Rethinking Ancient Woodland

The Archaeology and History of Woods in Norfolk

Author: Gerry Barnes,Tom Williamson

Publisher: Univ of Hertfordshire Press

ISBN: 1909291609

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 3182

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'Ancient woodland' is a term widely used in England for long-established semi-natural woods, shaped by centuries of traditional management. Such woods are often assumed to provide a direct link with the natural vegetation of England, as this existed before the virgin forests were fragmented by the arrival of farming. This groundbreaking study questions many of these assumptions. Drawing on more than a decade of research in Norfolk, the authors emphasize the essentially unnatural character of ancient woods.

World of the Small Farmer

Tenure, Profit and Politics in the Early-Modern Somerset Levels

Author: Patricia Croot

Publisher: Univ of Hertfordshire Press

ISBN: 1909291919

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 326

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This detailed and original study of early-modern agrarian society in the Somerset Levels examines the small landholders in a group of sixteen contiguous parishes in the area known as Brent Marsh. These were farmers with lifehold tenures and a mixed agricultural production whose activities and outlook are shown to be very different from that of the small 'peasant' farmers of so many general histories. Patricia Croot challenges the idea that small farmers failed to contribute to the productivity and commercialization of the early-modern economy. While the emergence of large capitalist farms was an important development, these added to the production of existing small cultivators, rather than replacing them. The idea that only large-scale, specialized farmers were involved in agricultural progress, or that their contribution alone was enough to account for the great increase in food production by the late 17th century is questioned; small farmers continued to make a living, contributed to the market, and survived alongside the new, bigger farms. Croot's in-depth study not only adds to our knowledge of agrarian society generally, but shows that far from being backward and interested primarily in subsistence farming, small producers in this area sought profit in making the best use of their resources, however limited, being flexible in their production and growing new or unusual crops. The main land tenures, copy and lease for lives, are also covered in detail, contributing to current debates on landholding and sub-tenancy. The author shows the uses to which lifehold tenures could be put, resulting in the increasing financial strength of copyholders and their dominance in local society. The effects of the tenure and profits of farming can be seen in the way that families were provided for, as well as in the roles that women played and the responsibility they had in economic and social life, while the wider interests of the inhabitants are shown in their religious and political engagement in events of the 17th century. Patricia Croot's meticulous study is a valuable contribution to English agrarian history, and in particular to the history of this under-researched region.

Trees in England

Management and Disease since 1600

Author: Gerry Barnes,Toby Pillatt,Tom Williamson

Publisher: Univ of Hertfordshire Press

ISBN: 1912260018

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 4994

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There is currently much concern about our trees and woodlands. The terrible toll taken by Dutch elm disease has been followed by a string of further epidemics, most worryingly ash chalara – and there are more threats on the horizon. There is also a widely shared belief that our woods have been steadily disappearing over recent decades, either replanted with alien conifers or destroyed entirely in order to make way for farmland or development. But the present state of our trees needs to be examined critically, and from a historical as much as from a scientific perspective. For English tree populations have long been highly unnatural in character, shaped by economic and social as much as by environmental factors. In reality, the recent history of trees and woods in England is more complex and less negative than we often assume and any narrative of decline and loss is overly simplistic. The numbers of trees and the extent and character of woodland have been in a state of flux for centuries. Research leaves no doubt, moreover, that arboreal ill health is nothing new. Levels of disease are certainly increasing but this is as much a consequence of changes in the way we treat trees – especially the decline in intensive management which has occurred over the last century and a half – as it is of the arrival of new diseases. And man, not nature, has shaped the essential character of rural tree populations, ensuring their dominance by just a few indigenous species and thus rendering them peculiarly vulnerable to invasive pests and diseases. The messages from history are clear: we can and should plant our landscape with a wider palette, providing greater resilience in the face of future pathogens; and the most 'unnatural' and rigorously managed tree populations are also the healthiest. The results of an ambitious research project are here shaped into a richly detailed survey of English arboriculture over the last four centuries. Trees in England will be essential reading not only for landscape historians but also for natural scientists, foresters and all those interested in the future of the countryside. Only by understanding the essentially human history of our trees and woods can we hope to protect and enhance them.

