Reputation And International Politics

Author: Jonathan Mercer

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501724479

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

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Mercer examines reputation formation in a series of crises before World War I. He tests competing arguments, one from deterrence theory, the other from social psychology, to see which better predicts and explains how reputations form. He extends his findings to address contemporary crises such as the Gulf War, and considers how culture, gender and nuclear weapons affect reputation.

Passion, Politics, and the Past

The Role of Affect in U.S. Decision-making During the Korean War

Author: Vladimir Donskoi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783639109115

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 9388

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This book shows that foreign policy decision-making is not as "cool-minded" as it is deemed to be. It analyses how the lessons of history influence decision-making and argues that, during crises, a decision-maker's affect (anger and fear) can bias him towards straightforward responses of the fight or flight type. This insight also prompts a fresh answer to the question what analogies are likely to be picked from the vast pool of historical events: a) behaviourally straightforward analogies, with forceful imagery and clear-cut affective connotations; b) analogies that are already established in the political discourse; c) exceedingly grave analogies; d) many different analogies with congruent inferences. Thus, politicians tend to draw analogies that are affectively salient (e.g. between Saddam Hussein and Hitler) rather than factually accurate, and this explains why such analogies are often farfetched. The case on which the model is then tested is the U.S. decision-making during 1st week of the Korean War. This book will be especially interesting for scholars and practitioners in the field of politics as well as for everyone who wants to understand how emotions influence decisions.

The Ideology of the Offensive

Military Decision Making and the Disasters of 1914 (Cornell Studies in Security Affairs)

Author: Jack Snyder

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801468612

Category: History

Page: 272

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Jack Snyder's analysis of the attitudes of military planners in the years prior to the Great War offers new insight into the tragic miscalculations of that era and into their possible parallels in present-day war planning. By 1914, the European military powers had adopted offensive military strategies even though there was considerable evidence to support the notion that much greater advantage lay with defensive strategies. The author argues that organizational biases inherent in military strategists' attitudes make war more likely by encouraging offensive postures even when the motive is self-defense. Drawing on new historical evidence of the specific circumstances surrounding French, German, and Russian strategic policy, Snyder demonstrates that it is not only rational analysis that determines strategic doctrine, but also the attitudes of military planners. Snyder argues that the use of rational calculation often falls victim to the pursuit of organizational interests such as autonomy, prestige, growth, and wealth. Furthermore, efforts to justify the preferred policy bring biases into strategists' decisions—biases reflecting the influences of parochial interests and preconceptions, and those resulting from attempts to simplify unduly their analytical tasks. The frightening lesson here is that doctrines can be destabilizing even when weapons are not, because doctrine may be more responsive to the organizational needs of the military than to the implications of the prevailing weapons technology. By examining the historical failure of offensive doctrine, Jack Snyder makes a valuable contribution to the literature on the causes of war.

The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution

Statecraft and the Prospect of Armageddon

Author: Robert Jervis

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801495656

Category: Political Science

Page: 266

View: 8347

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Looks at how nuclear weapons have affected the meaning of war, the psychology of statesmanship, and the formulation of military policy

Constructing International Relations: The Next Generation

The Next Generation

Author: Karin M. Fierke,Knud Erik Jorgensen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317473876

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 6606

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The constructivist approach is the most important new school in the field of postcold war international relations. Constructivists assume that interstate and interorganizational relations are always at some level linguistic contexts. Thus they bridge IR theory and social theory. This book explores the constructivist approach in IR as it has been developing in the larger context of social science worldwide, with younger IR scholars building anew on the tradition of Wittgenstein, Habermas, Luhman. Foucault, and others. The contributors include Friedrich Kratochwil, Harald Muller, Matthias Albert, Jennifer Milliken, Birgit Locher-Dodge and Elisabeth Prugl, Ben Rosamond, Nicholas Onuf, Audie Klotz, Lars Lose, and the editors.

Between Ally and Partner

Korea-China Relations and the United States

Author: Jae Ho Chung

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231511183

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 309

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China and South Korea have come a long way since they were adversaries. The arc of their relationship since the late 1970s is an excellent model of East-West cooperation and, at the same time, highlights the growing impact of China's "rise" over its regional neighbors, including America's close allies. South Korea-China relations have rarely been studied as an independent theme. The accumulation of more than fifteen years of research, Between Ally and Partner reconstructs a comprehensive portrait of Sino-Korean rapprochement and examines the strategic dilemma that the rise of China has posed for South Korea and its alliance with the United States. Jae Ho Chung makes use of declassified government archives, internal reports, and opinion surveys and conducts personal interviews with Korean, Chinese, and American officials. He tackles three questions: Why did South Korea and China reconcile before the end of the cold war? How did rapprochement lay the groundwork for diplomatic normalization? And what will the intersection of security concerns and economic necessity with China mean for South Korea's relationship with its close ally, the United States? The implications of Sino-Korean relations go far beyond the Korean Peninsula. South Korea was caught largely unprepared, both strategically and psychologically, by China's rise, and the dilemma that South Korea now faces has crucial ramifications for many countries in Asia, where attempts to counterbalance China have been rare. Thoroughly investigated and clearly presented, this book answers critical questions concerning what kept these two countries talking and how enmity was transformed into a zeal for partnership.

