The Cultural Logic of Computation

Author: David Golumbia

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674053885

Category: Computers

Page: 272

View: 2116

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In The Cultural Logic of Computation, David Golumbia, who worked as a software designer for more than ten years, argues that computers are cultural "all the way down" - that there is no part of the apparent technological transformation that is not shaped by historical and cultural processes, or that escapes existing cultural politics. The Cultural Logic of Computation provides a needed corrective to the uncritical enthusiasm for computers common today in many parts of our culture.

The Cultural Logic of Computation

Author: David Golumbia

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674032927

Category: Computers

Page: 257

View: 7518

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In The Cultural Logic of Computation, David Golumbia, who worked as a software designer for more than ten years, argues that computers are cultural "all the way down" - that there is no part of the apparent technological transformation that is not shaped by historical and cultural processes, or that escapes existing cultural politics. The Cultural Logic of Computation provides a needed corrective to the uncritical enthusiasm for computers common today in many parts of our culture.

Control

Digitality as Cultural Logic

Author: Seb Franklin

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262331144

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 4468

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Is there a cultural logic of what we have come to call the information age? Have the technologies and techniques centered on the computer provided not only tools but also the metaphors through which we now understand the social and economic formation of our world? In Control, Seb Franklin addresses the conditions of knowledge that make the concept of the "information economy" possible while at the same time obscuring its deleterious effects on material social spaces. In so doing, Franklin traces three intertwined threads: the relationships among information, labor, and social management that emerged in the nineteenth century; the mid-twentieth-century diffusion of computational metaphors; and the appearance of informatic principles in certain contemporary socioeconomic and cultural practices.Drawing on critical theory, media theory, and the history of science, Franklin names control as the episteme grounding late capitalism. Beyond any specific device or set of technically mediated practices, digitality functions within this episteme as the logical basis for reshaped concepts of labor, subjectivity, and collectivity, as well as for the intensification of older modes of exclusion and dispossession. In tracking the pervasiveness of this logical mode into the present, Franklin locates the cultural traces of control across a diverse body of objects and practices, from cybernetics to economic theory and management styles, and from concepts of language and subjectivity to literary texts, films, and video games.

What Algorithms Want

Imagination in the Age of Computing

Author: Ed Finn

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262035928

Category: Computers

Page: 257

View: 8670

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The gap between theoretical ideas and messy reality, as seen in Neal Stephenson, Adam Smith, and Star Trek. We depend on—we believe in—algorithms to help us get a ride, choose which book to buy, execute a mathematical proof. It's as if we think of code as a magic spell, an incantation to reveal what we need to know and even what we want. Humans have always believed that certain invocations—the marriage vow, the shaman's curse—do not merely describe the world but make it. Computation casts a cultural shadow that is shaped by this long tradition of magical thinking. In this book, Ed Finn considers how the algorithm—in practical terms, “a method for solving a problem”—has its roots not only in mathematical logic but also in cybernetics, philosophy, and magical thinking. Finn argues that the algorithm deploys concepts from the idealized space of computation in a messy reality, with unpredictable and sometimes fascinating results. Drawing on sources that range from Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash to Diderot's Encyclopédie, from Adam Smith to the Star Trek computer, Finn explores the gap between theoretical ideas and pragmatic instructions. He examines the development of intelligent assistants like Siri, the rise of algorithmic aesthetics at Netflix, Ian Bogost's satiric Facebook game Cow Clicker, and the revolutionary economics of Bitcoin. He describes Google's goal of anticipating our questions, Uber's cartoon maps and black box accounting, and what Facebook tells us about programmable value, among other things. If we want to understand the gap between abstraction and messy reality, Finn argues, we need to build a model of “algorithmic reading” and scholarship that attends to process, spearheading a new experimental humanities.

