STILL IN SEARCH OF PREHISTORIC

Author: Karl P. N. Shuker

Publisher: Coachwhip Publications

ISBN: 9781616463908

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 612

View: 7597

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Dr Karl Shuker revisits his 1995 classic, In Search of Prehistoric Survivors, with this expanded and updated edition. This comprehensive documentation of alleged cryptozoological survivors from the past will be the go-to reference book on this topic for decades. Get ready for many hours of fascinating reading!

Mysteries of Planet Earth

An Encyclopedia of the Inexplicable

Author: Karl P. Shuker

Publisher: Carlton Books Limited

ISBN: 9781858688022

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 191

View: 4845

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This book focuses its attention on a veritable treasure trove of compelling, strange and hitherto little known but thoroughly fascinating mysteries of every kind, from Oliver the mysterious ape-man and Steller's gigantic sea-cow to flowers that give electric shocks and trees that weep. Many have previously been confined to obscure, relatively inaccessible journals or specialist publications and thus have never been featured before in a mainstream popular book format. They have been uncovered and examined by Dr. Karl P.N. Shuker during his many years of full time investigative and bibliographical researches into the phenomena of planet Earth. The contents break down into three sections: the natural world, the supernatural world, and the vanished world.

Dinosaurs and Other Prehistoric Animals on Stamps

A Worldwide Catalogue

Author: Karl P. N Shuker

Publisher: Cfz

ISBN: 9781905723348

Category: Antiques & Collectibles

Page: 264

View: 4395

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There has never been a more popular time for dinosaurs and all things dinosaurian. From blockbuster films packed with breathtaking CGI effects, children's television and video cartoons, computer games, CD-ROMs, animatronic museum exhibitions, and theme parks, to countless books, magazines, toys large and small, ornaments, collectabilia, and even fun lines in confectionery and other edibles, prehistoric paraphernalia continues to scale new heights of desirability worldwide. But nowhere is this more apparent than within the philatelic world - where the issuing in recent years by an ever-increasing number of countries around the globe of handsome, highly-prized stamp sets depicting a spectacular array of dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals is matched only by the corresponding increase of thematic collectors eager to amass an eyecatching, comprehensive menagerie of palaeontological monsters that the custodians of Jurassic Park could only dream about! Today, well over 500 sets of stamps portraying all manner of dinosaurs and also a multifarious assemblage of other prehistoric animals have been issued, with a substantial proportion of these having appeared within the last decade alone - confirming the escalating interest among collectors in this exciting thematic subject. And who can blame them? After all, where else but in the pages of a stamp album could stegosaurs and plesiosaurs, tyrannosaurs and sabre-tooth tigers, brachiosaurs, mammoths, belemnites, ground sloths, giant birds, and ichthyosaurs jostle for attention with velociraptors and trilobites, dimetrodonts and diplodocuses, mosasaurs, woolly rhinoceroses, Archaeopteryx, titanosaurs, iguanodontids, ammonites, giant sea scorpions, and innumerable other spectacular denizens of our planet's distant past? Now, for the very first time, here is a philatelic catalogue devoted exclusively to these incredible animals. Compiled by zoologist Dr Karl P.N. Shuker, a lifelong, enthusiastic collector of wildlife stamps and with an especial interest in those that portray fossil species, it provides an exhaustive, definitive listing of stamps and miniature sheets depicting dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals issued by countries throughout the world. It also includes sections dealing with cryptozoological stamps, dinosaur stamp superlatives, and unofficial prehistoric animal stamps. This invaluable book will undoubtedly encourage everyone with a passion for dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures to pursue it not only on screen, in books, or in museums but also via the ever-fascinating world of philately.

