Simulation For The Social Scientist

Author: Gilbert, Nigel,Troitzsch, Klaus

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335225128

Category: Social Science

Page: 295

View: 9055

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Social sciences -- Simulation methods. Social interaction -- Computer simulation. Social sciences -- Mathematical models. (publisher)

Simulation For The Social Scientist

Author: Gilbert, Nigel,Troitzsch, Klaus

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 9780335216000

Category: Social Science

Page: 295

View: 8688

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Social sciences -- Simulation methods. Social interaction -- Computer simulation. Social sciences -- Mathematical models. (publisher)

Monte Carlo Simulation and Resampling Methods for Social Science

Author: Thomas M. Carsey,Jeffrey J. Harden

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483324923

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 2360

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Taking the topics of a quantitative methodology course and illustrating them through Monte Carlo simulation, Monte Carlo Simulation and Resampling Methods for Social Science, by Thomas M. Carsey and Jeffrey J. Harden, examines abstract principles, such as bias, efficiency, and measures of uncertainty in an intuitive, visual way. Instead of thinking in the abstract about what would happen to a particular estimator "in repeated samples," the book uses simulation to actually create those repeated samples and summarize the results. The book includes basic examples appropriate for readers learning the material for the first time, as well as more advanced examples that a researcher might use to evaluate an estimator he or she was using in an actual research project. The book also covers a wide range of topics related to Monte Carlo simulation, such as resampling methods, simulations of substantive theory, simulation of quantities of interest (QI) from model results, and cross-validation. Complete R code from all examples is provided so readers can replicate every analysis presented using R.

Tools and Techniques for Social Science Simulation

Author: Ramzi Suleiman,Klaus G. Troitzsch,Nigel Gilbert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642517447

Category: Social Science

Page: 387

View: 2087

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The use of computer simulations to study social phenomena has grown rapidly during the last few years. Many social scientists from the fields of economics, sociology, psychology and other disciplines now use computer simulations to study a wide range of social phenomena. The availability of powerful personal computers, the development of multidisciplinary approaches and the use of artificial intelligence models have all contributed to this development. The benefits of using computer simulations in the social sciences are obvious. This holds true for the use of simulations as tools for theory building and for its implementation as a tool for sensitivity analysis and parameter optimization in application-oriented models. In both, simulation provides powerful tools for the study of complex social systems, especially for dynamic and multi-agent social systems in which mathematical tractability is often impossible. The graphical display of simulation output renders it user friendly to many social scientists that lack sufficient familiarity with the language of mathematics. The present volume aims to contribute in four directions: (1) To examine theoretical and methodological issues related to the application of simulations in the social sciences. By this we wish to promote the objective of designing a unified, user-friendly, simulation toolkit which could be applied to diverse social problems. While no claim is made that this objective has been met, the theoretical issues treated in Part 1 of this volume are a contribution towards this objective.

Agent-Based Models

Author: Nigel Gilbert,Professor Nigel Gilbert

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412949645

Category: Social Science

Page: 98

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Aimed at readers with minimal experience in computer programming, this brief book provides a theoretical and methodological rationale for using ABM in the social sciences. It goes on to describe some carefully chosen examples from different disciplines, illustrating different approaches to ABM. It concludes with practical advice about how to design and create ABM, a discussion of validation procedures, and some guidelines about publishing articles based on ABM.

Theory Construction and Model-building Skills

A Practical Guide for Social Scientists

Author: James Jaccard,Jacob Jacoby

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1606233408

Category: Psychology

Page: 391

View: 8397

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Meeting a crucial need for graduate students and newly minted researchers, this innovative text provides hands-on tools for generating ideas and translating them into formal theories. It is illustrated with numerous practical examples drawn from multiple social science disciplines and research settings. The authors offer clear guidance for defining constructs, thinking through relationships and processes that link constructs, and deriving new theoretical models (or building on existing ones) based on those relationships. Step by step, they show readers how to use causal analysis, mathematical modeling, simulations, and grounded and emergent approaches to theory construction. A chapter on writing about theories contains invaluable advice on crafting effective papers and grant applications. Useful pedagogical features in every chapter include: Application exercises and concept exercises Lists of key terms and engaging topical boxes Annotated suggestions for further reading. This book is intended for graduate students in a range of disciplines, including psychology, education, sociology, health, and management, as well as social scientists pursing research careers in academic or other settings. It can serve as a primary text in graduate-level courses in theory construction or as a supplemental text in courses on research methodology, theories of a particular discipline, grant writing, or the dissertation.