The Politics of Bitcoin

Software As Right-wing Extremism

Author: David Golumbia

Publisher: Forerunners: Ideas First

ISBN: 9781517901806

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 100

View: 9233

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Since its introduction in 2009, Bitcoin has been widely promoted as a digital currency that will revolutionize everything from online commerce to the nation-state. Yet supporters of Bitcoin and its blockchain technology subscribe to a form of cyberlibertarianism that depends to a surprising extent on far-right political thought. The Politics of Bitcoin exposes how much of the economic and political thought on which this cryptocurrency is based emerges from ideas that travel the gamut, from Milton Friedman, F.A. Hayek, and Ludwig von Mises to Federal Reserve conspiracy theorists. Forerunners: Ideas First is a thought-in-process series of breakthrough digital publications. Written between fresh ideas and finished books, Forerunners draws on scholarly work initiated in notable blogs, social media, conference plenaries, journal articles, and the synergy of academic exchange. This is gray literature publishing: where intense thinking, change, and speculation take place in scholarship.

Mathematics Across Cultures

The History of Non-Western Mathematics

Author: Helaine Selin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401143013

Category: Mathematics

Page: 479

View: 4281

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Mathematics Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Mathematics consists of essays dealing with the mathematical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Inca, Egyptian, and African mathematics, among others, the book includes essays on Rationality, Logic and Mathematics, and the transfer of knowledge from East to West. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate the mathematical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

Mathematics and Art

A Cultural History

Author: Lynn Gamwell

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691165289

Category: Art

Page: 576

View: 9944

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This is a cultural history of mathematics and art, from antiquity to the present. Mathematicians and artists have long been on a quest to understand the physical world they see before them and the abstract objects they know by thought alone. Taking readers on a tour of the practice of mathematics and the philosophical ideas that drive the discipline, Lynn Gamwell points out the important ways mathematical concepts have been expressed by artists. Sumptuous illustrations of artworks and cogent math diagrams are featured in Gamwell’s comprehensive exploration. Gamwell begins by describing mathematics from antiquity to the Enlightenment, including Greek, Islamic, and Asian mathematics. Then focusing on modern culture, Gamwell traces mathematicians’ search for the foundations of their science, such as David Hilbert’s conception of mathematics as an arrangement of meaning-free signs, as well as artists’ search for the essence of their craft, such as Aleksandr Rodchenko’s monochrome paintings. She shows that self-reflection is inherent to the practice of both modern mathematics and art, and that this introspection points to a deep resonance between the two fields: Kurt Gödel posed questions about the nature of mathematics in the language of mathematics and Jasper Johns asked “What is art?” in the vocabulary of art. Throughout, Gamwell describes the personalities and cultural environments of a multitude of mathematicians and artists, from Gottlob Frege and Benoît Mandelbrot to Max Bill and Xu Bing. Mathematics and Art demonstrates how mathematical ideas are embodied in the visual arts and will enlighten all who are interested in the complex intellectual pursuits, personalities, and cultural settings that connect these vast disciplines.

The Routledge Handbook of the Computational Mind

Author: Mark Sprevak,Matteo Colombo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317286715

Category: Philosophy

Page: 510

View: 9953

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Computational approaches dominate contemporary cognitive science, promising a unified, scientific explanation of how the mind works. However, computational approaches raise major philosophical and scientific questions. In what sense is the mind computational? How do computational approaches explain perception, learning, and decision making? What kinds of challenges should computational approaches overcome to advance our understanding of mind, brain, and behaviour? The Routledge Handbook of the Computational Mind is an outstanding overview and exploration of these issues and the first philosophical collection of its kind. Comprising thirty-five chapters by an international team of contributors from different disciplines, the Handbook is organised into four parts: History and future prospects of computational approaches Types of computational approach Foundations and challenges of computational approaches Applications to specific parts of psychology. Essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy of mind, philosophy of psychology, and philosophy of science, The Routledge Handbook of the Computational Mind will also be of interest to those studying computational models in related subjects such as psychology, neuroscience, and computer science.