Mirabilis

A Carnival of Cryptozoology and Unnatural History

Author: Karl P. N. Shuker

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781938398438

Category: Science

Page: 194

View: 3828

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Welcome to a carnival unlike anything that you have ever read about, visited, or even imagined before. Here, before your very eyes, you will encounter bizarre, anomalous creatures of every conceivable (and inconceivable!) kind--a veritable menagerie of cryptozoological mysteries to dazzle and delight, tantalize and terrify. For this is Mirabilis--a realm of marvels, wonders, miracles...and monsters! Peer through the shadows and see what you may. Was that scuttling horror a spider the size of a puppy? Did that fallen tree trunk suddenly sprout a pair of alligator jaws? Was that a living toad that leapt out of that split-asunder block of stone? Did those flowers abruptly put forth wings and fly away as tiny birds? Behold Trunko, the hairy marine elephant-bear that supposedly battled whales off the coast of South Africa almost a century ago. Look around in every direction and witness the very last giant lemurs brought to you from the rainforests of Madagascar, the very same unicorn that was once encountered by Julius Caesar, dinosaur-sized crocodiles from the swamps of the Congo, the elephantine harpoon-tusked sukotyro of Sumatra, gargantuan prehistoric beavers resurrected in modern-day North America, illusive Germanic horned hares and elusive Liberian micro-squirrels, a giant sea snail with antlers and paws from the Sarmatian Sea and a veritable whale-fish from a forgotten Swedish lake, a vanished striped mystery steed from Iberia, enormous toothless freshwater sharks from South America, flying turtles from China and a hippoturtleox from Tibet, sea dragons and pseudo-pterodactyls, and the world's only known tusked megalopedus. Let us not tarry even a moment longer. The miracles and marvels of Mirabilis await you. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Born and still living in the West Midlands, England, Karl P.N. Shuker graduated from the University of Leeds with a Bachelor of Science (Honors) degree in pure zoology, and from the University of Birmingham with a Doctor of Philosophy degree in zoology and comparative physiology. He now works full-time as a freelance zoological consultant to the media, and as a prolific published writer. Shuker is currently the author of 19 books and hundreds of articles, principally on animal-related subjects, with an especial interest in cryptozoology and animal mythology, on which he is an internationally recognized authority, but also including a poetry volume. In addition, he has acted as consultant for several major multi-contributor volumes as well as for the world-renowned Guinness Book of Records/Guinness World Records (he is currently its Senior Consultant for its Life Sciences section); and he has compiled questions for the BBC's long-running cerebral quiz Mastermind. He is also the editor of the Journal of Cryptozoology, the world's only existing peer-reviewed scientific journal devoted to mystery animals. Shuker has travelled the world in the course of his researches and writings, and has appeared regularly on television and radio. Aside from work, his diverse range of interests include motorbikes, the life and career of James Dean, collecting masquerade and carnival masks, quizzes, philately, poetry, travel, world mythology, and the history of animation. He is a Scientific Fellow of the prestigious Zoological Society of London, and a Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society. He is Cryptozoology Consultant to the Centre for Fortean Zoology, and is also a Member of the Society of Authors."

A Living Dinosaur?

In Search of Mokele-Mbembe

Author: Roy P. MacKal

Publisher: Brill Archive

ISBN: 9789004085435

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 6330

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Encyclopedia of Cryptozoology

A Global Guide to Hidden Animals and Their Pursuers

Author: Michael Newton

Publisher: McFarland Publishing

ISBN: 9780786497560

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 584

View: 7347

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On every continent and in every nation, animals unrecognized by modern science are reported on a daily basis. People passionately pursue these creatures--the name given to their field of study is cryptozoology. Coined in the 1950's, the term literally means the science of hidden animals. When the International Society of Cryptozoology (ISC) was formed in 1982, the founders declared that the branch of science is also concerned with the possible existence of known animals in areas where they are not supposed to occur (either now or in the past) as well as the unknown persistence of presumed extinct animals to the present time or to the recent past...what makes an animal of interest to cryptology is that it is unexpected. This reference work presents a flesh and blood view of cryptozoology. Here, 2,744 entries are listed, the majority of which each describe one specific creature or type of creature. Other entries cover 742 places where unnamed cryptids are said to appear; profiles of 77 groups and 112 individuals who have contributed to the field; descriptions of objects and events important to the subject; and essays on cryptotourism and hoaxes, for example. Appendices offer a timeline of zoological discoveries, annotated lists of movies and television series with cryptozoological themes, a list of crypto-fiction titles and a list of Internet websites devoted to cryptozoology.