Introduction to Computational Social Science

Principles and Applications

Author: Claudio Cioffi-Revilla

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319501313

Category: Computers

Page: 618

View: 7075

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This textbook provides a comprehensive and reader-friendly introduction to the field of computational social science (CSS). Presenting a unified treatment, the text examines in detail the four key methodological approaches of automated social information extraction, social network analysis, social complexity theory, and social simulation modeling. This updated new edition has been enhanced with numerous review questions and exercises to test what has been learned, deepen understanding through problem-solving, and to practice writing code to implement ideas. Topics and features: contains more than a thousand questions and exercises, together with a list of acronyms and a glossary; examines the similarities and differences between computers and social systems; presents a focus on automated information extraction; discusses the measurement, scientific laws, and generative theories of social complexity in CSS; reviews the methodology of social simulations, covering both variable- and object-oriented models.

Social Emergence

Societies As Complex Systems

Author: Robert Keith Sawyer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521844642

Category: Philosophy

Page: 276

View: 6678

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Can we understand important social issues by studying individual personalities and decisions? Or are societies somehow more than the people in them? Sociologists have long believed that psychology can't explain what happens when people work together in complex modern societies. In contrast, most psychologists and economists believe that if we have an accurate theory of how individuals make choices and act on them, we can explain pretty much everything about social life. Social Emergence takes a new approach to these longstanding questions. Sawyer argues that societies are complex dynamical systems, and that the best way to resolve these debates is by developing the concept of emergence, focusing on multiple levels of analysis - individuals, interactions, and groups - and with a dynamic focus on how social group phenomena emerge from communication processes among individual members. This book makes a unique contribution not only to complex systems research but also to social theory.

Introduction to Applied Bayesian Statistics and Estimation for Social Scientists

Author: Scott M. Lynch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387712658

Category: Social Science

Page: 359

View: 2334

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This book outlines Bayesian statistical analysis in great detail, from the development of a model through the process of making statistical inference. The key feature of this book is that it covers models that are most commonly used in social science research - including the linear regression model, generalized linear models, hierarchical models, and multivariate regression models - and it thoroughly develops each real-data example in painstaking detail.

Behavioral Computational Social Science

Author: Riccardo Boero

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118657306

Category: Mathematics

Page: 200

View: 584

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"Provides a unified approach to social research, integrating both agent-based models and behavioral studies.Introduces the reader to all the concepts, tools and references that are required for conducting research in behavioral computational social science"--

Analytical Sociology

Actions and Networks

Author: Gianluca Manzo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118762738

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 7008

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Demonstrates the power of the theoretical framework of analytical sociology in explaining a large array of social phenomena Analytical Sociology: Actions and Networks presents the most advanced theoretical discussion of analytical sociology, along with a unique set of examples on mechanism- based sociology. Leading scholars apply the theoretical principles of analytical sociology to understand how puzzling social and historical phenomena including crime, lynching, witch-hunts, tax behaviours, Web-based social movement and communication, restaurant reputation, job search and careers, social network homophily and instability, cooperation and trust are brought about by complex, multi-layered social mechanisms. The analyses presented in this book rely on a wide range of methods which include qualitative observations, advanced statistical techniques, complex network tools, refined simulation methods and creative experimental protocols. This book ultimately demonstrates that sociology, like any other science, is at its best when it dissects the mechanisms at work by means of rigorous model building and testing. Analytical Sociology: • Provides the most complete and up-to-date theoretical treatment of analytical sociology. • Looks at a wide range of complex social phenomena within a single and unitary theoretical framework. • Explores a variety of advanced methods to build and test theoretical models. • Examines how both computational modelling and experiments can be used to study the complex relation between norms, networks and social actions. • Brings together research from leading global experts in the field in order to present a unique set of examples on mechanism-based sociology. Advanced graduate students and researchers working in sociology, methodology of social sciences, statistics, social networks analysis and computer simulation will benefit from this book.

