Quantum Field Theory and Its Macroscopic Manifestations

Boson Condensation, Ordered Patterns, and Topological Defects

Author: Massimo Blasone,Petr Jizba,Giuseppe Vitiello

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848162804

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 1393

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This book is a self-contained presentation of the quantum field theory of topological defects created during spontaneous symmetry breakdown phase transitions, with a particular emphasis on phenomenological issues of current interest.

Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision

Author: Jerome R. Busemeyer,Peter D. Bruza

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110701199X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 407

View: 9865

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Introduces principles drawn from quantum theory to present a new framework for modeling human cognition and decision.

From Collective Beings to Quasi-Systems

Author: Gianfranco Minati,Eliano Pessa

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493975811

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 386

View: 6440

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This book outlines a possible future theoretical perspective for systemics, its conceptual morphology and landscape while the Good-Old-Fashioned-Systemics (GOFS) era is still under way. The change from GOFS to future systemics can be represented, as shown in the book title, by the conceptual change from Collective Beings to Quasi-systems. With the current advancements, problems and approaches occurring in contemporary science, systemics are moving beyond the traditional frameworks used in the past. From Collective Beings to Coherent Quasi-Systems outlines a conceptual morphology and landscape for a new theoretical perspective for systemics introducing the concept of Quasi-systems. Advances in domains such as theoretical physics, philosophy of science, cell biology, neuroscience, experimental economics, network science and many others offer new concepts and technical tools to support the creation of a fully transdisciplinary General Theory of Change. This circumstance requires a deep reformulation of systemics, without forgetting the achievements of established conventions. The book is divided into two parts. Part I, examines classic systemic issues from new theoretical perspectives and approaches. A new general unified framework is introduced to help deal with topics such as dynamic structural coherence and Quasi-systems. This new theoretical framework is compared and contrasted with the traditional approaches. Part II focuses on the process of translation into social culture of the theoretical principles, models and approaches introduced in Part I. This translation is urgent in post-industrial societies where emergent processes and problems are still dealt with by using the classical or non-systemic knowledge of the industrial phase.

Information Theory and Quantum Physics

Physical Foundations for Understanding the Conscious Process

Author: Herbert S. Green

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540665175

Category: Computers

Page: 244

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In this book, H. S. Green, a former student of Max Born and well known as an author in physics and in philosophy of science, presents an individual and modern approach to theoretical physics and related fundamental problems. Starting from first principles, the links between physics and information science are unveiled step by step: modern information theory and the classical theory of the Turing machine are combined to create a new interpretation of quantum computability, which is then applied to field theory, gravitation and submicroscopic measurement theory and culminates in a detailed examination of the role of the conscious observer in physical measurements. The result is a highly readable book that unifies a wide range of scientific knowledge and is essential reading for all scientists and philosophers of science interested in the interpretation and the implications of the interaction between information science and basic physical theories.

Field Theories of Condensed Matter Physics

Author: Eduardo Fradkin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107310563

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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Presenting the physics of the most challenging problems in condensed matter using the conceptual framework of quantum field theory, this book is of great interest to physicists in condensed matter and high energy and string theorists, as well as mathematicians. Revised and updated, this second edition features new chapters on the renormalization group, the Luttinger liquid, gauge theory, topological fluids, topological insulators and quantum entanglement. The book begins with the basic concepts and tools, developing them gradually to bring readers to the issues currently faced at the frontiers of research, such as topological phases of matter, quantum and classical critical phenomena, quantum Hall effects and superconductors. Other topics covered include one-dimensional strongly correlated systems, quantum ordered and disordered phases, topological structures in condensed matter and in field theory and fractional statistics.

Methodological Aspects of the Development of Low Temperature Physics 1881–1956

Concepts Out of Context(s)

Author: K. Gavroglu,Yorgos Goudaroulis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400925565

Category: Science

Page: 178

View: 9470

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This book is primarily about the methodological questions involved in attempts to understand two of the most peculiar phenomena in physics, both occurring at the lowest of temperatures. Superconductivity (the disappearance of electrical resistance) and superfluidity (the total absence of viscosity in liquid helium) are not merely peculiar in their own right. Being the only macroscopic quantum phenomena they also manifest a sudden and dramatic change even in those properties which have been amply used within the classical framework and which were thought to be fully understood after the advent of quantum theory. A few years ago we set ourselves the task of carrying out a methodological study of the "most peculiar" phenomena in physics and trying to understand the process by which an observed (rather than predicted) new phenomenon gets "translated" into a physical problem. We thought the best way of deciding which phenomena to choose was to rely on our intuitive notion about the "degrees of peculiarity" developed, no doubt, during the past ten years of active research in theoretical atomic and elementary particle physics. While the merits of the different candidates were compared, we were amazed to realize that neither the phenomena of the very small nor those of the very large could compete with the phenomena of the very cold. These were truly remarkable phenomena if for no other reason than for the difficulties encountered in merely describing them.