Ancient Trees in the Landscape

Norfolk's Arboreal Heritage

Author: Gerry Barnes,Tom Williamson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781905119394

Category: History

Page: 179

View: 9036

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Ancient Trees in the Landscape is the outcome of many years research into the history of trees in Norfolk, and represents the first detailed, published account of the ancient and traditionally managed trees of any English county. Yet it is far more than a regional survey. It is an exploration of how trees can be studied as part of the landscape. It discusses how accurately trees can be dated; explains why old trees are found in certain contexts and not in others; discusses traditional management practices and how these changed over time; and looks at the various ways in which trees have been used in parks and gardens. Above all, it considers how trees were regarded by people in the past, and how this has affected their survival to the present. Ancient Trees in the Landscape is a fascinating and original study which sets out a new agenda in landscape history. It will be essential reading for countryside managers and conservationists, and for all those interested in landscape history, arboriculture, and the history of the English countryside.

Woodland Development

A Long-term Study of Lady Park Wood

Author: George Peterken,Edward Mountford

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1780648650

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 302

View: 7832

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In 1944 Lady Park Wood (45 hectares of woodland in Gloucestershire and Monmouthshire, UK) was set aside indefinitely by the Forestry Commission so that ecologists could study how woodland develops naturally. Since then, in a unique long-term study, individual trees and shrubs have been recorded at intervals, accumulating a detailed record of more than 20,000 individual beech, sessile oak, ash, wych elm, small-leaved lime, large-leaved lime, birch, hazel, yew and other species. In the seven decades since the study started, the wood has changed; trees grew, died and regenerated, and drought, disease and other events shaped its destiny. Each tree and shrub species reacted in its own way to changes in the wood as a whole and to changes in the fortunes of its neighbours. Meanwhile, the wild fauna, flora and fungi also responded, leaving the wood richer in some groups but poorer in others. In this landmark book, beautifully illustrated throughout, George Peterken and Edward Mountford, summarise the ongoing results of the Lady Park Wood study, highlighting its unique place in nature conservation and its significance to ecology in general. It also builds on experience at Lady Park Wood and elsewhere to discuss in particular: the role and maintenance of long-term ecological studies; the concept and form of natural woodland; the role of minimum-intervention policies in woodland nature conservation; near-to-nature forestry; and the desirability and practicalities of re-wilding woodlands.

Time Before History

The Archaeology of North Carolina

Author: H. Trawick Ward,R. P. Stephen Davis

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 9780807847800

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 4148

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Describes the state's prehistory and archaeological discoveries

The Social Archaeology of Food

Thinking about Eating from Prehistory to the Present

Author: Christine A. Hastorf

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316710416

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 5897

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This book offers a global perspective on the role food has played in shaping human societies, through both individual and collective identities. It integrates ethnographic and archaeological case studies from the European and Near Eastern Neolithic, Han China, ancient Cahokia, Classic Maya, the Inka and many other periods and regions, to ask how the meal in particular has acted as a social agent in the formation of society, economy, culture and identity. Drawing on a range of social theorists, Hastorf provides a theoretical toolkit essential for any archaeologist interested in foodways. Studying the social life of food, this book engages with taste, practice, the meal and the body to discuss power, identity, gender and meaning that creates our world as it created past societies.

Trees, Forested Landscapes and Grazing Animals

A European Perspective on Woodlands and Grazed Treescapes

Author: Ian D. Rotherham

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415626110

Category: History

Page: 412

View: 3935

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In this comprehensive book, the critical components of the European landscape - forest, parkland, and other grazed landscapes with trees are addressed. The book considers the history of grazed treed landscapes, of large grazing herbivores in Europe, and the implications of the past in shaping our environment today and in the future. Debates on the types of anciently grazed landscapes in Europe, and what they tell us about past and present ecology, have been especially topical and controversial recently. This treatment brings the current discussions and the latest research to a much wider audience. The book breaks new ground in broadening the scope of wood-pasture and woodland research to address sites and ecologies that have previously been overlooked but which hold potential keys to understanding landscape dynamics. Eminent contributors, including Oliver Rackham and Frans Vera, present a text which addresses the importance of history in understanding the past landscape, and the relevance of historical ecology and landscape studies in providing a future vision.