What the Future Holds

Insights from Social Science

Author: Richard N. Cooper,Richard Layard

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262532044

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 289

View: 6162

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Social scientists from various disciplines discuss and offer predictions about the future. Predicting the future is notoriously difficult. But systematic analysis leads to clearer understanding and wiser decisions. Thinking about the future also makes social scientists focus their research into the past and present more fruitfully, with more attention to key predictors of change. This book considers how we might think intelligently about the future. Taking different methodological approaches, well-known specialists forecast likely future developments and trends in human life. The questions they address include: How many humans will there be? Will there be enough energy? How will climate change affect our lives? What patterns of work will exist? How will government work at the local, national, and world level? Will inflation remain under control? Why have past forecasts been so bad? The book concludes with a discussion of the intellectual and historical context of futurology and a look at the accuracy of predictions that were made for the year 2000. Jed.

Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling

Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling

Author: Joshua M. Epstein

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400842875

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 7785

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Agent-based computational modeling is changing the face of social science. In Generative Social Science, Joshua Epstein argues that this powerful, novel technique permits the social sciences to meet a fundamentally new standard of explanation, in which one "grows" the phenomenon of interest in an artificial society of interacting agents: heterogeneous, boundedly rational actors, represented as mathematical or software objects. After elaborating this notion of generative explanation in a pair of overarching foundational chapters, Epstein illustrates it with examples chosen from such far-flung fields as archaeology, civil conflict, the evolution of norms, epidemiology, retirement economics, spatial games, and organizational adaptation. In elegant chapter preludes, he explains how these widely diverse modeling studies support his sweeping case for generative explanation. This book represents a powerful consolidation of Epstein's interdisciplinary research activities in the decade since the publication of his and Robert Axtell's landmark volume, Growing Artificial Societies. Beautifully illustrated, Generative Social Science includes a CD that contains animated movies of core model runs, and programs allowing users to easily change assumptions and explore models, making it an invaluable text for courses in modeling at all levels.

Evidence-based Policy Making in the Social Sciences

Methods that Matter

Author: Stoker, Gerry,Evans, Mark

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447329368

Category: Political Science

Page: 276

View: 8586

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This valuable book offers a distinct and critical showcase of emerging forms of discovery for policy-making drawing on the insights of some of the world’s leading authorities in public policy analysis.

Science in the Age of Computer Simulation

Author: Eric Winsberg

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226902048

Category: Computers

Page: 152

View: 5979

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Computer simulation was first pioneered as a scientific tool in meteorology and nuclear physics in the period following World War II, but it has grown rapidly to become indispensible in a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including astrophysics, high-energy physics, climate science, engineering, ecology, and economics. Digital computer simulation helps study phenomena of great complexity, but how much do we know about the limits and possibilities of this new scientific practice? How do simulations compare to traditional experiments? And are they reliable? Eric Winsberg seeks to answer these questions in Science in the Age of Computer Simulation. Scrutinizing these issue with a philosophical lens, Winsberg explores the impact of simulation on such issues as the nature of scientific evidence; the role of values in science; the nature and role of fictions in science; and the relationship between simulation and experiment, theories and data, and theories at different levels of description. Science in the Age of Computer Simulation will transform many of the core issues in philosophy of science, as well as our basic understanding of the role of the digital computer in the sciences.

Agent-Based Computational Sociology

Author: Flaminio Squazzoni

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119941636

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 724

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Most of the intriguing social phenomena of our time, such as international terrorism, social inequality, and urban ethnic segregation, are consequences of complex forms of agent interaction that are difficult to observe methodically and experimentally. This book looks at a new research stream that makes use of advanced computer simulation modelling techniques to spotlight agent interaction that allows us to explain the emergence of social patterns. It presents a method to pursue analytical sociology investigations that look at relevant social mechanisms in various empirical situations, such as markets, urban cities, and organisations. This book: Provides a comprehensive introduction to epistemological, theoretical and methodological features of agent-based modelling in sociology through various discussions and examples. Presents the pros and cons of using agent-based models in sociology. Explores agent-based models in combining quantitative and qualitative aspects, and micro- and macro levels of analysis. Looks at how to pose an agent-based research question, identifying the model building blocks, and how to validate simulation results. Features examples of agent-based models that look at crucial sociology issues. Supported by an accompanying website featuring data sets and code for the models included in the book. Agent-Based Computational Sociology is written in a common sociological language and features examples of models that look at all the traditional explanatory challenges of sociology. Researchers and graduate students involved in the field of agent-based modelling and computer simulation in areas such as social sciences, cognitive sciences and computer sciences will benefit from this book.