Constructivism and International Relations

Alexander Wendt and His Critics

Author: Stefano Guzzini,Anna Leander

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134319592

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

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This new book unites in one volume some of the most prominent critiques of Alexander Wendt's constructivist theory of international relations and includes the first comprehensive reply by Wendt. Partly reprints of benchmark articles, partly new original critiques, the critical chapters are informed by a wide array of contending theories ranging from realism to poststructuralism. The collected leading theorists critique Wendt’s seminal book Social Theory of International Politics and his subsequent revisions. They take issue with the full panoply of Wendt’s approach, such as his alleged positivism, his critique of the realist school, the conceptualism of identity, and his teleological theory of history. Wendt’s reply is not limited to rebuttal only. For the first time, he develops his recent idea of quantum social science, as well as its implications for theorising international relations. This unique volume will be a necessary companion to Wendt’s book for students and researchers seeking a better understanding of his work, and also offers one of the most up-to-date collections on constructivist theorizing.

The Shadow of the Past

reputation and military alliances before the First World War

Author: Gregory D. Miller

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801464137

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

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In The Shadow of the Past, Gregory D. Miller examines the role that reputation plays in international politics, emphasizing the importance of reliability-confidence that, based on past political actions, a country will make good on its promises-in the formation of military alliances. Challenging recent scholarship that focuses on the importance of credibility-a state's reputation for following through on its threats-Miller finds that reliable states have much greater freedom in forming alliances than those that invest resources in building military force but then use it inconsistently. To explore the formation and maintenance of alliances based on reputation, Miller draws on insights from both political science and business theory to track the evolution of great power relations before the First World War. He starts with the British decision to abandon "splendid isolation" in 1900 and examines three crises--the First Moroccan Crisis (1905-6), the Bosnia-Herzegovina Crisis (1908-9), and the Agadir Crisis (1911)-leading up to the war. He determines that states with a reputation for being a reliable ally have an easier time finding other reliable allies, and have greater autonomy within their alliances, than do states with a reputation for unreliability. Further, a history of reliability carries long-term benefits, as states tend not to lose allies even when their reputation declines.

"Lost" Causes

Agenda Vetting in Global Issue Networks and the Shaping of Human Security

Author: Charli Carpenter

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801470358

Category: Law

Page: 248

View: 8942

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Why do some issues and threats—diseases, weapons, human rights abuses, vulnerable populations—get more global policy attention than others? How do global activist networks decide the particular causes for which they advocate among the many problems in need of solutions? According to Charli Carpenter, the answer lies in the politics of global issue networks themselves. Building on surveys, focus groups, and analyses of issue network websites, Carpenter concludes that network access has a direct relation to influence over how issues are ranked. Advocacy elites in nongovernmental and transnational organizations judge candidate issues not just on their merit but on how the issues connect to specific organizations, individuals, and even other issues. In “Lost” Causes, Carpenter uses three case studies of emerging campaigns to show these dynamics at work: banning infant male circumcision; compensating the wartime killing and maiming of civilians; and prohibiting the deployment of fully autonomous weapons (so-called killer robots). The fate of each of these campaigns was determined not just by the persistence and hard work of entrepreneurs but by advocacy elites’ perception of the issues’ network ties. Combining sweeping analytical argument with compelling narrative, Carpenter reveals how the global human security agenda is determined.