European Wood-pastures in Transition

A Social-ecological Approach

Author: Tibor Hartel,Tobias Plieninger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135139113

Category: Nature

Page: 322

View: 6553

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Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions. This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown to be related to accelerated cultural, institutional and developmental changes occurring across Europe over the past century. Case studies are included from North-Western, Southern, and Eastern Europe. Written by renowned scholars and conservationists, the book contributes to developing better, locally adapted conservation policies and management approaches for wood-pastures.

Natural Woodland

Ecology and Conservation in Northern Temperate Regions

Author: George F. Peterken

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521367929

Category: Nature

Page: 522

View: 3025

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An appreciation of the natural processes of woodlands is essential for the development of a rationale and practices for woodland nature conservation and management. In this book, Dr. Peterken describes how woodlands grow, die, and regenerate in the absence of human influence, and the structures and range of habitats found in natural woods. He describes examples of virgin and old-growth forests in Europe and North America, and outlines the dynamics and structure of natural temperate woodlands. This knowledge is then applied to nature conservation issues in British woods and forests, particularly the maintenance of "untouched" reserves, the management of native broadleaved woods, and the design of coniferous plantations. Natural Woodlands is a fascinating account of woodland natural history for all those concerned with the management and ecology of natural or commercial woodlands.

Hertfordshire

A Landscape History

Author: Anne Rowe,Tom Williamson

Publisher: Univ of Hertfordshire Press

ISBN: 1909291005

Category: Gardening

Page: 320

View: 3005

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Dividing the county of Hertfordshire into four broad regions—the “champion” countryside in the north, the Chiltern dip slope to the west, the fertile boulder clays of the east, and the unwelcoming London Clay in the south—this volume explains how, in the course of the middle ages, natural characteristics influenced the development of land use and settlement to create a range of distinctive landscapes. The great diversity of Hertfordshire’s landscapes makes it a particularly rewarding area of study. Variations in farming economies, in patterns of trade and communication, as well as in the extent of London’s influence, have all played a part during the course of the postmedieval centuries, and Hertfordshire’s continuing evolution is followed into the 21st century. Lavishly illustrated with maps and photographs, this authoritative work is invaluable reading for all those with an interest in the history, archaeology, and natural transformation of this fascinating county.

The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Geography

Author: Dydia DeLyser

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1412919916

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 8741

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The process of learning qualitative research has altered dramatically and this Handbook explores the growth, change, and complexity within the topic and looks back over its history to assess the current state of the art, and indicate possible future directions. Moving beyond textbook rehearsals of standard issues, the book examines key methodological debates and conflicts, approaching them in a critical, discursive manner.

The Archaeology of Plural and Changing Identities

Beyond Identification

Author: Eleanor Casella,Chris Fowler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306486951

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 6185

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As people move through life, they continually shift affiliation from one position to another, dependent on the wider contexts of their interactions. Different forms of material culture may be employed as affiliations shift, and the connotations of any given set of artifacts may change. In this volume the authors explore these overlapping spheres of social affiliation. Social actors belong to multiple identity groups at any moment in their life. It is possible to deploy one or many potential labels in describing the identities of such an actor. Two main axes exist upon which we can plot experiences of social belonging – the synchronic and the diachronic. Identities can be understood as multiple during one moment (or the extended moment of brief interaction), over the span of a lifetime, or over a specific historical trajectory. From the Introduction The international contributions each illuminate how the various identifiers of race, ethnicity, sexuality, age, class, gender, personhood, health, and/or religion are part of both material expressions of social affiliations, and transient experiences of identity. The Archaeology of Plural and Changing Identities: Beyond Identification will be of great interest to archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, curators and other social scientists interested in the mutability of identification through material remains.