Cultures without Culturalism

The Making of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Karine Chemla,Evelyn Fox Keller

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822373092

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 2150

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Cultural accounts of scientific ideas and practices have increasingly come to be welcomed as a corrective to previous—and still widely held—theories of scientific knowledge and practices as universal. The editors caution, however, against the temptation to overgeneralize the work of culture, and to lapse into a kind of essentialism that flattens the range and variety of scientific work. The book refers to this tendency as culturalism. The contributors to the volume model a new path where historicized and cultural accounts of scientific practice retain their specificity and complexity without falling into the traps of culturalism. They examine, among other issues, the potential of using notions of culture to study behavior in financial markets; the ideology, organization, and practice of earthquake monitoring and prediction during China's Cultural Revolution; the history of quadratic equations in China; and how studying the "glass ceiling" and employment discrimination became accepted in the social sciences. Demonstrating the need to understand the work of culture as a fluid and dynamic process that directly both shapes and is shaped by scientific practice, Cultures without Culturalism makes an important intervention in science studies. Contributors. Bruno Belhoste, Karine Chemla, Caroline Ehrhardt, Fa-ti Fan,Kenji Ito, Evelyn Fox Keller, Guillaume Lachenal, Donald MacKenzie, Mary S. Morgan, Nancy J. Nersessian, David Rabouin, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Claude Rosental, Koen Vermeir

Taking Care of Youth and the Generations

Author: Bernard Stiegler

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804762724

Category: Philosophy

Page: 238

View: 8776

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The book presents a powerful reminder of adults' responsibility for the development of long-term attention (and thus of maturity) in children, particularly in the face of the techniques of attention-destruction practiced by the programming industries.

Logic, Construction, Computation

Author: Ulrich Berger,Hannes Diener,Peter Schuster,Monika Seisenberger

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311032492X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 542

View: 846

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Over the last few decades the interest of logicians and mathematicians in constructive and computational aspects of their subjects has been steadily growing, and researchers from disparate areas realized that they can benefit enormously from the mutual exchange of techniques concerned with those aspects. A key figure in this exciting development is the logician and mathematician Helmut Schwichtenberg to whom this volume is dedicated on the occasion of his 70th birthday and his turning emeritus. The volume contains 20 articles from leading experts about recent developments in Constructive set theory, Provably recursive functions, Program extraction, Theories of truth, Constructive mathematics, Classical vs. intuitionistic logic, Inductive definitions, and Continuous functionals and domains.

Contagious Architecture

Computation, Aesthetics, and Space

Author: Luciana Parisi

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262018632

Category: Computers

Page: 370

View: 8588

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In Contagious Architecture, Luciana Parisi offers a philosophical inquiry into the status of the algorithm in architectural and interaction design. Her thesis is that algorithmic computation is not simply an abstract mathematical tool but constitutes a mode of thought in its own right, in that its operation extends into forms of abstraction that lie beyond direct human cognition and control. These include modes of infinity, contingency, and indeterminacy, as well as incomputable quantities underlying the iterative process of algorithmic processing. The main philosophical source for the project is Alfred North Whitehead, whose process philosophy is specifically designed to provide a vocabulary for "modes of thought" exhibiting various degrees of autonomy from human agency even as they are mobilized by it. Because algorithmic processing lies at the heart of the design practices now reshaping our world -- from the physical spaces of our built environment to the networked spaces of digital culture -- the nature of algorithmic thought is a topic of pressing importance that reraises questions of control and, ultimately, power. Contagious Architecture revisits cybernetic theories of control and information theory's notion of the incomputable in light of this rethinking of the role of algorithmic thought. Informed by recent debates in political and cultural theory around the changing landscape of power, it links the nature of abstraction to a new theory of power adequate to the complexities of the digital world.

Handbook of Workplace Diversity

Author: Alison M Konrad,Pushkala Prasad (ed),Judith Pringle

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761944225

Category: Social Science

Page: 551

View: 2332

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Showcases the scope of international perspectives that exist on workplace diversity and defines this field. This book is a useful resource for students and academics of human resource management, organisational behaviour, organisational psychology and organisation studies.