Waging War, Planning Peace

U.S. Noncombat Operations and Major Wars

Author: Aaron Rapport

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801455634

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 791

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As the U.S. experience in Iraq following the 2003 invasion made abundantly clear, failure to properly plan for risks associated with postconflict stabilization and reconstruction can have a devastating impact on the overall success of a military mission. In Waging War, Planning Peace, Aaron Rapport investigates how U.S. presidents and their senior advisers have managed vital noncombat activities while the nation is in the midst of fighting or preparing to fight major wars. He argues that research from psychology—specifically, construal level theory—can help explain how individuals reason about the costs of postconflict noncombat operations that they perceive as lying in the distant future. In addition to preparations for "Phase IV" in the lead-up to the Iraq War, Rapport looks at the occupation of Germany after World War II, the planned occupation of North Korea in 1950, and noncombat operations in Vietnam in 1964 and 1965. Applying his insights to these cases, he finds that civilian and military planners tend to think about near-term tasks in concrete terms, seriously assessing the feasibility of the means they plan to employ to secure valued ends. For tasks they perceive as further removed in time, they tend to focus more on the desirability of the overarching goals they are pursuing rather than the potential costs, risks, and challenges associated with the means necessary to achieve these goals. Construal level theory, Rapport contends, provides a coherent explanation of how a strategic disconnect can occur. It can also show postwar planners how to avoid such perilous missteps.

Warring Friends

Alliance Restraint in International Politics

Author: Jeremy Pressman

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801467128

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 3565

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Allied nations often stop each other from going to war. Some countries even form alliances with the specific intent of restraining another power and thereby preventing war. Furthermore, restraint often becomes an issue in existing alliances as one ally wants to start a war, launch a military intervention, or pursue some other risky military policy while the other ally balks. In Warring Friends, Jeremy Pressman draws on and critiques realist, normative, and institutionalist understandings of how alliance decisions are made. Alliance restraint often has a role to play both in the genesis of alliances and in their continuation. As this book demonstrates, an external power can apply the brakes to an incipient conflict, and even unheeded advice can aid in clarifying national goals. The power differentials between allies in these partnerships are influenced by leadership unity, deception, policy substitutes, and national security priorities. Recent controversy over the complicated relationship between the U.S. and Israeli governments-especially in regard to military and security concerns-is a reminder that the alliance has never been easy or straightforward. Pressman highlights multiple episodes during which the United States attempted to restrain Israel's military policies: Israeli nuclear proliferation during the Kennedy Administration; the 1967 Arab-Israeli War; preventing an Israeli preemptive attack in 1973; a small Israeli operation in Lebanon in 1977; the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982; and Israeli action during the Gulf War of 1991. As Pressman shows, U.S. initiatives were successful only in 1973, 1977, and 1991, and tensions have flared up again recently as a result of Israeli arms sales to China. Pressman also illuminates aspects of the Anglo-American special relationship as revealed in several cases: British nonintervention in Iran in 1951; U.S. nonintervention in Indochina in 1954; U.S. commitments to Taiwan that Britain opposed, 1954-1955; and British intervention and then withdrawal during the Suez War of 1956. These historical examples go far to explain the context within which the Blair administration failed to prevent the U.S. government from pursuing war in Iraq at a time of unprecedented American power.

Dictators at War and Peace

Author: Jessica L. P. Weeks

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801455235

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

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Why do some autocratic leaders pursue aggressive or expansionist foreign policies, while others are much more cautious in their use of military force? The first book to focus systematically on the foreign policy of different types of authoritarian regimes, Dictators at War and Peace breaks new ground in our understanding of the international behavior of dictators. Jessica L. P. Weeks explains why certain kinds of regimes are less likely to resort to war than others, why some are more likely to win the wars they start, and why some authoritarian leaders face domestic punishment for foreign policy failures whereas others can weather all but the most serious military defeat. Using novel cross-national data, Weeks looks at various nondemocratic regimes, including those of Saddam Hussein and Joseph Stalin; the Argentine junta at the time of the Falklands War, the military government in Japan before and during World War II, and the North Vietnamese communist regime. She finds that the differences in the conflict behavior of distinct kinds of autocracies are as great as those between democracies and dictatorships. Indeed, some types of autocracies are no more belligerent or reckless than democracies, casting doubt on the common view that democracies are more selective about war than autocracies.

Anatomy of Mistrust

U.S.-Soviet Relations During the Cold War

Author: Deborah Welch Larson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780801433023

Category: History

Page: 329

View: 6385

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Synthesizing different understandings of trust and mistrust from the theoretical traditions of economics, psychology, and game theory, Larson analyzes five cases that might have been turning points in U.S.-Soviet relations: the two-year period following Stalin's death in 1953; Khrushchev's peace offensive from the launching of Sputnik until the U-2 incident; the Kennedy administration; the Nixon-Brezhnev detente; and the Gorbachev period. Larson concludes that leaders in the United States often refused to accept Soviet offers to negotiate because they feared a trap.

Liddell Hart and the Weight of History

Author: John J. Mearsheimer

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801476310

Category: History

Page: 234

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This troubling book offers a striking illustration of how history can be used and abused—how a gifted individual can create their own self-serving version of the past.