Quantum Field Theory and Its Macroscopic Manifestations

Boson Condensation, Ordered Patterns, and Topological Defects

Author: Massimo Blasone,Petr Jizba,Giuseppe Vitiello

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848162804

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 1691


This book is a self-contained presentation of the quantum field theory of topological defects created during spontaneous symmetry breakdown phase transitions, with a particular emphasis on phenomenological issues of current interest.

Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision

Author: Jerome R. Busemeyer,Peter D. Bruza

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110701199X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 407

View: 8937


Introduces principles drawn from quantum theory to present a new framework for modeling human cognition and decision.

The Conceptual Framework of Quantum Field Theory

Author: Anthony Duncan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199573263

Category: Science

Page: 782

View: 8155


The book provides a step by step construction of the framework of relativistic quantum field theory, starting from a minimal set of basic foundational postulates. The emphasis is on a careful and detailed description of the conceptual subtleties of modern field theory, many of which are glossed over in other texts.

From Collective Beings to Quasi-Systems

Author: Gianfranco Minati,Eliano Pessa

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493975811

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 386

View: 1457


This book outlines a possible future theoretical perspective for systemics, its conceptual morphology and landscape while the Good-Old-Fashioned-Systemics (GOFS) era is still under way. The change from GOFS to future systemics can be represented, as shown in the book title, by the conceptual change from Collective Beings to Quasi-systems. With the current advancements, problems and approaches occurring in contemporary science, systemics are moving beyond the traditional frameworks used in the past. From Collective Beings to Coherent Quasi-Systems outlines a conceptual morphology and landscape for a new theoretical perspective for systemics introducing the concept of Quasi-systems. Advances in domains such as theoretical physics, philosophy of science, cell biology, neuroscience, experimental economics, network science and many others offer new concepts and technical tools to support the creation of a fully transdisciplinary General Theory of Change. This circumstance requires a deep reformulation of systemics, without forgetting the achievements of established conventions. The book is divided into two parts. Part I, examines classic systemic issues from new theoretical perspectives and approaches. A new general unified framework is introduced to help deal with topics such as dynamic structural coherence and Quasi-systems. This new theoretical framework is compared and contrasted with the traditional approaches. Part II focuses on the process of translation into social culture of the theoretical principles, models and approaches introduced in Part I. This translation is urgent in post-industrial societies where emergent processes and problems are still dealt with by using the classical or non-systemic knowledge of the industrial phase.

Ultracold Quantum Fields

Author: Henk T. C. Stoof,Dennis B. M. Dickerscheid,Koos Gubbels

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402087632

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 485

View: 7437


On June 19th 1999, the European Ministers of Education signed the Bologna Dec laration, with which they agreed that the European university education should be uniformized throughout Europe and based on the two cycle bachelor master’s sys tem. The Institute for Theoretical Physics at Utrecht University quickly responded to this new challenge and created an international master’s programme in Theoret ical Physics which started running in the summer of 2000. At present, the master’s programme is a so called prestige master at Utrecht University, and it aims at train ing motivated students to become sophisticated researchers in theoretical physics. The programme is built on the philosophy that modern theoretical physics is guided by universal principles that can be applied to any sub?eld of physics. As a result, the basis of the master’s programme consists of the obligatory courses Statistical Field Theory and Quantum Field Theory. These focus in particular on the general concepts of quantum ?eld theory, rather than on the wide variety of possible applica tions. These applications are left to optional courses that build upon the ?rm concep tual basis given in the obligatory courses. The subjects of these optional courses in clude, for instance, Strongly Correlated Electrons, Spintronics, Bose Einstein Con densation, The Standard Model, Cosmology, and String Theory.

Thermal Field Theories

Author: H. Ezawa,T. Arimitsu,Yasushi Hashimoto

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444598812

Category: Science

Page: 624

View: 7841


Theories of quantum fields at non-zero temperature have been steadily developed for well over a decade. In 1988, as a result of the increased demand for communication among theorists working in different fields ranging from condensed matter physics to high energy physics and astrophysics, the first international meeting was organized (the proceedings of which have been published in Physica A 158, 1989). This 2nd workshop covers similar fields, namely equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics, quantum optics, high-temperature gauge-field theories, string theories, statistical theories of gravitation and cosmology. The resulting proceedings reflect the progress made in the respective fields, identify the major common problems and suggest possible directions for their solutions.

