Principles of Ocean Physics

Author: John R. Apel

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080570747

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 2154

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In recent years, significant advances in both the theoretical and observational sides of physical oceanography have allowed the ocean's physical behavior to be described more quantitatively. This book discusses the physical mechanisms and processes of the sea, and will be valuable not only to oceanographers but also physicists, graduate students, and scientists working in dynamics or optics of the marine environment.

Advances in Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Oceans

Author: Victor Raizer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 149876777X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 6206

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This book demonstrates the capabilities of passive microwave technique for enhanced observations of ocean features, including the detection of (sub)surface events and/or disturbances while laying out the benefits and boundaries of these methods. It represents not only an introduction and complete description of the main principles of ocean microwave radiometry and imagery, but also provides guidance for further experimental studies. Furthermore, it expands the analysis of remote sensing methods, models, and techniques and focuses on a high-resolution multiband imaging observation concept. Such an advanced approach provides readers with a new level of geophysical information and data acquisition granting the opportunity to improve their expertise on advanced microwave technology, becoming now an indispensable tool for diagnostics of ocean phenomena and disturbances.

Optical Remote Sensing of Ocean Hydrodynamics

Author: Victor Raizer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351119168

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 1304

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Optical Remote Sensing is one of the main technologies used in sea surface monitoring. Optical Remote Sensing of Ocean Hydrodynamics investigates and demonstrates capabilities of optical remote sensing technology for enhanced observations and detection of ocean environments. It provides extensive knowledge of physical principles and capabilities of optical observations of the oceans at high spatial resolution, 1-4m, and on the observations of surface wave hydrodynamic processes. It also describes the implementation of spectral-statistical and fusion algorithms for analyses of multispectral optical databases and establishes physics-based criteria for detection of complex wave phenomena and hydrodynamic disturbances including assessment and management of optical databases. This book explains the physical principles of high-resolution optical imagery of the ocean surface, discusses for the first time the capabilities of observing hydrodynamic processes and events, and emphasizes the integration of optical measurements and enhanced data analysis. It also covers both the assessment and the interpretation of dynamic multispectral optical databases and includes applications for advanced studies and nonacoustic detection. This book is an invaluable resource for researches, industry professionals, engineers, and students working on cross-disciplinary problems in ocean hydrodynamics, optical remote sensing of the ocean and sea surface remote sensing. Readers in the fields of geosciences and remote sensing, applied physics, oceanography, satellite observation technology, and optical engineering will learn the theory and practice of optical interactions with the ocean.

Erde und Planeten

Author: Wilhelm Raith,Ludwig Bergmann,Siegfried J. Bauer

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110168372

Category: Science

Page: 727

View: 3399

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Die gemeinsame Behandlung der Erde und der durch die Raumfahrt uns naher geruckten Planeten wurde beibehalten, ebenso die ausfuhrliche Beschreibung der Biospharen-Physik in den Kapiteln 2 bis 4. Die verbesserte und aktualisierte 2. Auflage enthalt auch Internet-Hinweise am Ende jedes Kapitels. "

Ocean Modeling in an Eddying Regime

Author: Matthew W. Hecht,Hiroyasu Hasumi

Publisher: American Geophysical Union

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 409

View: 1233

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 177. This monograph is the first to survey progress in realistic simulation in a strongly eddying regime made possible by recent increases in computational capability. Its contributors comprise the leading researchers in this important and constantly evolving field. Divided into three parts Oceanographic Processes and Regimes: Fundamental Questions Ocean Dynamics and State: From Regional to Global Scale, and Modeling at the Mesoscale: State of the Art and Future Directions The volume details important advances in physical oceanography based on eddy resolving ocean modeling. It captures the state of the art and discusses issues that ocean modelers must consider in order to effectively contribute to advancing current knowledge, from subtleties of the underlying fluid dynamical equations to meaningful comparison with oceanographic observations and leading-edge model development. It summarizes many of the important results which have emerged from ocean modeling in an eddying regime, for those interested broadly in the physical science. More technical topics are intended to address the concerns of those actively working in the field.

