Sporting Equality

Title IX Thirty Years Later

Author: Rita J. Simon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351488384

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 182

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As part of its Education Amendments, the United States Congress passed Title IX in 1972 to ensure that no person should be discriminated against in any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. In the decades since, Title IX has had, among other effects, a marked increase on school athletic programs for women and girls at both the high school and college level. Despite this, a range of questions have been raised about the effectiveness of the federal government's enforcement, and also the impact on male athletics. The government can enact legislation, but how it works remains the domain of administrators at one end and thousands of athletes at the other. Sporting Equality reviews the impact of Title IX thirty years after its passage, and suggests future areas of contention.This new title includes the major findings and recommendations of the Secretary of Education's Commission on Opportunities in Athletics established in 2002, as well as the commission's minority report. These contributions are followed by seven chapters that analyze and assess the strength and weakness of Title IX and offer recommendations for strengthening or changing its goals and objectives. These include: Kimberly A. Yuracko, ""Title IX and the Problem of Gender Equality in Athletics""; Eric C. Dudley, Jr. and George Rutherglen, ""A Comment on the Report of the Commission to Review Title IX""; Barbara Murray, ""How to Evaluate the Implementation of Title IX at Colleges and Universities and Attitudes and Interest of Students Regarding Athletics""; John J. Cheslock and Deborah Anderson, ""Lessons From Research on Title IX and Intercollegiate Athletics""; Valerie M. Bonnette, ""The Little Fusses Over Title IX.""The book concludes with two controversial chapters. The first, by Leo Kocher, argues that Title IX has been detrimental to male athletics, especially gymnastics, swimming, wrestling, and track, while the second by Ellen J. Staurowsky claims that T

Encyclopedia of Title IX and Sports

Author: Nicole Mitchell,Lisa A. Ennis

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780313335877

Category: Law

Page: 199

View: 4495

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Features over one hundred and fifty entries on people, organizations, and court cases related to Title IX, contains alphabetical and topical lists of entries, and includes a chronology of events from 1921 to 2005.

Title IX

A Brief History with Documents

Author: Susan Ware

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 1478622644

Category: History

Page: 185

View: 9645

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Many know Title IX as groundbreaking legislation that protects people from sex-based discrimination in education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. Yet, many do not know the history of women’s sports before Title IX, the history of the amendment, and the struggle for its implementation. These topics and more are discussed in Ware’s well-researched and reader-friendly Introduction, followed by 26 provocative, pertinent documents. The carefully selected writings, organized in chronological order, balance the views of policymakers, legislators, and commentators with the voices of individuals whose lives were shaped by the law. Ware purposely presents conflicting points of view to encourage analytical thinking and lively classroom discussion about gender equity, both in sports and in American society as a whole.

A Place on the Team

The Triumph and Tragedy of

Author: Welch Suggs

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400826544

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 296

View: 1992

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A Place on the Team is the inside story of how Title IX revolutionized American sports. The federal law guaranteeing women's rights in education, Title IX opened gymnasiums and playing fields to millions of young women previously locked out. Journalist Welch Suggs chronicles both the law's successes and failures-the exciting opportunities for women as well as the commercial and recruiting pressures of modern-day athletics. Enlivened with tales from Suggs's reportage, the book clears up the muddle of interpretation and opinion surrounding Title IX. It provides not only a lucid description of how courts and colleges have read (and misread) the law, but also compelling portraits of the people who made women's sports a vibrant feature of American life. What's more, the book provides the first history of the law's evolution since its passage in 1972. Suggs details thirty years of struggles for equal rights on the playing field. Schools dragged their feet, offering token efforts for women and girls, until the courts made it clear that women had to be treated on par with men. Those decisions set the stage for some of the most celebrated moments in sports, such as the Women's World Cup in soccer and the Women's Final Four in NCAA basketball. Title IX is not without its critics. Wrestlers and other male athletes say colleges have cut their teams to comply with the law, and Suggs tells their stories as well. With the chronicles of Pat Summitt, Anson Dorrance, and others who shaped women's sports, A Place on the Team is a must-read not only for sports buffs but also for parents of every young woman who enters the arena of competitive sports.