The Heirs of the Roman West

Author: Joachim Henning

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110218844

Category: History

Page: 591

View: 7010

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International führende Experten analysieren die Strukturen und wirtschaftlichen Funktionen nicht-agrarischer Zentren zwischen ca. 500 und 1000 n. Chr.: ihre Handelsbeziehungen, das Hinterland ihrer Siedlungen, ihr landwirtschaftliches und kulturelles Umfeld. Die einunddreißig Beiträge befassen sich mit neuen archäologischen Erkenntnissen aus Mitteleuropa (Bd.1) und von Südeuropa bis Kleinasien ( Bd. 2).

PaleoAmerican Archaeology in Virginia

Author: Wm Jack Hranicky

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1627341102

Category:

Page: 256

View: 5375

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This book is a full-color study of over 500 pre-Clovis stone artifacts of Virginia. With the 22K-year date of the Cinmar bipoint in Virginia, there is ample evidence of artifact classes that are older than Clovis. Over 50 tool types are illustrated and discussed. Artifact single-site collections are documented. The book argues the differences between Holocene biface technology with the blade and core technology of the Pleistocene era. The requirements for identifying Pleistocene artifacts is presented, such as platforms, remaining cortex, and invasive retouch. They are presented in a tool model. Major stones, namely jasper, are discussed as a lithic determinism. The east coast distribution is presented for various tool types. Additionally, as a major focus, cross-Atlantic flake/blade identical tools from Europe are illustrated with Middle Atlantic artifacts. Artifact ergonomics, such as right-left handed tools, hypothetical tool center, are argued. Structural and functional axis are shown and described on how to identify them on tools. Overall, this book presents an initiating view of the archaeology needed to study Pleistocene era artifacts on the American east coast.

Hedgerow History

Ecology, History and Landscape Character

Author: Gerry Barnes,Tom Williamson

Publisher: Windgather Press

ISBN: 1909686409

Category: Nature

Page: 152

View: 2189

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Oxbow says: For many years hedges have been the most common field boundary in rural Britain, providing a stock-proof barrier, a field boundary and a haven for wildlife. Despite this, they are rarely studied in any detail in landscape archaeology. The authors of Hedgerow History rightly argue that hedges, as an essential feature of the landscape, their origins and development, are as worthy of study as any other part of the landscape. Their book focuses on the species content and diversity of hedges, how these came about and how they changed over time. The introduction provides the background to hedges in Britain, the development of field boundaries, changes in fields and farming, especially the impact of enclosure, hedgerow management, and methods of dating hedges. In an attempt to evaluate the pioneering work of Hooper and Pollard in the 1960s and 1970s, and gain insights into the diversity of hedges and the possible human and animal reasons for it, Barnes and Williamson carried out a detailed survey of hedgerows in Norfolk. Finding 61 shrub species among the Norfolk hedgerows, they attempt to tie this data in with evidence on geology, soils, climate, woodland, enclosure, farming practices and historical factors, as an indicator of the processes of continuity and change that have taken place in the wider landscape.

The Anglo-Saxon Fenland

Author: Susan Oosthuizen

Publisher: Windgather Press

ISBN: 1911188119

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 8084

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Archaeologies and histories of the fens of eastern England, continue to suggest, explicitly or by implication, that the early medieval fenland was dominated by the activities of north-west European colonists in a largely empty landscape. Using existing and new evidence and arguments, this new interdisciplinary history of the Anglo-Saxon fenland offers another interpretation. The fen islands and the silt fens show a degree of occupation unexpected a few decades ago. Dense Romano-British settlement appears to have been followed by consistent early medieval occupation on every island in the peat fens and across the silt fens, despite the impact of climatic change. The inhabitants of the region were organised within territorial groups in a complicated, almost certainly dynamic, hierarchy of subordinate and dominant polities, principalities and kingdoms. Their prosperous livelihoods were based on careful collective control, exploitation and management of the vast natural water-meadows on which their herds of cattle grazed. This was a society whose origins could be found in prehistoric Britain, and which had evolved through the period of Roman control and into the post-imperial decades and centuries that followed. The rich and complex history of the development of the region shows, it is argued, a traditional social order evolving, adapting and innovating in response to changing times.