Modeling and Simulation in Simulink for Engineers and Scientists

Author: Mohammad Nuruzzaman

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1463468989

Category: History

Page: 225

View: 8078

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The subject matter of this book is to present the procedural steps required for modeling and simulating the basic dynamic system problems in SIMULINK (a supplementary part of MATLAB) which follow some definitive model. However, the key features of the text can be cited as follows: The book is on the whole a guiding tool for the undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering who want to work out or simulate the classroom modeling problems using SIMULINK To check the understanding of SIMULINK output and deliberate the reliability on SIMULINK, analytical solutions of the model outputs are inserted in most chapters Since the text presents modeling ranging from elementary to advanced level, audience spectrum of the text includes engineers, teachers, researchers, and scientists who are beginners in using SIMULINK Know-how aspects of SIMULINK are covered in a made-easy way so that the average reader becomes benefited even if starting from the scratch Tabular block links at the end of each chapter required for a particular class of problems help the reader bring them in the model file and simulate quickly Over 300 classroom-modeling examples are simulated with clarity and systematic steps Appropriate for individual or classroom exercise There are ten chapters in the book bearing the following titles: Introduction to SIMULINK Modeling Mathematical Functions and Waves Modeling Ordinary Differential Equations Modeling Difference Equations Modeling Common Problems of Control Systems Modeling Some Signal Processing Problems Modeling Common Matrix Algebra Problems Modeling Common Statistics and Conversion Problems Fourier Analysis Problems Miscellaneous Modeling and Some Programming Issues

Environmental Social Science

Human - Environment interactions and Sustainability

Author: Emilio F. Moran

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444358278

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 2430

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Environmental Social Science offers a new synthesis of environmental studies, defining the nature of human-environment interactions and providing the foundation for a new cross-disciplinary enterprise that will make critical theories and research methods accessible across the natural and social sciences. Makes key theories and methods of the social sciences available to biologists and other environmental scientists Explains biological theories and concepts for the social sciences community working on the environment Helps bridge one of the difficult divides in collaborative work in human-environment research Includes much-needed descriptions of how to carry out research that is multinational, multiscale, multitemporal, and multidisciplinary within a complex systems theory context

Clinical Simulation

Author: Richard Kyle,W. Bosseau Murray

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080556970

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 848

View: 3109

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Simulation facilities are invaluable for training in medicine and clinical education, biomedical engineering and life sciences. They allow the practice of prevention, containment, treatment, and procedure in a risk-free setting. This book is a practical guide and reference to the latest technology, operations and opportunities presented by clinical simulation. It shows how to develop and make efficient use of resources, and provides hands-on information to those tasked with setting up and delivering simulation facilities for medical, clinical and related purposes, and the development and delivery of simulation-based education programs A step-by-step manual to developing successful simulation programs Shows how to design, construct, outfit and run simulation facilities for clinical education and research. The Residency Review Committee of the US Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education has begun requiring residency programs to have simulation as an integral part of their training programs.

Simulating Minds

The Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience of Mindreading

Author: Alvin I. Goldman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199881421

Category: Philosophy

Page: 384

View: 7482

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People are minded creatures; we have thoughts, feelings and emotions. More intriguingly, we grasp our own mental states, and conduct the business of ascribing them to ourselves and others without instruction in formal psychology. How do we do this? And what are the dimensions of our grasp of the mental realm? In this book, Alvin I. Goldman explores these questions with the tools of philosophy, developmental psychology, social psychology and cognitive neuroscience. He refines an approach called simulation theory, which starts from the familiar idea that we understand others by putting ourselves in their mental shoes. Can this intuitive idea be rendered precise in a philosophically respectable manner, without allowing simulation to collapse into theorizing? Given a suitable definition, do empirical results support the notion that minds literally create (or attempt to create) surrogates of other peoples mental states in the process of mindreading? Goldman amasses a surprising array of evidence from psychology and neuroscience that supports this hypothesis.