Nike is a Goddess

The History of Women in Sports

Author: Lissa Smith

Publisher: Atlantic Monthly Press

ISBN: 9780871137616

Category: Social Science

Page: 331

View: 8385

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Fourteen female sportswriters trace the growth of women's sports over the past century, highlighting the pioneering athletes who changed the image of the female athlete and the professionalization of the games

Criminal Justice

Author: Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld

Publisher: Salem PressInc

ISBN: 9781587652219

Category: Law

Page: 1318

View: 5149

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Contains 625 alphabetically arranged entries that examine various aspects of criminal justice in the U.S., covering criminals, codes and categories of law, law enforcement agencies, courts, corrections, the U.S. Constitution, and Supreme Court rulings. Includes a time line, personages and subject indexes, and other reference materials.

Beyond Bend It Like Beckham

The Global Phenomenon of Women's Soccer

Author: Timothy F. Grainey

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 0803240368

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 328

View: 1892

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Though it burst into public consciousness only with the 1999 World Cup, women’s soccer has been around almost as long as its male counterpart, flourishing in England during and after World War I. From the rise of women’s soccer following Title IX legislation in the early seventies to the watershed 1999 World Cup performance that turned the American team into instant celebrities, soccer is now the most popular sport for girls and women, with participation growing exponentially worldwide. Beyond “Bend It Like Beckham” presents the first in-depth global analysis of the women’s game—both where it has come from and where it is headed. With commentary from key players, coaches, and administrators, Timothy F. Grainey follows the sport’s reach into the unlikeliest places today, even countries where women were banned from playing soccer just a few short years ago. Though women in the United States and Canada still fight for equal treatment and funding, their situations differs markedly from the hostility, abuse, and even outright bans that some women still encounter in trying to pursue an activity they love. Through the prism of soccer, this book explores the struggle for women’s rights abroad, in countries as diverse as Sweden, Russia, South Africa, Pakistan, Australia, and Iran.

Choice

Publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a Division of the American Library Association

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Academic libraries

Page: N.A

View: 674

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They Will Have Their Game

Sporting Culture and the Making of the Early American Republic

Author: Kenneth Cohen

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501714201

Category: History

Page: 334

View: 8505

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In They Will Have Their Game, Kenneth Cohen explores how sports, drinking, gambling, and theater produced a sense of democracy while also reinforcing racial, gender, and class divisions in early America. Pairing previously unexplored financial records with a wide range of published reports, unpublished correspondence, and material and visual evidence, Cohen demonstrates how investors, participants, and professional managers and performers from all sorts of backgrounds saw these "sporting" activities as stages for securing economic and political advantage over others. They Will Have Their Game tracks the evolution of this fight for power from 1760 to 1860, showing how its roots in masculine competition and risk-taking gradually developed gendered and racial limits and then spread from leisure activities to the consideration of elections as "races" and business as a "game." Compelling narratives about individual participants illustrate the processes by which challenge and conflict across class, race, and gender lines produced a sporting culture that continued to grant unique freedoms to a wide range of society even as it also provided a basis for the normalization of systematic inequality. The result reorients the standard narrative about the rise of commercial popular culture to question the influence of ideas such as "gentility" and "respectability," and to put men like P. T. Barnum at the end instead of the beginning of the process, unveiling a new take on the creation of the white male republic of the early nineteenth century in which sporting activities lie at the center and not the margins of economic and political history.

Gender Relations in Sport

Author: Emily A. Roper

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9462094551

Category: Education

Page: 186

View: 4882

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Designed primarily as a textbook for upper division undergraduate courses in gender and sport, gender issues, sport sociology, cultural sport studies, and women’s studies, Gender Relations in Sport provides a comprehensive examination of the intersecting themes and concepts surrounding the study of gender and sport. The 16 contributors, leading scholars from sport studies, present key issues, current research perspectives and theoretical developments within nine sub-areas of gender and sport: • Gender and sport participation • Theories of gender and sport • Gender and sport media • Sexual identity and sport • Intersections of race, ethnicity and gender in sport • Framing Title IX policy using conceptual metaphors • Studying the athletic body • Sexual harassment and abuse in sport • Historical developments and current issues from a European perspective The intersecting themes and concepts across chapters are also accentuated. Such a publication provides access to the study of gender relations in sport to students across a variety of disciplines. Emily A. Roper, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health and Kinesiology at Sam Houston State University. Her research focuses on gender, sexuality, and sport.

When the Girls Came Out to Play

The Birth of American Sportswear

Author: Patricia Campbell Warner

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press

ISBN: 9781558495494

Category: Crafts & Hobbies

Page: 292

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Presenting a study of the evolution of American women's clothing, this book traces the history of modern sportswear as a universal style that broke down traditional gender roles. It shows that behind this development was a growing interest in sports that was nurtured by the establishment of schools of higher education for women.

The Rehnquist Choice

The Untold Story of the Nixon Appointment That Redefined the Supreme Court

Author: John W. Dean

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0743229797

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 7179

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The explosive, never-before-revealed story of how William Rehnquist became a Supreme Court Justice, told by the man responsible for his candidacy.

Sport and Women

Social Issues in International Perspective

Author: Gertrud Pfister,Ilse Hartmann-Tews

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134578245

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 3591

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Although female athletes are successful in all types of sport, in many countries sport is still a male domain. This book examines and compares the sporting experiences of women from different countries around the world and offers the first systematic and cross-cultural analysis of the topic of women in sport. Sport and Women presents a wealth of new research data, including in-depth case-studies of 16 countries in North and South America, Asia, Eastern and Western Europe and Africa. In addition, the book offers comparative assessments of the extent to which women are represented in global sport and the opportunities that women have to participate in decision-making processes in sport. The book illuminates a wide range of key international issues in women's sport, such as cultural barriers to participation and the efficacy of political action. It is therefore essential reading for anybody with an interest in the sociology, culture and politics of sport.

Sport Policy in Canada

Author: Lucie Thibault,Jean Harvey

Publisher: University of Ottawa Press

ISBN: 0776620959

Category: Law

Page: 435

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The first and most comprehensive analysis of the new Canadian Sport Policy adopted in 2012.

Unpaid Professionals

Commercialism and Conflict in Big-Time College Sports

Author: Andrew Zimbalist

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400823079

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 280

View: 4940

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Big-time college sports embodies the ideals of amateurism and provides an important complement to university education. Or so its apologists would have us believe. As Andrew Zimbalist shows in this unprecedented analysis, college sports is really a massively commercialized industry based on activities that are often irrelevant and even harmful to education. Zimbalist combines groundbreaking empirical research and a talent for storytelling to provide a firm, factual basis for the many arguments that currently rage about the goals, history, structure, incentive system, and legal architecture of college sports. He paints a picture of a system in desperate need of reform and presents bold recommendations to chart a more sensible future. Zimbalist begins by showing that today's problems are nothing new--that schools have been consumed for more than a century by debates about cheating, commercialism, and the erosion of academic standards. He then takes us into the world of the modern student athlete, explaining the incentives that, for example, encourage star athletes to abandon college for the pros, that create such useless courses as "The Theory of Basketball," and that lead students to ignore classes despite the astronomical odds against becoming a professional athlete. Zimbalist discusses the economic and legal aspects of gender equity in college sports. He assesses the economic impact of television and radio contracts and the financial rewards that come from winning major championships. He examines the often harmful effects of corporate sponsorship and shows that, despite such sponsorship, most schools run their athletic programs at a loss. Zimbalist also considers the relevance of antitrust laws to college sports and asks whether student athletes are ultimately exploited by the system. Zimbalist's provocative recommendations include eliminating freshman eligibility for sports, restricting coaches' access to "sneaker money" from corporations, and ending the hypocrisy about professionalism by allowing teams to employ a quota of non-students as well as to receive funding from the pro leagues. A mixture of lively anecdotes, hard economic data, cogent arguments, and clear analysis, Unpaid Professionals will revitalize debate about a subject close to the hearts and minds of millions of Americans.

Invisible Seasons

Title IX and the Fight for Equity in College Sports

Author: Kelly Belanger

Publisher: Syracuse University Press

ISBN: 0815653824

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 461

View: 8802

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In 1979, a group of women athletes at Michigan State University, their civil rights attorney, the institution’s Title IX coordinator, and a close circle of college students used the law to confront a powerful institution—their own university. By the mid-1970s, opposition from the NCAA had made intercollegiate athletics the most controversial part of Title IX, the 1972 federal law prohibiting discrimi nation in all federally funded education programs and activities. At the same time, some of the most motivated, highly skilled women athletes in colleges and universities could no longer tolerate the long-standing differences between men’s and women‘s separate but obviously unequal sports programs. In Invisible Seasons, Belanger recalls the remarkable story of how the MSU women athletes helped change the landscape of higher education athletics. They learned the hard way that even groundbreaking civil rights laws are not self-executing. This behind-the-scenes look at a university sports program challenges us all to think about what it really means to put equality into practice, especially in the money-driven world of college sports.