History and Evolution of Concepts in Physics

Author: Harry Varvoglis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319042920

Category: Science

Page: 138

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Our understanding of nature, and in particular of physics and the laws governing it, has changed radically since the days of the ancient Greek natural philosophers. This book explains how and why these changes occurred, through landmark experiments as well as theories that - for their time - were revolutionary. The presentation covers Mechanics, Optics, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, Relativity Theory, Atomic Physics and Quantum Physics. The book places emphasis on ideas and on a qualitative presentation, rather than on mathematics and equations. Thus, although primarily addressed to those who are studying or have studied science, it can also be read by non-specialists. The author concludes with a discussion of the evolution and organization of universities, from ancient times until today, and of the organization and dissemination of knowledge through scientific publications and conferences.

The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Historical Analysis and Open Questions : Lecce, Italy, 13-16 October 1998

Author: Claudio Garola,Arcangelo Rossi

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810242626

Category: Science

Page: 418

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This volume provides a sample of the present research on the foundations of quantum mechanics and related topics by collecting the papers of the Italian scholars who attended the conference entitled ?The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics ? Historical Analysis and Open Questions? (Lecce, 1998). The perspective of the book is interdisciplinary, and hence philosophical, historical and technical papers are gathered together so as to allow the reader to compare different viewpoints and cultural approaches. Most of the papers confront, directly or indirectly, the objectivity problem, taking into account the positions of the founders of QM or more recent developments. More specifically, the technical papers in the book pay special attention to the interpretation of the experiments on Bell's inequalities and to decoherence theory, but topics on unsharp QM, the consistent-history approach, quantum probability and alternative theories are also discussed. Furthermore, a number of historical and philosophical papers are devoted to Planck's, Weyl's and Pauli's thought, but topics such as quantum ontology, predictivity of quantum laws, etc., are treated.

The Casimir Effect and Its Applications

Author: Vladimir Mikhaĭlovich Mostepanenko,N. N. Trunov

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198539988

Category: Science

Page: 199

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Of value to the general scientific public, this is the first book in the world scientific literature devoted to the Casimir effect. This topic has important applications in the fields of elementary particle physics, statistical physics, quantum field theory, gravitation and cosmology.

Quantum Kinetic Theory and Applications

Electrons, Photons, Phonons

Author: Fedir T. Vasko,Oleg E. Raichev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387280413

Category: Science

Page: 784

View: 7352

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Physicalkineticsisthe?nalsectionofthecourseoftheoreticalphysics in its standard presentation. It stays at the boundary between g- eral theories and their applications (solid state theory, theory of gases, plasma, and so on), because the treatment of kinetic phenomena always depends on speci?c structural features of materials. On the other hand, the physical kinetics as a part of the quantum theory of macroscopic systems is far from being complete. A number of its fundamental - sues, such as the problem of irreversibility and mechanisms of chaotic responses, are now attracting considerable attention. Other important sections, for example, kinetic phenomena in disordered and/or strongly non-equilibrium systems and, in particular, phase transitions in these systems, are currently under investigation. The quantum theory of m- surements and quantum information processing actively developing in the last decade are based on the quantum kinetic theory. Because a deductive theoretical exposition of the subject is not c- venient, the authors restrict themselves to a lecture-style presentation. Now the physical kinetics seems to be at the stage of development when, according to Newton, studying examples is more instructive than lea- ing rules. In view of these circumstances, the methods of the kinetic theory are presented here not in a general form but as applications for description of speci?c systems and treatment of particular kinetic p- nomena. The quantum features of kinetic phenomena can arise for several r- sons.