Postdigital Aesthetics

Art, Computation And Design

Author: D. Berry,M. Dieter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137437200

Category: Art

Page: 320

View: 2874

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Postdigital Aesthetics is a contribution to questions raised by our newly computational everyday lives and the aesthetics which reflect both the postdigital nature of this age, but also critical perspectives of a post-internet world.

Plain Text

The Poetics of Computation

Author: Dennis Tenen

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 1503602346

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 1967

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This book challenges the ways we read, write, store, and retrieve information in the digital age. Computers—from electronic books to smart phones—play an active role in our social lives. Our technological choices thus entail theoretical and political commitments. Dennis Tenen takes up today's strange enmeshing of humans, texts, and machines to argue that our most ingrained intuitions about texts are profoundly alienated from the physical contexts of their intellectual production. Drawing on a range of primary sources from both literary theory and software engineering, he makes a case for a more transparent practice of human–computer interaction. Plain Text is thus a rallying call, a frame of mind as much as a file format. It reminds us, ultimately, that our devices also encode specific modes of governance and control that must remain available to interpretation.

The Culture of Diagram

Author: John Bender,Michael Marrinan

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804773254

Category: Art

Page: 296

View: 2411

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The Culture of Diagram is about visual thinking. Exploring a terrain where words meet pictures and formulas meet figures, the book foregrounds diagrams as tools for blurring those boundaries to focus on the production of knowledge as process. It outlines a history of convergence among diverse streams of data in real-time: from eighteenth-century print media and the diagrammatic procedures in the pages of Diderot's Encyclopedia to the paintings of Jacques-Louis David and mathematical devices that reveal the unseen worlds of quantum physics. Central to the story is the process of correlation, which invites observers to participate by eliciting leaps of imagination to fill gaps in data, equations, or sensations. This book traces practices that ran against the grain of both Locke's clear and distinct ideas and Newton's causality—practices greatly expanded by the calculus, probabilities, and protocols of data sampling. Today's digital technologies are rooted in the ability of high-speed computers to correct errors when returning binary data to the human sensorium. High-tech diagrams echo the visual structures of the Encyclopedia, arraying packets of dissimilar data across digital spaces instead of white paper. The culture of diagram broke with the certainties of eighteenth-century science to expand the range of human experience. Speaking across disciplines and discourses, Bender and Marrinan situate our modernity in a new and revealing light.

Post-Postmodernism

or, The Cultural Logic of Just-in-Time Capitalism

Author: Jeffrey Nealon

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804783217

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 248

View: 731

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Post-Postmodernism begins with a simple premise: we no longer live in the world of "postmodernism," famously dubbed "the cultural logic of late capitalism" by Fredric Jameson in 1984. Far from charting any simple move "beyond" postmodernism since the 1980s, though, this book argues that we've experienced an intensification of postmodern capitalism over the past decades, an increasing saturation of the economic sphere into formerly independent segments of everyday cultural life. If "fragmentation" was the preferred watchword of postmodern America, "intensification" is the dominant cultural logic of our contemporary era. Post-Postmodernism surveys a wide variety of cultural texts in pursuing its analyses—everything from the classic rock of Black Sabbath to the post-Marxism of Antonio Negri, from considerations of the corporate university to the fare at the cineplex, from reading experimental literature to gambling in Las Vegas, from Badiou to the undergraduate classroom. Insofar as cultural realms of all kinds have increasingly been overcoded by the languages and practices of economics, Nealon aims to construct a genealogy of the American present, and to build a vocabulary for understanding the relations between economic production and cultural production today—when American-style capitalism, despite its recent battering, seems nowhere near the point of obsolescence. Post-postmodern capitalism is seldom late but always just in time. As such, it requires an updated conceptual vocabulary for diagnosing and responding to our changed situation.

Computational Intelligence

An Introduction

Author: Andries P. Engelbrecht

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470512500

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 628

View: 6695

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Computational Intelligence: An Introduction, Second Edition offers an in-depth exploration into the adaptive mechanisms that enable intelligent behaviour in complex and changing environments. The main focus of this text is centred on the computational modelling of biological and natural intelligent systems, encompassing swarm intelligence, fuzzy systems, artificial neutral networks, artificial immune systems and evolutionary computation. Engelbrecht provides readers with a wide knowledge of Computational Intelligence (CI) paradigms and algorithms; inviting readers to implement and problem solve real-world, complex problems within the CI development framework. This implementation framework will enable readers to tackle new problems without any difficulty through a single Java class as part of the CI library. Key features of this second edition include: A tutorial, hands-on based presentation of the material. State-of-the-art coverage of the most recent developments in computational intelligence with more elaborate discussions on intelligence and artificial intelligence (AI). New discussion of Darwinian evolution versus Lamarckian evolution, also including swarm robotics, hybrid systems and artificial immune systems. A section on how to perform empirical studies; topics including statistical analysis of stochastic algorithms, and an open source library of CI algorithms. Tables, illustrations, graphs, examples, assignments, Java code implementing the algorithms, and a complete CI implementation and experimental framework. Computational Intelligence: An Introduction, Second Edition is essential reading for third and fourth year undergraduate and postgraduate students studying CI. The first edition has been prescribed by a number of overseas universities and is thus a valuable teaching tool. In addition, it will also be a useful resource for researchers in Computational Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence, as well as engineers, statisticians, operational researchers, and bioinformaticians with an interest in applying AI or CI to solve problems in their domains. Check out http://www.ci.cs.up.ac.za for examples, assignments and Java code implementing the algorithms.

Critical Theory and the Digital

Author: David M. Berry

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1441173609

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 5755

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This Critical Theory and Contemporary Society volume offers an original analysis of the role of the digital in today's society. It rearticulates critical theory by engaging it with the challenges of the digital revolution to show how the digital is changing the ways in which we lead our politics, societies, economies, media, and even private lives. In particular, the work examines how the enlightenment values embedded within the culture and materiality of digital technology can be used to explain the changes that are occurring across society. Critical Theory and the Digital draws from the critical concepts developed by critical theorists to demonstrate how the digital needs to be understood within a dialectic of potentially democratizing and totalizing technical power. By relating critical theory to aspects of a code-based digital world and the political economy that it leads to, the book introduces the importance of the digital code in the contemporary world to researchers in the field of politics, sociology, globalization and media studies.

Computational Neuroscience and Cognitive Modelling

A Student's Introduction to Methods and Procedures

Author: Britt Anderson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446297373

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 1245

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"For the neuroscientist or psychologist who cringes at the sight of mathematical formulae and whose eyes glaze over at terms like differential equations, linear algebra, vectors, matrices, Bayes’ rule, and Boolean logic, this book just might be the therapy needed." - Anjan Chatterjee, Professor of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania "Anderson provides a gentle introduction to computational aspects of psychological science, managing to respect the reader’s intelligence while also being completely unintimidating. Using carefully-selected computational demonstrations, he guides students through a wide array of important approaches and tools, with little in the way of prerequisites...I recommend it with enthusiasm." - Asohan Amarasingham, The City University of New York This unique, self-contained and accessible textbook provides an introduction to computational modelling neuroscience accessible to readers with little or no background in computing or mathematics. Organized into thematic sections, the book spans from modelling integrate and firing neurons to playing the game Rock, Paper, Scissors in ACT-R. This non-technical guide shows how basic knowledge and modern computers can be combined for interesting simulations, progressing from early exercises utilizing spreadsheets, to simple programs in Python. Key Features include: Interleaved chapters that show how traditional computing constructs are simply disguised versions of the spread sheet methods. Mathematical facts and notation needed to understand the modelling methods are presented at their most basic and are interleaved with biographical and historical notes for contex. Numerous worked examples to demonstrate the themes and procedures of cognitive modelling. An excellent text for postgraduate students taking courses in research methods, computational neuroscience, computational modelling, cognitive science and neuroscience. It will be especially valuable to psychology students.