Science and the Akashic Field

An Integral Theory of Everything

Author: Ervin Laszlo

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1594779902

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 208

View: 726


Presents the unifying world-concept long sought by scientists, mystics, and sages: an Integral Theory of Everything • Explains how modern science has rediscovered the Akashic Field of perennial philosophy • New edition updates ongoing scientific studies, presents new research inspired by the first edition, and includes new case studies and a section on animal telepathy Mystics and sages have long maintained that there exists an interconnecting cosmic field at the roots of reality that conserves and conveys information, a field known as the Akashic record. Recent discoveries in vacuum physics show that this Akashic Field is real and has its equivalent in science’s zero-point field that underlies space itself. This field consists of a subtle sea of fluctuating energies from which all things arise: atoms and galaxies, stars and planets, living beings, and even consciousness. This zero-point Akashic Field is the constant and enduring memory of the universe. It holds the record of all that has happened on Earth and in the cosmos and relates it to all that is yet to happen. In Science and the Akashic Field, philosopher and scientist Ervin Laszlo conveys the essential element of this information field in language that is accessible and clear. From the world of science he confirms our deepest intuitions of the oneness of creation in the Integral Theory of Everything. We discover that, as philosopher William James stated, “We are like islands in the sea, separate on the surface but connected in the deep.”

The Quantum Vacuum

A Scientific and Philosophical Concept, from Electrodynamics to String Theory and the Geometry of the Microscopic World

Author: Luciano Boi

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421402475

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 4240


A vacuum, classically understood, contains nothing. The quantum vacuum, on the other hand, is a seething cauldron of nothingness: particle pairs going in and out of existence continuously and rapidly while exerting influence over an enormous range of scales. Acclaimed mathematical physicist and natural philosopher Luciano Boi expounds the quantum vacuum, exploring the meaning of nothingness and its relationship with physical reality. Boi first provides a deep analysis of the interaction between geometry and physics at the quantum level. He next describes the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic structures of the world. In so doing, Boi sheds light on the very nature of the universe, stressing in an original and profound way the relationship between quantum geometry and the internal symmetries underlying the behavior of matter and the interactions of forces. Beyond the physics and mathematics of the quantum vacuum, Boi offers a profoundly philosophical interpretation of the concept. Plato and Aristotle did not believe a vacuum was possible. How could nothing be something, they asked? Boi traces the evolution of the quantum vacuum from an abstract concept in ancient Greece to its fundamental role in quantum field theory and string theory in modern times. The quantum vacuum is a complex entity, one essential to understanding some of the most intriguing issues in twentieth-century physics, including cosmic singularity, dark matter and energy, and the existence of the Higgs boson particle. Boi explains with simple clarity the relevant theories and fundamental concepts of the quantum vacuum. Theoretical, mathematical, and particle physicists, as well as researchers and students of the history and philosophy of physics, will find The Quantum Vacuum to be a stimulating and engaging primer on the topic.

Space, Time, and Gravity

The Theory of the Big Bang and Black Holes

Author: Robert M. Wald

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226870281

Category: Science

Page: 153

View: 8186


Writing for the general reader or student, Wald has completely revised and updated this highly regarded work to include recent developments in black hole physics and cosmology. Nature called the first edition "a very readable and accurate account of modern relativity physics for the layman within the unavoidable constraint of almost no mathematics. . . . A well written, entertaining and authoritative book."

Information and Self-Organization

A Macroscopic Approach to Complex Systems

Author: Hermann Haken

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662078937

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 4393


Complex systems are ubiquitous, and practically all branches of science ranging from physics through chemistry and biology to economics and sociology have to deal with them. In this book we wish to present concepts and methods for dealing with complex systems from a unifying point of view. Therefore it may be of inter est to graduate students, professors and research workers who are concerned with theoretical work in the above-mentioned fields. The basic idea for our unified ap proach sterns from that of synergetics. In order to find unifying principles we shall focus our attention on those situations where a complex system changes its macroscopic behavior qualitatively, or in other words, where it changes its macroscopic spatial, temporal or functional structure. Until now, the theory of synergetics has usually begun with a microscopic or mesoscopic description of a complex system. In this book we present an approach which starts out from macroscopic data. In particular we shall treat systems that acquire their new structure without specific interference from the outside; i. e. systems which are self-organizing. The vehicle we shall use is information. Since this word has several quite different meanings, all of which are important for our purpose, we shall discuss its various aspects. These range from Shannon information, from which all semantics has been exorcised, to the effects of information on receivers and the self-creation of meaning.

Information Theory and Quantum Physics

Physical Foundations for Understanding the Conscious Process

Author: Herbert S. Green

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540665175

Category: Computers

Page: 244

View: 7104


In this book, H. S. Green, a former student of Max Born and well known as an author in physics and in philosophy of science, presents an individual and modern approach to theoretical physics and related fundamental problems. Starting from first principles, the links between physics and information science are unveiled step by step: modern information theory and the classical theory of the Turing machine are combined to create a new interpretation of quantum computability, which is then applied to field theory, gravitation and submicroscopic measurement theory and culminates in a detailed examination of the role of the conscious observer in physical measurements. The result is a highly readable book that unifies a wide range of scientific knowledge and is essential reading for all scientists and philosophers of science interested in the interpretation and the implications of the interaction between information science and basic physical theories.

Brain and Being

At the Boundary Between Science, Philosophy, Language and Arts

Author: Gordon G. Globus,Karl H. Pribram,Giuseppe Vitiello

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027251947

Category: Philosophy

Page: 350

View: 1844


This book results from a group meeting held at the Institute for Scientific Exchange in Torino, Italy. The central aim was for scientists to “think together” in new ways with those in the humanities inspired by quantum theory and especially quantum brain theory. These fields of inquiry have suffered conceptual estrangement but now are ripe for rapprochement, if academic parochialism is put aside. A prevalent theme of the book is a moving away from individual elements and individual actors acting upon each other, toward a coordinate hermeneutic dynamics that manifests as a coherent totality. Among the topics covered are image in photography and in neuroscience; language; time; brain and mathematics; quantum brain dynamics and quantum communication.

Field Theories of Condensed Matter Physics

Author: Eduardo Fradkin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107310563

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 7231


Presenting the physics of the most challenging problems in condensed matter using the conceptual framework of quantum field theory, this book is of great interest to physicists in condensed matter and high energy and string theorists, as well as mathematicians. Revised and updated, this second edition features new chapters on the renormalization group, the Luttinger liquid, gauge theory, topological fluids, topological insulators and quantum entanglement. The book begins with the basic concepts and tools, developing them gradually to bring readers to the issues currently faced at the frontiers of research, such as topological phases of matter, quantum and classical critical phenomena, quantum Hall effects and superconductors. Other topics covered include one-dimensional strongly correlated systems, quantum ordered and disordered phases, topological structures in condensed matter and in field theory and fractional statistics.

The Thermodynamics of Quantum YangCMills Theory

Theory and Applications

Author: Ralf Hofmann

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813100508

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 4937


This latest edition enhances the material of the first edition with a derivation of the value of the action for each of the Harrington–Shepard calorons/anticalorons that are relevant for the emergence of the thermal ground state. Also included are discussions of the caloron center versus its periphery, the role of the thermal ground state in U(1) wave propagation, photonic particle–wave duality, and calculational intricacies and book-keeping related to one-loop scattering of massless modes in the deconfining phase of an SU(2) Yang–Mills theory. Moreover, a derivation of the temperature–redshift relation of the CMB in deconfining SU(2) Yang–Mills thermodynamics and its application to explaining an apparent early re-ionization of the Universe are given. Finally, a mechanism of mass generation for cosmic neutrinos is proposed. Contents: Theory:The Classical Yang–Mills ActionThe Perturbative Approach at Zero TemperatureAspects of Finite-Temperature Field TheorySelfdual Field ConfigurationsThe Deconfining PhaseThe Preconfining PhaseThe Confining PhaseApplications:The Approach of Thermal Lattice Gauge TheoryBlack-Body AnomalyAstrophysical and Cosmological Implications of SU(2)CMB Readership: Advanced students, postdocs and researchers in theoretical physics and mathematics, as well as experimentalists.

Quantum Field Theory of Non-equilibrium States

Author: Jørgen Rammer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139465015

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 3039


Quantum field theory is the application of quantum mechanics to systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. This 2007 textbook presents quantum field theoretical applications to systems out of equilibrium. It introduces the real-time approach to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and the quantum field theory of non-equilibrium states in general. It offers two ways of learning how to study non-equilibrium states of many-body systems: the mathematical canonical way and an easy intuitive way using Feynman diagrams. The latter provides an easy introduction to the powerful functional methods of field theory, and the use of Feynman diagrams to study classical stochastic dynamics is considered in detail. The developed real-time technique is applied to study numerous phenomena in many-body systems. Complete with numerous exercises to aid self-study, this textbook is suitable for graduate students in statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics.

Quantum Reality

Beyond the New Physics

Author: Nick Herbert

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 030780674X

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 9193


This clearly explained layman's introduction to quantum physics is an accessible excursion into metaphysics and the meaning of reality. Herbert exposes the quantum world and the scientific and philosophical controversy about its interpretation.

Modern Quantum Field Theory

A Concise Introduction

Author: Tom Banks

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139473891

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4154


Presenting a variety of topics that are only briefly touched on in other texts, this book provides a thorough introduction to the techniques of field theory. Covering Feynman diagrams and path integrals, the author emphasizes the path integral approach, the Wilsonian approach to renormalization, and the physics of non-abelian gauge theory. It provides a thorough treatment of quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, topics not usually covered in other texts at this level. The Standard Model of particle physics is discussed in detail. Connections with condensed matter physics are explored, and there is a brief, but detailed, treatment of non-perturbative semi-classical methods. Ideal for graduate students in high energy physics and condensed matter physics, the book contains many problems,which help students practise the key techniques of quantum field theory.

Methodological Aspects of the Development of Low Temperature Physics 1881–1956

Concepts Out of Context(s)

Author: Kostas Gavroglu,Yorgos Goudaroulis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400925565

Category: Science

Page: 178

View: 1098


This book is primarily about the methodological questions involved in attempts to understand two of the most peculiar phenomena in physics, both occurring at the lowest of temperatures. Superconductivity (the disappearance of electrical resistance) and superfluidity (the total absence of viscosity in liquid helium) are not merely peculiar in their own right. Being the only macroscopic quantum phenomena they also manifest a sudden and dramatic change even in those properties which have been amply used within the classical framework and which were thought to be fully understood after the advent of quantum theory. A few years ago we set ourselves the task of carrying out a methodological study of the "most peculiar" phenomena in physics and trying to understand the process by which an observed (rather than predicted) new phenomenon gets "translated" into a physical problem. We thought the best way of deciding which phenomena to choose was to rely on our intuitive notion about the "degrees of peculiarity" developed, no doubt, during the past ten years of active research in theoretical atomic and elementary particle physics. While the merits of the different candidates were compared, we were amazed to realize that neither the phenomena of the very small nor those of the very large could compete with the phenomena of the very cold. These were truly remarkable phenomena if for no other reason than for the difficulties encountered in merely describing them.

History and Evolution of Concepts in Physics

Author: Harry Varvoglis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319042920

Category: Science

Page: 138

View: 847


Our understanding of nature, and in particular of physics and the laws governing it, has changed radically since the days of the ancient Greek natural philosophers. This book explains how and why these changes occurred, through landmark experiments as well as theories that - for their time - were revolutionary. The presentation covers Mechanics, Optics, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, Relativity Theory, Atomic Physics and Quantum Physics. The book places emphasis on ideas and on a qualitative presentation, rather than on mathematics and equations. Thus, although primarily addressed to those who are studying or have studied science, it can also be read by non-specialists. The author concludes with a discussion of the evolution and organization of universities, from ancient times until today, and of the organization and dissemination of knowledge through scientific publications and conferences.

My Double Unveiled

The Dissipative Quantum Model of Brain

Author: Giuseppe Vitiello

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027251527

Category: Psychology

Page: 161

View: 757


This introduction to the dissipative quantum model of brain and to its possible implications for consciousness studies is addressed to a broad interdisciplinary audience. Memory and consciousness are approached from the physicist point of view focusing on the basic observation that the brain is an open system continuously interacting with its environment. The unavoidable dissipative character of the brain functioning turns out to be the root of the brain's large memory capacity and of other memory features such as memory association, memory confusion, duration of memory. The openness of the brain implies a formal picture of the world which is modeled on the same brain image: a sort of brain copy or “Double”, where world objectiveness and the brain implicit subjectivity are conjugated. Consciousness is seen to arise from the permanent “dialogue” of the brain with its Double. The author's narration of his (re-)search gives a cross-over of the physics of elementary particles and condensed matter, and the brain's basic dynamics. This dynamic interplay makes for a “satisfying feeling of the unity of knowledge”. (Series A)