, the book compares the development path of Norway before and after discovering oil, contrasting it with Sweden's development. The two countries, which followed almost identical paths until the 1970s, diverged significantly in terms of per capita income after Norway found oil.

Natural Resources and Human Rights

An Appraisal

Author: Jérémie Gilbert

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192515179

Category: Law

Page: 248

View: 8421

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Natural resources and their effective management are necessary for securing the realisation of human rights. The management of natural resources is linked to broad issues of economic development, as well as to political stability, peace and security, but it is also intimately connected to the political, economic, social and cultural rights of individuals and communities relying on these resources. The management of natural resources often leads to ill-planned development, misappropriation of land, corruption, bad governance, misaligned budget priorities, lack of strong institutional reforms and weak policies coupled with a continued denial of the human rights of local communities. This book argues that human rights law can play an important role in ensuring a more effective and sustainable management of natural resources, putting forward the idea of a human rights-based normative framework for natural resource management. It offers a comprehensive analysis of the different norms, procedures, and approaches developed under human rights law that are relevant to the management of natural resources. Advocating for a less market and corporate approach to the control, ownership, and management of natural resources, this book supports the development of holistic and coherent integration of human rights law in the overall international legal framework governing the management of natural resources.

Liberalisierungsreformen in Iran

Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der wirtschaftlichen Diversifizierung eines erdölexportierenden Staates

Author: Miriam Shabafrouz

Publisher: Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag

ISBN: 3828865437

Category: Political Science

Page: 362

View: 8275

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Eine kontroverse Debatte kreist um die Frage, weshalb rohstoff- und insbesondere erdölexportierende Länder wie Iran in ihrer wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung oft weniger fortgeschritten sind als ressourcenimportierende Länder. Zwar gibt es eine Reihe von Vorschlägen, wie die einseitige Abhängigkeit vom Erdölexport zu überwinden wäre, doch immer wieder scheitern Politiker bei ihrer Umsetzung. Welche nationalen wie internationalen Hürden dem Erfolg von Reformmaßnahmen im Weg stehen, untersucht Miriam Shabafrouz am Beispiel Iran. Sechs Reformprogramme sollten dort die Privatwirtschaft jenseits des Erdöls stärken und die staatliche Abhängigkeit von Erdöleinnahmen reduzieren. Ihre Analyse im Zeitraum 1989-2015 ermöglicht es, das gleichzeitige Wirken interner und externer Bedingungen bei der Entscheidung für oder gegen Reformen zu erkennen. Gerade auch die internationalen Wirtschaftssanktionen gegen Iran – ihre jahrelange Verstärkung und die aktuelle Aussicht auf ihre Aufhebung – haben sich auf diese Entscheidungsprozesse ausgewirkt. Zudem zeigt Shabafrouz auf, inwieweit eine erfolgreiche wirtschaftliche Diversifizierung erdölexportierender Länder gewichtigen Interessen der internationalen Erdölwirtschaft entgegenlaufen könnte.

Govern Like Us

U.S. Expectations of Poor Countries

Author: M. A. Thomas

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231539118

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 4022

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In the poorest countries, such as Afghanistan, Haiti, and Mali, the United States has struggled to work with governments whose corruption and lack of capacity are increasingly seen to be the cause of instability and poverty. The development and security communities call for "good governance" to improve the rule of law, democratic accountability, and the delivery of public goods and services. The United States and other rich liberal democracies insist that this is the only legitimate model of governance. Yet poor governments cannot afford to govern according to these ideals and instead are compelled to rely more heavily on older, cheaper strategies of holding power, such as patronage and repression. The unwillingness to admit that poor governments do and must govern differently has cost the United States and others inestimable blood and coin. Informed by years of fieldwork and drawing on practitioner work and academic scholarship in politics, economics, law, and history, this book explains the origins of poor governments in the formation of the modern state system and describes the way they govern. It argues that, surprisingly, the effort to stigmatize and criminalize the governance of the poor is both fruitless and destabilizing. The United States must pursue a more effective foreign policy to engage poor governments and acknowledge how they govern.

The Wages of Oil

Parliaments and Economic Development in Kuwait and the UAE

Author: Michael Herb

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801454689

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 5273

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The contrast between Kuwait and the UAE today illustrates the vastly different possible futures facing the smaller states of the Gulf. Dubai's rulers dream of creating a truly global business center, a megalopolis of many millions attracting immigrants in great waves from near and far. Kuwait, meanwhile, has the most spirited and influential parliament in any of the oil-rich Gulf monarchies. In The Wages of Oil, Michael Herb provides a robust framework for thinking about the future of the Gulf monarchies. The Gulf has seen enormous changes in recent years, and more are to come. Herb explains the nature of the changes we are likely to see in the future. He starts by asking why Kuwait is far ahead of all other Gulf monarchies in terms of political liberalization, but behind all of them in its efforts to diversify its economy away from oil. He compares Kuwait with the United Arab Emirates, which lacks Kuwait's parliament but has moved ambitiously to diversify. This data-rich book reflects the importance of both politics and economic development issues for decision-makers in the Gulf. Herb develops a political economy of the Gulf that ties together a variety of issues usually treated separately: Kuwait's National Assembly, Dubai's real estate boom, the paucity of citizen labor in the private sector, class divisions among citizens, the caste divide between citizens and noncitizens, and the politics of land.

