Static Mixers for Coagulation and Disinfection

Author: A. Amirtharajah

Publisher: American Water Works Association

ISBN: 158321111X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 225

View: 4618


Static mixers are an attractive alternative for the mixing of chemicals in water treatment plants. The attraction comes from the fact that static mixers do not require an external input of energy and do not have moving parts. Static mixers consist of mixing elements fixed on the inside of a pipe of channel. The elements do not move. Chemicals, added just upstream of the mixers, mix with the bulk fluid because of the complex, three-dimensional fluid motion generated by the elements. The goal of this project is to explore the use of static mixers in two of the key processes in drinking water treatment: for the mixing of coagulants for destabilization and the mixing of disinfectants for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in disinfection. The role of mixing in both of these processes is not well understood. But for each process experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that, at least in some circumstances, the mixing environment provided when chemicals are introduced into the flow will affect the resulting destabilization or inactivation.

Mechanical Behavior of Engineering Materials

Volume 2: Dynamic Loading and Intelligent Material Systems

Author: Y.M. Haddad

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792363545

Category: Science

Page: 508

View: 1382


This monograph consists of two volumes and provides a unified, comprehensive presentation of the important topics pertaining to the understanding and determination of the mechanical behaviour of engineering materials under different regimes of loading. The large subject area is separated into eighteen chapters and four appendices, all self-contained, which give a complete picture and allow a thorough understanding of the current status and future direction of individual topics. Volume I contains eight chapters and three appendices, and concerns itself with the basic concepts pertaining to the entire monograph, together with the response behaviour of engineering materials under static and quasi-static loading. Thus, Volume I is dedicated to the introduction, the basic concepts and principles of the mechanical response of engineering materials, together with the relevant analysis of elastic, elastic-plastic, and viscoelastic behaviour. Volume II consists of ten chapters and one appendix, and concerns itself with the mechanical behaviour of various classes of materials under dynamic loading, together with the effects of local and microstructural phenomena on the response behaviour of the material. Volume II also contains selected topics concerning intelligent material systems, and pattern recognition and classification methodology for the characterization of material response states. The monograph contains a large number of illustrations, numerical examples and solved problems. The majority of chapters also contain a large number of review problems to challenge the reader. The monograph can be used as a textbook in science and engineering, for third and fourth undergraduate levels, as well as for the graduate levels. It is also a definitive reference work for scientists and engineers involved in the production, processing and applications of engineering materials, as well as for other professionals who are involved in the engineering design process.

Efficient C++

Performance Programming Techniques

Author: Dov Bulka,David Mayhew

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201379501

Category: Computers

Page: 309

View: 388


Far too many programmers and software designers consider efficient C++ to be an oxymoron. They regard C++ as inherently slow and inappropriate for performance-critical applications. Consequently, C++ has had little success penetrating domains such as networking, operating system kernels, device drivers, and others. "Efficient C++" explodes that myth. Written by two authors with first-hand experience wringing the last ounce of performance from commercial C++ applications, this book demonstrates the potential of C++ to produce highly efficient programs. The book reveals practical, everyday object-oriented design principles and C++ coding techniques that can yield large performance improvements. It points out common pitfalls in both design and code that generate hidden operating costs. This book focuses on combining C++'s power and flexibility with high performance and scalability, resulting in the best of both worlds. Specific topics include temporary objects, memory management, templates, inheritance, virtual functions, inlining, reference-counting, STL, and much more. With this book, you will have a valuable compendium of the best performance techniques at your fingertips. 0201379503B04062001

Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance

Author: Sharon Plowman,Denise Smith

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 9780781784061

Category: Medical

Page: 636

View: 6757


This textbook integrates basic exercise physiology with research studies to stimulate learning, allowing readers to apply principles in the widest variety of exercise and sport science careers. It combines basic exercise physiology with special applications and contains flexible organisation of independent units.

Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography

Theory and Practice

Author: Bruno Kolb,Leslie S. Ettre

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471914568

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 8175


The only reference to provide both current and thorough coverage ofthis important analytical technique Static headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) is an indispensabletechnique for analyzing volatile organic compounds, enabling theanalyst to assay a variety of sample matrices while avoiding thecostly and time-consuming preparation involved with traditionalGC. Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography: Theory and Practice has longbeen the only reference to provide in-depth coverage of this methodof analysis. The Second Edition has been thoroughly updated toreflect the most recent developments and practices, and alsoincludes coverage of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and thepurge-and-trap technique. Chapters cover: * Principles of static and dynamic headspace analysis, includingthe evolution of HS-GC methods and regulatory methods using staticHS-GC * Basic theory of headspace analysis-physicochemical relationships,sensitivity, and the principles of multiple headspaceextraction * HS-GC techniques-vials, cleaning, caps, sample volume,enrichment, and cryogenic techniques * Sample handling * Cryogenic HS-GC * Method development in HS-GC * Nonequilibrium static headspace analysis * Determination of physicochemical functions such as vaporpressures, activity coefficients, and more Comprehensive and focused, Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography,Second Edition provides an excellent resource to help the readerachieve optimal chromatographic results. Practical examples withoriginal data help readers to master determinations in a widevariety of areas, such as forensic, environmental, pharmaceutical,and industrial applications.

Improvement of the Ozonation Process Through the Use of Static Mixers

Author: N.A

Publisher: IWA Publishing

ISBN: 1843398486

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 3312


Among the known disinfectants, ozone has been demonstrated to be very effective in inactivating protozoans. Current and proposed regulations impose additional treatment requirements for Cryptosporidium parvum . These regulatory trends tend to place more stringent performance demands on disinfection systems and have therefore increased the need for improvements in the design. The static mixer offers one alternative method for improving the efficiency of the dissolution of ozone and optimizing its use in the disinfection process. The overall objective of this research was to quantify the potential benefits of ozone application through the use of static mixers in terms of increased transfer efficiency, disinfection capacity, and enhanced chemical reactions at laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale systems. Specific goals were to identify and quantify the effect of several water quality parameters and environmental/engineered factors on the disinfection capacity of the ozone-static mixer system and assess bromate formation under optimum conditions for microbial inactivation.The results showed that a static mixer provided (1) rapid and efficient dissolution of gaseous ozone and (2) generation of a homogeneous dissolved ozone solution. These conditions led to higher CTs resulting in enhanced inactivation as compared to fine bubble diffusion contactors. It was found that a static mixer, when integrated with a well-designed, continuous-plug flow ozone contactor, could achieve excellent and predictable Cryptosporidium parvum inactivation. In such systems, applying low ozone doses (GBP 0.5 mg O3/mg C) combined with a pH of GBP 7.0 can provide adequate microbial inactivation while keeping bromate formation below the current MCL (10 ppb. Originally published by AwwaRF for its subscribers in 2003 This publication can also be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below


Government Liars, Media Cheerleaders, and the People Who Fight Back

Author: Amy Goodman

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1401386091

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 8174


Torture. Kidnapping. Bogus wars. Illegal wiretapping. Propaganda. Spies in the newsrooms. Oil profiteers. Soldiers who won't fight. Mothers of fallen soldiers Who will. In Static, the bestselling brother-sister team of Amy Goodman, host of Democracy Now!, and investigative journalist David Goodman takes on government liars, corporate profiteers, and the media that have acted as their cheerleaders. The authors cut through the official static to show the truth about war, torture, and government control of the media. Static breaks the sound barrier to present the voices of dissidents, activists, and others who are often frozen out of official debate. Read Static. Become informed. Fight back. Defend democracy.

Optimal Control Theory and Static Optimization in Economics

Author: Daniel Léonard,Ngo van Long,Ngo van (McGill University Long, Montreal),Ngo, Van Long

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521337465

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 353

View: 7135


Optimal control theory is a technique being used increasingly by academic economists to study problems involving optimal decisions in a multi-period framework. This book is designed to make the difficult subject of optimal control theory easily accessible to economists while at the same time maintaining rigor. Economic intuition is emphasized, examples and problem sets covering a wide range of applications in economics are provided, theorems are clearly stated and their proofs are carefully explained. The development of the text is gradual and fully integrated, beginning with the simple formulations and progressing to advanced topics. Optimal control theory is introduced directly, without recourse to the calculus of variations, and the connection with the latter and with dynamic programming is explained in a separate chapter. Also, the book draws the parallel between optimal control theory and static optimization. No previous knowledge of differential equations is required.

Static Analysis

13th International Symposium, SAS 2006, Seoul, Korea, August 29-31, 2006, Proceedings

Author: Kwangkeun Yi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540377565

Category: Computers

Page: 443

View: 2790


This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2006. The book presents 23 revised full papers together with the abstracts of 3 invited talks. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including program and systems verification, shape analysis and logic, termination analysis, bug detection, compiler optimization, software maintenance, security and safety, abstract interpretation and algorithms, abstract domain and data structures and more.

Static and Dynamic Analysis of Structures

with An Emphasis on Mechanics and Computer Matrix Methods

Author: J.F. Doyle

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792312086

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 6586


This book is concerned with the static and dynamic analysis of structures. Specifi cally, it uses the stiffness formulated matrix methods for use on computers to tackle some of the fundamental problems facing engineers in structural mechanics. This is done by covering the Mechanics of Structures, its rephrasing in terms of the Matrix Methods, and then their Computational implementation, all within a cohesivesetting. Although this book is designed primarily as a text for use at the upper-undergraduate and beginning graduate level, many practicing structural engineers will find it useful as a reference and self-study guide. Several dozen books on structural mechanics and as many on matrix methods are currently available. A natural question to ask is why another text? An odd devel opment has occurred in engineering in recent years that can serve as a backdrop to why this book was written. With the widespread availability and use of comput ers, today's engineers have on their desk tops an analysis capability undreamt of by previous generations. However, the ever increasing quality and range of capabilities of commercially available software packages has divided the engineering profession into two groups: a small group of specialist program writers that know the ins and outs of the coding, algorithms, and solution strategies; and a much larger group of practicing engineers who use the programs. It is possible for this latter group to use this enormous power without really knowing anything of its source.


Author: Edward Scott

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1468546317

Category: Humor

Page: 108

View: 8215


Edward Scott continues to impress as a poet. Not missing a line, he picks up where he left off, a new book. His upgraded self-craft-style writing hasn't lightened up. Scott poetry just keeps rolling along. His writing isn't a form or style, certainly, nothing anyone has ever seen, but more or less an open conscience with an ego that demands print. In his latest book, STATIC, the poet unleashes a new collection of poems that embodies an intangible network of art in its own spectrum based on true authenticity, Scott's writing- a welcomed model to poetry.

Static Analysis

17th International Symposium, SAS 2010, Perpignan, France, September 14-16, 2010, Proceedings

Author: Radhia Cousot,Matthieu Martel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642157688

Category: Computers

Page: 473

View: 5631


This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2010, held in Perpignan, France in September 2010. The conference was co-located with 3 affiliated workshops: NSAD 2010 (Workshop on Numerical and Symbolic Abstract Domains), SASB 2010 (Workshop on Static Analysis and Systems Biology) and TAPAS 2010 (Tools for Automatic Program Analysis). The 22 revised full papers presented together with 4 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 58 submissions. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including abstract domains, bug detection, data flow analysis, logic programming, systems analysis, type inference, cache analysis, flow analysis, verification, abstract testing, compiler optimization and program verification.

Static Timing Analysis for Nanometer Designs

A Practical Approach

Author: J. Bhasker,Rakesh Chadha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387938206

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 572

View: 8034


iming, timing, timing! That is the main concern of a digital designer charged with designing a semiconductor chip. What is it, how is it T described, and how does one verify it? The design team of a large digital design may spend months architecting and iterating the design to achieve the required timing target. Besides functional verification, the t- ing closure is the major milestone which dictates when a chip can be - leased to the semiconductor foundry for fabrication. This book addresses the timing verification using static timing analysis for nanometer designs. The book has originated from many years of our working in the area of timing verification for complex nanometer designs. We have come across many design engineers trying to learn the background and various aspects of static timing analysis. Unfortunately, there is no book currently ava- able that can be used by a working engineer to get acquainted with the - tails of static timing analysis. The chip designers lack a central reference for information on timing, that covers the basics to the advanced timing veri- cation procedures and techniques.

Materials Science in Static High Magnetic Fields

Author: Kazuo Watanabe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540419952

Category: Science

Page: 325

View: 6405


Presents the most comprehensive review of the influence of highly intense magnetic fields on materials of various classes.

Testing Static Random Access Memories

Defects, Fault Models and Test Patterns

Author: Said Hamdioui

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402077524

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 221

View: 353


Embedded memories are one of the fastest growing segments oftoday's new technology market. According to the 2001 InternationalTechnology Roadmap for Semiconductors, embedded memories will continueto dominate the increasing system on chip (SoC) content in the nextseveral years, approaching 94% of the SoC area in about 10 years.Furthermore, the shrinking size of manufacturing structures makesmemories more sensitive to defects. Consequently, the memory yieldwill have a dramatic impact on the overall Defect-per-million level, hence on the overall SoC yield. Meeting a high memory yield requiresunderstanding memory designs, modeling their faulty behaviors, designing adequate tests and diagnosis algorithms as well as efficientself-test and repair schemes."Testing Static Random Access Memories" covers testing of one ofthe important semiconductor memories types; it address testing ofstatic random access memories (SRAMs), both single-port andmulti-port. It contributes to the technical acknowledge needed bythose involved in memory testing, engineers and researchers. The bookbegins with outlining the most popular SRAMs architectures. Then, thedescription of realistic fault models, based on defect injection andSPICE simulation, are introduced. Thereafter, high quality and lowcost test patterns, as well as test strategies for single-port, two-port and any p-port SRAMs are presented, together with somepreliminary test results showing the importance of the new tests inreducing DPM level. The impact of the port restrictions (e.g., read-only ports) on the fault models, tests, and test strategies isalso discussed.Features:

Static Analysis

16th International Symposium, SAS 2009, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 9-11, 2009, Proceedings

Author: Jens Palsberg,Su Zhendong

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642032362

Category: Computers

Page: 362

View: 6728


This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2009, held in Los Angeles, CA, USA in August 2009 - co-located with LICS 2009, the 24th IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science. The 21 revised full papers presented together with two invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from 52 submissions. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including abstract domains, abstract interpretation, abstract testing, compiler optimizations, control flow analysis, data flow analysis, model checking, program specialization, security analysis, theoretical analysis frameworks, type based analysis, and verification systems.

Static Compression of Energetic Materials

Author: Suhithi M. Peiris,Gasper J. Piermarini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540681515

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 2596


Developing and testing novel energetic materials is an expanding branch of the materials sciences. Reaction, detonation or explosion of such materials invariably produce extremely high pressures and temperatures. To study the equations-of-state (EOS) of energetic materials in extreme regimes both shock and static high pressure studies are required. The present volume is an introduction and review of theoretical, experimental and numerical aspects of static compression of such materials. Chapter 1 introduces the basic experimental tool, the diamond anvil pressure cell and the observational techniques used with it such as optical microscopy, infrared spectrometry and x-ray diffraction. Chapter 2 outlines the principles of high-nitrogen energetic materials synthesis. Chapters 3 and 4, examine and compare various EOS formalisms and data fitting for crystalline and non-crystalline materials, respectively. Chapter 5 details the reaction kinetics of detonating energetic materials. Chapter 6 investigates the interplay between static and dynamic (shock) studies. Finally, Chapters 7 and 8 introduce numerical simulations: molecular dynamics of energetic materials under either hydrostatic or uni-axial stress and ab-inito treatments of defects in crystalline materials. This timely volume meets the growing demand for a state-of-the art introduction and review of the most relevant aspects of static compression of energetic materials and will be a valuable reference to researchers and scientists working in academic, industrial and governmental research laboratories.

Static Analysis

14th International Symposium, SAS 2007, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark, August 22-24, 2007, Proceedings

Author: Hanne Riis Nielson,Gilberto Filé

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540740600

Category: Computers

Page: 469

View: 361


This volume presents the refereed proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on Static Analysis. The papers address all aspects of static analysis, including abstract domains, abstract interpretation, abstract testing, compiler optimizations, control flow analysis, data flow analysis, model checking, program specialization, security analysis, theoretical analysis frameworks, type-based analysis, and verification systems.

Static and Dynamic Performance Limitations for High Speed D/A Converters

Author: Anne van den Bosch,Michiel Steyaert,Willy M.C. Sansen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402077616

Category: Computers

Page: 218

View: 5185


Static and Dynamic Performance Limitations for High Speed D/A Converters discusses the design and implementation of high speed current-steering CMOS digital-to-analog converters. Starting from the definition of the basic specifications for a D/A converter, the elements determining the static and dynamic performance are identified. Different guidelines based on scientific derivations are suggested to optimize this performance. Furthermore, a new closed formula has been derived to account for the influence of the transistor mismatch on the achievable resolution of the current-steering D/A converter. To allow a thorough understanding of the dynamic behavior, a new factor has been introduced. Moreover, the frequency dependency of the output impedance introduces harmonic distortion components which can limit the maximum attainable spurious free dynamic range. Finally, the last part of the book gives an overview on different existing transistor mismatch models and the link with the static performance of the D/A converter.