High Pressure Geochemistry & Mineral Physics

Basics for Planetology and Geo-Material Science

Author: S. Mitra

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080458229

Category: Science

Page: 1272

View: 2136

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Significant achievements have been made at the cross-roads of physics and planetary science. In the second half of the twentieth century, the discipline of planetary sciences has witnessed three major episodes which have revolutionized its approach and content: (i) the plate-tectonic theory, (ii) human landing and discoveries in planetary astronomy and (iii) the extraordinary technical advancement in high P-T studies, which have been abetted by a vast improvement in computational methods. Using these new computational methods, such as first principles including ab initio models, calculations have been made for the electronic structure, bonding, thermal EOS, elasticity, melting, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. In this monograph, the boundaries of the definitions of a petrologist, geochemist, geophysicist or a mineralogist have been willfully eliminated to bring them all under the spectrum of "high-pressure geochemistry" when they deal with any material (quintessentially a chemical assemblage) - terrestrial or extraterrestrial - under the conditions of high-pressure and temperature. Thus, a petrologist using a spectrometer or any instrument for high-pressure studies of a rock or a mineral, or a geochemist using them for chemical synthesis and characterization, is better categorized as a "high-pressure geochemist" rather than any other kind of disciplinarian. The contents of this monograph bring together, under one cover, apparently disparate disciplines like solid-earth geophysics and geochemistry as well as material science and condensed-matter physics to present a thorough overview of high pressure geochemistry. Indeed, such interdisciplinary activities led to the discovery of new phenomena such as high P-T behaviour in metal oxides (e.g. Mott transition), novel transitions such as amorphization, changes in order-disorder in crystals and the anomalous properties of oxide melts.

Condensed Matter Theories

Author: Hisazumi Akai

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600215018

Category: Science

Page: 446

View: 9212

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Focusing on recent developments and current priorities in various areas of physics, this book presents advances in high temperature superconductivity and super fluidity, physics of low dimensional systems, Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum dots, collective modes in finite systems, coherent correlations of particles, coherence of atomic levels under extreme conditions, tensor correlations in nuclei, super-heavy nuclei, the effect of relativity in nuclear structure, molecular dynamics and phase transitions in solids, nuclei and quarks and QCD dynamics for hadrons and hadronic matter.

Foundations of Statistical Mechanics

Equilibrium Theory

Author: Walter Grandy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027724892

Category: Science

Page: 380

View: 5015

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In a certain sense this book has been twenty-five years in the writing, since I first struggled with the foundations of the subject as a graduate student. It has taken that long to develop a deep appreciation of what Gibbs was attempting to convey to us near the end of his life and to understand fully the same ideas as resurrected by E.T. Jaynes much later. Many classes of students were destined to help me sharpen these thoughts before I finally felt confident that, for me at least, the foundations of the subject had been clarified sufficiently. More than anything, this work strives to address the following questions: What is statistical mechanics? Why is this approach so extraordinarily effective in describing bulk matter in terms of its constituents? The response given here is in the form of a very definite point of view-the principle of maximum entropy (PME). There have been earlier attempts to approach the subject in this way, to be sure, reflected in the books by Tribus [Thermostat ics and Thermodynamics, Van Nostrand, 1961], Baierlein [Atoms and Information Theory, Freeman, 1971], and Hobson [Concepts in Statistical Mechanics, Gordon and Breach, 1971].

The Casimir Effect

Physical Manifestations of Zero-point Energy

Author: K. A. Milton

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812810526

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 5873

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In its simplest manifestation, the Casimir effect is a quantum force of attraction between two parallel uncharged conducting plates. More generally, it refers to the interaction OCo which may be either attractive or repulsive OCo between material bodies due to quantum fluctuations in whatever fields are relevant. It is a local version of the van der Waals force between molecules. Its sweep ranges from perhaps its being the origin of the cosmological constant to its being responsible for the confinement of quarks. This monograph develops the theory of such forces, based primarily on physically transparent Green''s function techniques, and makes applications from quarks to the cosmos, as well as observable consequences in condensed matter systems. It is aimed at graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics, quantum field theory, and applied mathematics. Contents: Introduction to the Casimir Effect; Casimir Force Between Parallel Plates; Casimir Force Between Parallel Dielectrics; Casimir Effect with Perfect Spherical; The Casimir Effect of a Dielectric Ball: The Equivalence of the Casimir Effect and van der Waals Forces; Application to Hadronic Physics: Zero-Point Energy in the Bag Model; Casimir Effect in Cylindrical Geometries; Casimir Effect in Two Dimensions: The Maxwell-Chern-Simons Casimir Effect; Casimir Effect on a D -dimensional Sphere; Cosmological Implications of the Casimir Effect; Local Effects; Sonoluminescene and the Dynamical Casimir Effect; Radiative Corrections to the Casimir Effect; Conclusions and Outlook; Appendices: Relation of Contour Integral Method to Green''s Function Approach; Casimir Effect for a Closed String. Readership: High-energy, condensed-matter and nuclear physicists."