Mokele-Mbembe

Mystery Beast of the Congo Basin

Author: William John Gibbons

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781616460105

Category: History

Page: 269

View: 5431

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Explorer, cryptozoologist, and creationist Bill Gibbons has traveled to remote corners of the world in search of strange and unknown creatures. But Bill's heart is in Africa, where monstrous dinosaur-like creatures are still rumored to inhabit the vast swamps of the Congo Basin. In Mokele-Mbembe: Mystery Beast of the Congo Basin, Gibbons provides a fascinating insight into several expeditions that have ventured forth in search of suspected living dinosaurs, include several of his own. Here you will read about many amazing eyewitness testimonies and surprise encounters with these remarkable creatures. This book will take you on a journey into a true "lost world" of pygmy tribes, dense unforgiving jungles, hidden unexplored lakes, and rivers that run for hundreds of miles into a land that time has literally forgotten. No armchair explorer, Gibbons also details several other incredible creatures that by all accounts should have been extinct eons ago, yet are still encountered today by astonished eyewitnesses in the 21st century. Join Bill as he continues on his tireless quest in search of an animal that could well be the most important scientific discovery of this century!

Beast

Werewolves, Serial Killers, and Man-Eaters: The Mystery of the Monsters of the Gévaudan

Author: S. R. Schwalb,Gustavo Sánchez Romero

Publisher: Skyhorse

ISBN: 163220780X

Category: True Crime

Page: 352

View: 6739

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A “gripping and suspenseful account” of a baffling killing spree in eighteenth-century France and the fear surrounding the mysterious “Beast of Gévaudan” (Publishers Weekly). Something unimaginable occurred from 1764 to 1767 in the Gévaudan region of south central France. Over the course of three years, in the remote highland, over a hundred people, mostly women and children, were murdered. Appalled reports of the events—considered to be one of the world’s first “media sensations”—suggested that a real-life monster was on the loose. As panic spread, alarmed rural communities were virtually held hostage by the unseen marauder. Louis XV even deployed dragoons and crack wolf hunters from far-off Normandy and the King’s own court to destroy the menace. Despite extensive historical documentation, no one could agree on the origin of the terror. A feral serial killer? A werewolf? An unknown animal species? Or, as was proposed by the local bishop, a scourge of God? To this day, debates on the true nature of La Bête continue. With historical illustrations, composite sketches by the author, on-the-scene modern-day photographs, and autopsy analysis, Beast takes a fascinating look at all the evidence, using a mix of history and modern biology to advance a theory that could solve one of the most bizarre and unexplained killing sprees of all time: France’s infamous Beast of the Gévaudan—a tale that still captures the imagination and has found its way into modern culture through films like The Wolfman, novels like Patricia Brigg’s Hunting Ground, and a History Channel documentary.

A Manifestation of Monsters: Examining the (Un)Usual Suspects

Author: Karl P. N. Shuker

Publisher: Anomalist Books

ISBN: 9781938398650

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 216

View: 5690

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The spectacular front-cover painting by American artist Michael J. Smith, depicting 17 astonishing mystery beasts and other controversial entities, was the inspiration for this latest book by leading cryptozoologist Dr. Karl Shuker. Ever since first seeing it in 2012, Shuker has wanted to prepare a book incorporating this painting's eclectic company of creatures, but the fundamental problem that he faced was how to categorize them collectively. Eventually, Shuker concluded that only one such term could satisfy all those requirements. Indeed, it was tailor-made for this purpose. The term? What else could it be? "Monster"! Derived from the Latin noun "monstrum" and the Old French "monstre," "monster" has many different definitions-a very strange, frightening, possibly evil/ugly mythical creature; something huge and/or threatening; a mutant, or abnormal animal; even something extraordinary, astonishing, incredible, unnatural, inexplicable. These definitions collectively cover all of this book's subjects-and so too, therefore, does the single word "monster" from which the definitions derive. Consequently, this book is a manifestation of monsters-a unique exhibition, a singular gathering, an exceptional congregation of some of the strangest, most mystifying, and sometimes truly terrifying creatures ever reported. Karl P.N. Shuker graduated from the University of Leeds with a Bachelor of Science (Honours) degree in pure zoology, and from the University of Birmingham with a Doctor of Philosophy degree in zoology and comparative physiology. He now works full-time as a freelance zoological consultant to the media, and as a prolific published writer.

Strange Creatures Seldom Seen

Giant Beavers, Sasquatch, Manipogos, and Other Mystery Animals in Manitoba and Beyond

Author: John Warms

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781616462888

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 248

View: 9308

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People see strange things up North, and John Warms has collected stories of some very strange creatures in his travels throughout Manitoba and beyond. From well-known mystery animals like Sasquatch and lake monsters to lesser-known cryptids like giant beavers, "beaver ducks," and "underwater moose," these tales add breadth and depth to Canadian zoological folklore with plenty of material for cryptozoology enthusiasts to investigate. Strange Creatures Seldom Seen includes eyewitness sketches as well as full color illustrations by artist Jarmo Sinisalo. Author John Warms lives in Manitoba's north interlake region, where he is collecting stories for his next book.

The Encyclopaedia of New and Rediscovered Animals

Author: Karl P. N. Shuker

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781616461300

Category: Nature

Page: 370

View: 7264

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At the beginning of the 20th century, scientists and laymen alike appear to have been peculiarly confident that the world had been thoroughly explored and most of its creatures named and documented. Few, if any, large animals still awaited discovery. The scientific unveiling of the giraffe-like okapi in 1901 was one of the earliest of this century's discoveries to shake this belief. But many consider it to be the last great find, and view the rediscovery of extinct animals to be as likely as the alchemic conversion of iron into gold. Since 1901, however, a whole host of new and rediscovered creatures has turned up to contradict these views-including a giant 7-ft-long forest hog from Africa, a colossal Indonesian monitor lizard called the Komodo dragon, the lobe-finned coelacanth fish resurrected from 64 million years of supposed extinction, the incredible megamouth shark, deep-sea tube-dwelling worms over 8 ft tall with huge red tentacles resembling strange alien flowers, plus the extraordinary Vu Quang ox and giant barking deer both discovered in Vietnam during the 1990s. And discoveries continue to be made today, in the 21st century-ranging diversely and dramatically from giant peccaries and zombie worms to an entire new suborder of insects known as the gladiators, a veritable jungle of new monkeys, and an extraordinary chameleonesque snake. And nor can we possibly forget the sensational rediscovery in North America of the near-legendary, supposedly long-extinct ivory-billed woodpecker. The Encyclopaedia of New and Rediscovered Animals is the third, wholly-updated edition of the very first-and still the definitive-book to be devoted to the spectacular zoological discoveries and equally amazing rediscoveries of the 20th century, which attracted international acclaim and exemplary reviews following its original publication in 1993 (when it was entitled The Lost Ark), and its subsequent republication in 2002 as an updated, greatly-expanded second edition (entitled The New Zoo). This latest edition also contains an in-depth survey of the 21st century's most celebrated discoveries and rediscoveries made during its first decade, plus an exhaustive, significantly-increased bibliography, as well as the only comprehensive collection of colour and b/w illustrations of these spectacular animal species ever published (including new, previously-unpublished photographs, and several exclusive, specially-commissioned full-colour paintings). Unquestionably, The Encyclopaedia of New and Rediscovered Animals provides good reason indeed for believing that our world continues to holds many more animal surprises in store for future revelation.

Extreme Survivors: Animals That Time Forgot (How Nature Works)

Author: Kimberly Ridley

Publisher: Tilbury House Publishers and Cadent Publishing

ISBN: 0884485781

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 3436

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Selected for the 2018 Bank Street College of Education Best STEM Children’s Books of the Year What do the goblin shark, horseshoe crab, the “indestructible” water bear, and a handful of other bizarre animals have in common? They are all “extreme survivors,” animals that still look much like their prehistoric ancestors from millions of years ago. Meet ten amazing animals that appear to have changed little in more than 100 million years. They are the rare exceptions to the rule. More than 99 percent of all life forms have gone extinct during the 3.6-billion-year history of life on Earth. Other organisms have changed dramatically, but not our extreme survivors. Evolution may have altered their physiology and behavior, but their body plans have stood the test of time. How have these living links with Earth’s prehistoric past survived? The search for answers is leading scientists to new discoveries about the past—and future—of life on Earth. The survival secrets of some of these ancient creatures could lead to new medicines and treatments for disease. Written in a lively, entertaining voice, Extreme Survivors provides detailed life histories and strange “survival secrets” of ten ancient animals and explains evolution and natural selection. Extensive back matter includes glossary, additional facts and geographic range for each organism and a geologic timeline of Earth. F&P Level V

The Yowie

In Search of Australia's Bigfoot

Author: Tony Healy,Paul Cropper

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781938398469

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 1839

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During the early colonial era, Australia's Aborigines often warned British settlers to beware of huge, ape-like creatures that lurked in the rugged mountains and deep forests of the island continent. Their people, they said, had been encountering the hairy horrors since time immemorial. They knew them by many names, including doolagarl, thoolagarl, jurrawarra, and tjangara. Soon the colonists, too, began to experience hair-raising encounters with the hulking, foul-smelling creatures, which they referred to as "Australian apes," "yahoos" or "youries." Today, they are generally referred to as yowies. The list of modern-day eyewitnesses includes zoologists, rangers, surveyors and members of the elite Special Air Service Regiment. This book chronicles the yowie saga from the pre-colonial era to the present day. It contains over 300 carefully documented eyewitness reports and a vast amount of other data, much of which suggests that the damnably elusive creatures really do exist. The authors also critically examine the many theories that have been put forward to explain - or explain away - Australia's most baffling zoological mystery. PAUL CROPPER became fascinated by the yowie mystery in 1976, when he uncovered several long- forgotten eyewitness reports in colonial-era newspapers. Although then only 14 years old, he began visiting the Blue Mountains, to the west of his home in Sydney, searching for proof of the creatures' existence. Canberra-based TONY HEALY, who had already become intrigued by the bigfoot/sasquatch phenomenon while working in Canada in 1969, also became involved in yowie research in the mid-1970s. Since 1981 they have collaborated on many projects, notably in co-authoring Out of the Shadows: Mystery Animals of Australia, which contained a lengthy chapter about the elusive yowie. Over the past 30 years they have searched for lake monsters, hairy giants, out-of-place big cats and other semi-legendary animals in Fiji, North America, the Bahamas, Iceland, Ireland, Great Britain, Nepal, Malaysia and in every state and territory of Australia."

Horseshoe Crabs and Velvet Worms

The Story of the Animals and Plants That Time Has Left Behind

Author: Richard Fortey

Publisher: Knopf

ISBN: 0307957411

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 2864

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From one of the world’s leading natural scientists and the acclaimed author of Trilobite!, Life: A Natural History of Four Billion Years of Life on Earth and Dry Storeroom No. 1 comes a fascinating chronicle of life’s history told not through the fossil record but through the stories of organisms that have survived, almost unchanged, throughout time. Evolution, it seems, has not completely obliterated its tracks as more advanced organisms have evolved; the history of life on earth is far older—and odder—than many of us realize. Scattered across the globe, these remarkable plants and animals continue to mark seminal events in geological time. From a moonlit beach in Delaware, where the hardy horseshoe crab shuffles its way to a frenzy of mass mating just as it did 450 million years ago, to the dense rainforests of New Zealand, where the elusive, unprepossessing velvet worm has burrowed deep into rotting timber since before the breakup of the ancient supercontinent, to a stretch of Australian coastline with stromatolite formations that bear witness to the Precambrian dawn, the existence of these survivors offers us a tantalizing glimpse of pivotal points in evolutionary history. These are not “living fossils” but rather a handful of tenacious creatures of days long gone. Written in buoyant, sparkling prose, Horseshoe Crabs and Velvet Worms is a marvelously captivating exploration of the world’s old-timers combining the very best of science writing with an explorer’s sense of adventure and wonder.

Mystery Creatures of China

The Complete Cryptozoological Guide

Author: David C. Xu

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781616464318

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 268

View: 1969

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'Mystery Creatures of China' is one of the most exciting additions to the cryptozoological literature in years. Lake monsters, man-beasts, mystery cats, and other strange creatures reported throughout China are described for the mystery animal enthusiast. Those who enjoy reading about the folklore of other cultures will also find much to ponder.

Mysterious Creatures

A Guide to Cryptozoology

Author: George M. Eberhart

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1576072835

Category: Science

Page: 800

View: 3071

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Offers a comprehensive guide to identifying animals yet to be officially recognized in science, and discusses where these animals live and why they remain a mystery.

The Oldest Living Things in the World

Author: Rachel Sussman

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022605764X

Category: Nature

Page: 170

View: 4313

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The Oldest Living Things in the World is an epic journey through time and space. Over the past decade, artist Rachel Sussman has researched, worked with biologists, and traveled the world to photograph continuously living organisms that are 2,000 years old and older. Spanning from Antarctica to Greenland, the Mojave Desert to the Australian Outback, the result is a stunning and unique visual collection of ancient organisms unlike anything that has been created in the arts or sciences before, insightfully and accessibly narrated by Sussman along the way. Her work is both timeless and timely, and spans disciplines, continents, and millennia. It is underscored by an innate environmentalism and driven by Sussman’s relentless curiosity. She begins at “year zero,” and looks back from there, photographing the past in the present. These ancient individuals live on every continent and range from Greenlandic lichens that grow only one centimeter a century, to unique desert shrubs in Africa and South America, a predatory fungus in Oregon, Caribbean brain coral, to an 80,000-year-old colony of aspen in Utah. Sussman journeyed to Antarctica to photograph 5,500-year-old moss; Australia for stromatolites, primeval organisms tied to the oxygenation of the planet and the beginnings of life on Earth; and to Tasmania to capture a 43,600-year-old self-propagating shrub that’s the last individual of its kind. Her portraits reveal the living history of our planet—and what we stand to lose in the future. These ancient survivors have weathered millennia in some of the world’s most extreme environments, yet climate change and human encroachment have put many of them in danger. Two of her subjects have already met with untimely deaths by human hands. Alongside the photographs, Sussman relays fascinating – and sometimes harrowing – tales of her global adventures tracking down her subjects and shares insights from the scientists who research them. The oldest living things in the world are a record and celebration of the past, a call to action in the present, and a barometer of our future.

Yeti

The Ecology of a Mystery

Author: Daniel C. Taylor

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199091366

Category: Science

Page: 412

View: 8472

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As it turned out, young Daniel never outgrew the enchantment of the mysterious Yeti, the Abominable Snowman. His search for the enigmatic creature of Himalayan legends spread over many decades: from 1956 until 2015, Daniel C. Taylor visited almost all valley systems in his quest to explain the ‘Yeti’s footprints’. But to his surprise, solving the footprint mystery did not answer the Yeti question. As his quest evolved, Taylor went on to create two massive national parks around Mount Everest. Equipped with abundant knowledge of the Himalaya, Taylor tells a story that is captivating and full of surprises. He looks back at his exploration of the 2,000-mile-wide Himalaya and talks about bioresilience as a parallel dynamic to biodiversity, thus widening the scope of our understanding of ecology. Yeti: The Ecology of a Mystery is the extraordinary story of one man’s conservation impact and what it means for people to be part of the wild in today’s increasingly tamed world.

Extreme Survivors

Animals That Time Forgot

Author: Kimberly Ridley

Publisher: How Nature Works

ISBN: 9780884485001

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 5222

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What do the horseshoe crab, chambered nautilus, goblin shark, tuatara lizard, velvet worm, lungfish, tadpole shrimp, and the indestructible beasts called tardigrades (which look like bears but are the size of the period at the end of a sentence) have in common? These and a very few other animals are extreme survivors. All of them have been around at least 125 million years, surviving mass extinctions like the one that ended the dinosaurs. Evolution may have altered their physiology through the eons, but not their appearance. More than 99 percent of all life forms have gone extinct during the 3.6--billion--year history of life on Earth. How have these "living fossils"--these living links with Earth's prehistoric past--survived? The search for answers is leading scientists to amazing discoveries--not only about the past, but also the future--and providing vital clues to how life on Earth evolved. The survival secrets of these ancient creatures could lead to new medicines and treatments for disease.