Resource Curse and Post-Soviet Eurasia

Oil, Gas, and Modernization

Author: Vladimir Gel'man,Otar Marganiya

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739143759

Category: Social Science

Page: 226

View: 3465

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Resource Curse and Post-Soviet Eurasia: Oil, Gas, and Modernization is an in-depth analysis on the impact of oil and gas abundance on political, economic, and social developments of Russia and other post-Soviet states and nations (such as Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan). The chapters of the book systematically examine various effects of 'resource curse' in different arenas such as state building, regime changes, rule of law, property rights, policy-making, interest representation, and international relations in theoretical, historical, and comparative perspectives.

Democratic Transitions

Modes and Outcomes

Author: Sujian Guo,Gary A Stradiotto

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131775106X

Category: Political Science

Page: 138

View: 1622

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Democratic transitions have occurred in many countries in various regions across the globe, such as Southern Europe, Latin America, Africa, East and Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and these nations have undergone simuntaneously political, economic and social transformations. Yet, the patterns and characteristics of transitions have varied significantly, and different modes of transition have resulted in different outcomes. This book offers cross-national comparisons of democratic transition since the turn of the twentieth century and asks what makes democracies succeed or fail. In doing so it explores the influence the mode of transition has on the longevity or durability of the democracy, by theoretically examining and quantitatively testing this relationship. The authors argue that the mode of transition directly impacts the success and failure of democracy, and suggest that cooperative transitions, where opposition groups work together with incumbent elites to peacefully transition the state, result in democracies that last longer and are associated with higher measures of democratic quality. Based on a cross-national dataset of all democratic transitioning states since 1900, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of international politics, comparative politics and democracy, and democratization studies.

Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Europe's Transition Economies

Author: Kym Anderson,Johan F. M. Swinnen

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 379

View: 7326

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The vast majority of the world's poorest households depend on farming for their livelihood. During the 1960s and 1970s, most developing countries imposed pro-urban and anti-agricultural policies, while many high-income countries restricted agricultural imports and subsidized their farmers. Both sets of policies inhibited economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries. Although progress has been made over the past two decades to reduce those policy biases, many trade- and welfare-reducing price distortions remain between agriculture and other sectors as well as within the agricultural sector of both rich and poor countries. Comprehensive empirical studies of the disarray in world agricultural markets first appeared approximately 20 years ago. Since then the OECD has provided estimates each year of market distortions in high-income countries, but there has been no comparable estimates for the world's developing countries. This volume is the first in a series (other volumes cover Africa, Asia, and Latin America) that not only fill that void for recent years but extend the estimates in a consistent and comparable way back in time--and provide analytical narratives for scores of countries that shed light on the evolving nature and extent of policy interventions over the past half-century. 'Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Europe's Transition Economies' provides an overview of the evolution of distortions to agricultural incentives caused by price and trade policies in the economies of Eastern Europe and Central Asia that are transitioning away from central planning. The book includes country and subregional studies of the ten transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe that joined the European Union in 2004 or 2007, of seven other large member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and of Turkey. Together these countries comprise over 90 percent of the Europe and Central Asia region's population and GDP. Sectoral, trade, and exchange rate policies in the region have changed greatly since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but price distortions remain. The new empirical indicators in these country studies provide a strong evidence-based foundation for evaluating policy options in the years ahead.

Bananas, oil, and development

examining the resource curse and its transmission channels by resource type

Author: Jann Lay,Toman Omar Mahmoud

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 41

View: 414

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The Resource Curse in a Post-communist Regime

Russia in Comparative Perspective

Author: Younkyoo Kim

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 181

View: 4768

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As part of an attempt to resolve a larger puzzle - what makes economic reform in Russia difficult - this book examines how one of the major sectors of the economy - energy - has influenced economic growth and political development. It provides an in-depth analysis of the country's export of oil and gas, showing how the energy sector went through the topsy-turvy period of Gorbachev's economic reform and the initial stages of market transition under Yeltsin. In doing so, it highlights the importance of the major oil and gas companies for the functioning of Russian politics.

Financing Social Policy

Mobilizing Resources for Social Development

Author: Katja Hujo,Shea McClanahan

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9780230576643

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 5046

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Moving beyond the 'post-Washington consensus', this book shifts the focus of development policy debates away from expenditures and austerity and towards revenues and resources. The book explores the potential and the developmental impact of different categories of resources for financing social policy in a development context.