Physics of the Marine Atmosphere

International Geophysics Series

Author: H. U. Roll

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483222543

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 1826

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International Geophysics Series, Volume 7: Physics of the Marine Atmosphere discusses the influence exerted by the sea surface on the properties of the atmosphere as well as on atmospheric processes of small and medium scale. This book is composed of six chapters that specifically consider the exchange occurring in the boundary layer between ocean and atmosphere. The opening chapters deal with the particular difficulties inherent in meteorological measurements at sea. The remaining chapters describe the flow characteristics, thermodynamics, chemistry, electricity, and radioactivity of the marine atmosphere. Emphasis is placed on the physical approach rather than on geographical aspects and those of application. A discussion of the empirical facts is followed by theoretical interpretation. Geophysicists, theoreticians, and scientists of the allied fields will find this book invaluable.

Introduction to Micrometeorology

Author: S. Pal Arya,Department of Marine Earth and Atmospheric Sciences S Pal Arya,Satya Prakash Arya

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780120644902

Category: Science

Page: 307

View: 1403

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This up-to-date textbook is highly recommended for introductory courses offered at undergraduate and graduate levels. Coverage begins with basic fluid and thermodynamical laws and concepts, then moves on to cover such major topics as momentum and heat exchanges with homogeneous surfaces, nonhomogeneous boundary layers, fundamentals of turbulence, and more. This book introduces the reader to theoretical concepts and quantitative relations through qualitative descriptions based upon observations.

Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics

Author: Harsh Gupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 904818701X

Category: Science

Page: 1539

View: 6008

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The past few decades have witnessed the growth of the Earth Sciences in the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the planet that we live on. This development addresses the challenging endeavor to enrich human lives with the bounties of Nature as well as to preserve the planet for the generations to come. Solid Earth Geophysics aspires to define and quantify the internal structure and processes of the Earth in terms of the principles of physics and forms the intrinsic framework, which other allied disciplines utilize for more specific investigations. The first edition of the Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics was published in 1989 by Van Nostrand Reinhold publishing company. More than two decades later, this new volume, edited by Prof. Harsh K. Gupta, represents a thoroughly revised and expanded reference work. It brings together more than 200 articles covering established and new concepts of Geophysics across the various sub-disciplines such as Gravity, Geodesy, Geomagnetism, Seismology, Seismics, Deep Earth Processes, Plate Tectonics, Thermal Domains, Computational Methods, etc. in a systematic and consistent format and standard. It is an authoritative and current reference source with extraordinary width of scope. It draws its unique strength from the expert contributions of editors and authors across the globe. It is designed to serve as a valuable and cherished source of information for current and future generations of professionals.

Physics of Tsunamis

Author: Boris Levin,Mikhail Nosov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402088566

Category: Science

Page: 327

View: 3215

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Till the very end of the twentieth century tsunami waves (or ‘waves in a harbour’, translated from Japanese) were considered an extremely rare and exotic natural p- nomenon, originating in the ocean and unexpectedly falling upon the seaside as gigantic waves. The 26th of December 2004, when tsunami waves wiped out, in a single day, more than 250,000 human lives, mourned in many countries, turned out to be a tragic date for all mankind. The authors of this book, who have studied tsunami waves for many years, - tended it to be a systematic exposition of modern ideas concerning • The mechanisms of tsunami wave generation • The peculiarities of tsunami wave propagation in the open ocean and of how waves run-up beaches • Methods for tsunami wave registration and the operation of a tsunami warning system • The mechanisms of other catastrophic processes in the ocean related to the se- mic activity of our planet The authors considered their main goal to be the creation of book prese- ing modern knowledge of tsunami waves and of other catastrophes in the ocean to scienti?c researchers and specialists in geophysics, oceanography, seismology, hydroacoustics, geology, geomorphology, civil and seaside engineering, postgr- uate students and students of relevant professions.

Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Microphysics of Clouds

Author: Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov,Judith A. Curry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316060713

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1643

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Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Microphysics of Clouds presents a unified theoretical foundation that provides the basis for incorporating cloud microphysical processes in cloud and climate models. In particular, the book provides: • A theoretical basis for understanding the processes of cloud particle formation, evolution and precipitation, with emphasis on spectral cloud microphysics based on numerical and analytical solutions of the kinetic equations for the drop and crystal size spectra along with the supersaturation equation • The latest detailed theories and parameterizations of drop and crystal nucleation suitable for cloud and climate models derived from the general principles of thermodynamics and kinetics • A platform for advanced parameterization of clouds in weather prediction and climate models • The scientific foundation for weather and climate modification by cloud seeding. This book will be invaluable for researchers and advanced students engaged in cloud and aerosol physics, and air pollution and climate research.

Generation, Compilation, Evaluation and Dissemination of Data for Science and Technology

The Proceedings of the Fourth International CODATA Conference

Author: Bertrand Dreyfus

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483140520

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 3712

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Generation, Compilation, Evaluation and Dissemination of Data for Science and Technology is a compilation of manuscripts presented at the four proceedings organized by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA). It focuses on the functions of CODATA, a data center that operates by generating, compiling and evaluating data. This book discusses conventional areas of CODATA activity, namely the fields of physics, chemistry and allied subjects, the biological sciences, geology, geophysics, geography, and astronomy. It includes lectures from the first two sessions, giving up-to-date reviews on data centers, particularly the use of computers in a variety of data activities. The book also deals with CODATA's original areas of interest: spectroscopic and thermodynamic data. Information scientists interested in documentation systems will find this book indispensable.

Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics

Author: Murry L. Salby

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080532152

Category: Science

Page: 627

View: 5356

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Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics emphasizes the interrelationships of physical and dynamical meteorology. The text unifies four major subject areas: atmospheric thermodynamics, hydrostatic equilibrium and stability, atmospheric radiation and clouds, and atmospheric dynamics. These fundamental areas serve as cornerstones of modern atmospheric research on environmental issues like global change and ozone depletion. Physical concepts underlying these subject areas are developed from first principles, providing a self-contained text for students and scholars from diverse backgrounds. The presentation is Lagrangian (single-body problems) in perspective, with a balance of theory and application. Each chapter includes detailed and extensive problems; selected answers are provided, as are appendices of various constants. The text requires a thorough foundation in calculus. Presents a comprehensive introduction to atmospheric thermodynamics, hydrostatics, radiation and clouds, and dynamics Develops concepts from first principles, providing a self-contained volume for readers from diverse backgrounds Emphasizes the interaction of physical processes shaping global problems of atmospheric energetics, transport, and chemistry Provides a balance of theory and applications, with examples drawn from a wide range of phenomena figuring in global atmospheric research Extensively illustrated with global satellite imagery and analyses and photographs of laboratory simulations Exercises apply to a wide range of topical problems

Environmental Hazards

The Fluid Dynamics and Geophysics of Extreme Events

Author: Henry Keith Moffatt

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814313297

Category: Atmospheric turbulence

Page: 330

View: 1286

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The Institute for Mathematical Sciences at the National University of Singapore hosted a Spring School on Fluid Dynamics and Geophysics of Environmental Hazards from 19 April to 2 May 2009. This volume contains the content of the nine short lecture courses given at this School, with a focus mainly on tropical cyclones, tsunamis, monsoon flooding and atmospheric pollution, all within the context of climate variability and change. The book provides an introduction to these topics from both mathematical and geophysical points of view, and will be invaluable for graduate students in applied mathematics, geophysics and engineering with an interest in this broad field of study, as well as for seasoned researchers in adjacent fields.

Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124169945

Category: Science

Page: 722

View: 4094

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This book presents the state-of-the-art of optical remote sensing applied for the generation of marine climate-quality data products, with contributions by international experts in the field. The chapters are logically grouped into six thematic parts, each introduced by a brief overview. The different parts include: i. requirements for the generation of climate data records from satellite ocean measurements and additionally basic radiometry principles addressing terminology, standards, measurement equation and uncertainties; ii. satellite visible and thermal infrared radiometry embracing instrument design, characterization and, pre- and post-launch calibration; iii. in situ visible and thermal infrared radiometry including overviews on basic principles, technology and measurements methods required to support satellite missions devoted to climate change investigations; iv. simulations as fundamental tools to support interpretation and analysis of both in situ and satellite radiometric measurements; v. strategies for in situ radiometry to satisfy mission requirements for the generation of climate data records; and finally, vi. methods for the assessment of satellite data products. Fundamentals of measurement theory are taken through to implementation of practical ground based radiometers and their application to validate satellite data used to generate climate data records. This book presents practical solutions for those involved or contemplating the validation of optical climate measurements from satellite instruments. Exhaustive coverage of important topics Fundamental and advanced discussions of many types of instruments Emphasis on calibration and uncertainty analysis of results

Paleomagnetism

Continents and Oceans

Author: Michael W. McElhinny,Phillip L. McFadden

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080513461

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 540

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Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth's crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 million years of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny's book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologic reversals of the Earth's magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first edition of Palaeomagnetism and Plate Tectonics (Cambridge, 1973) the many advances in the concepts, methodology, and insights into paleomagnetism warrant this new treatment. This completely updated and revised edition of Paleomagnetism: Continents and Oceans will be a welcome resource for a broad audience of earth scientists as well as laypeople curious about magnetism, paleogeography, geology, and plate tectonics. Because the book is intended for a wide audience of geologists, geophysicists, and oceanographers, it balances the mathematical and descriptive aspects of each topic. Details the theory and methodology of rock magnetism, with particular emphasis on intrepreting crustal movements from continental and oceanic measurements Outlines Earth history for the past 1000 million years, from the Rodinia super-continent through its breakup and the formation of Gondwana to the formation and breakup of Pangea and the amalgamation of Eurasia Provides a comprehensive treatment of oceanic paleomagnetism Provides a set of color pateogeographic maps covering the past 250 million years Written by two internationally recognized experts in the field

Environmental Magnetism

Principles and Applications of Enviromagnetics

Author: Michael Edwin Evans,Friedrich Heller

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780122438516

Category: Science

Page: 299

View: 728

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Magnetism is important in environmental studies for several reasons, the two most fundamental being that most substances exhibit some form of magnetic behavior, and that iron is one of the most common elements in the Earth's crust. Once sequestered in a suitable material, magnetic particles constitute a natural archive of conditions existing in former times. Magnetism provides a tracer of paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental conditions and processes. Environmental Magnetism details the occurrence and uses of magnetic materials in the natural environment. The first half of the volume describes the basic principles. The second half discusses the applications of magnetic measurements in various environmental settings on land, in lakes, in the ocean, and even various biological organisms. * Material is broadly applicable to environmental studies * Case histories illustrate key points * Extensive bibliography makes further research quick and easy

Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

Physical and Numerical Aspects

Author: Benoit Cushman-Roisin,Jean-Marie Beckers

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0120887592

Category: Mathematics

Page: 828

View: 3332

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Inhaltsverzeichnis: I Fundamentals - 1: Introduction - 2: The Coriolis Force - 3: Equations of Fluid Motion - 4: Equations Governing Geophysical Flows - 5: Diffusive Processes - 6: Transport and FateII Rotation Effects - 7: Geostrophic Flows and Vorticity Dynamics - 8: Ekman layer - 9: Barotropic Waves - 10: Barotropic Instability - III Stratification Effects - 11: Stratification - 12: Layered Models - 13: Internal Waves - 14: Turbulence in Stratified Fluids - IV Combined Rotation and Stratification Effects - 15: Dynamics of Stratified Rotating Flows - 16: Quasi-Geostrophic Dynamics - 17: Instabilities of Rotating Stratified Flows - 18: Fronts, Jets and VorticesV Special Topics - 19: Atmospheric General Circulation - 20: Oceanic General Circulation - 21: Equatorial Dynamics - 22: Data Assimilation - VI Web-site information Appendix A: Elements of Fluid Mechanics - Appendix B: Wave KinematicsAppendix C: Recapitulation of Numerical SchemesReferencesCD-ROM

The Earth's Ionosphere

Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics

Author: Michael C. Kelley

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080916576

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 3842

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Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework