Primary Productivity of Grass Ecosystems of the Tropics and Sub-tropics

Author: S.P. Long,M.B. Jones,M.J. Roberts

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412410208

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 8938

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Project co-ordinator's preface abbreviations and symbols; Savanna at Nairobi national park, Kenya; Saline grassland near Mexico city; Monsoon grassland in Thailand; A floodplain grassland of the Central Amazon; Bamboo in sub-tropical eastern China; Remote sensing of grassland primary production; Synthesis and conclusions.

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Natural Resource Systems

Author: Kenneth D. Frederick,Norman J. Rosenberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401102074

Category: Science

Page: 219

View: 5584

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This volume characterizes the current state of natural science and socioeconomic modeling of the impacts of climate change and current climate variability on forests, grasslands, and water. It identifies what can be done currently with impact assessments and suggests how to undertake such assessments. Impediments to linking biophysical and socioeconomic models into integrated assessments for policy purposes are identified, and recommendations for future research activities to improve the state of the art and remove these impediments to model integration are provided. This book is for natural and social scientists with an interest in the impacts of climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their socioeconomic impacts, and policy makers interested in understanding the status of current assessment capabilities and in identifying priority areas for future research.

Human Ecology of Beringia

Author: John F. Hoffecker,Scott A. Elias

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231503881

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 7289

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Twenty-five thousand years ago, sea level fell more than 400 feet below its present position as a consequence of the growth of immense ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. A dry plain stretching 1,000 miles from the Arctic Ocean to the Aleutians became exposed between northeast Asia and Alaska, and across that plain, most likely, walked the first people of the New World. This book describes what is known about these people and the now partly submerged land, named Beringia, which they settled during the final millennia of the Ice Age. Humans first occupied Beringia during a twilight period when rising sea levels had not yet caught up with warming climates. Although the land bridge between northeast Asia and Alaska was still present, warmer and wetter climates were rapidly transforming the Beringian steppe into shrub tundra. This volume synthesizes current research-some previously unpublished-on the archaeological sites and rapidly changing climates and biota of the period, suggesting that the absence of woody shrubs to help fire bone fuel may have been the barrier to earlier settlement, and that from the outset the Beringians developed a postglacial economy similar to that of later northern interior peoples. The book opens with a review of current research and the major problems and debates regarding the environment and archaeology of Beringia. It then describes Beringian environments and the controversies surrounding their interpretation; traces the evolving adaptations of early humans to the cold environments of northern Eurasia, which set the stage for the settlement of Beringia; and provides a detailed account of the archaeological record in three chapters, each of which is focused on a specific slice of time between 15,000 and 11,500 years ago. In conclusion, the authors present an interpretive summary of the human ecology of Beringia and discuss its relationship to the wider problem of the peopling of the New World.

Stress Biology of Cyanobacteria

Molecular Mechanisms to Cellular Responses

Author: Ashish Kumar Srivastava,Amar Nath Rai,Brett A Neilan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466504781

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 7642

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A significant component of many different ecosystems, cyanobacteria occupy almost every niche of the earth, including fresh and salt waters, rice fields, hot springs, arid deserts, and polar regions. Cyanobacteria, along with algae, produce nearly half the global oxygen, making assessment of their ecophysiologies important for understanding climate impacts and potential remediation. Stress Biology of Cyanobacteria: Molecular Mechanisms to Cellular Responses is a compilation of holistic responses of cyanobacteria, ranging from ecological and physiological to the modern aspects of their molecular biology, genomics, and biochemistry. Covering almost every aspect of cyanobacterial stress biology, this book is divided into two parts: Bioenergetics and Molecular Mechanisms of Stress Tolerance and Cellular Responses and Ecophysiology. The first few chapters focus on the molecular bioenergetics of photosynthesis and respiration in cyanobacteria, and provide a clear perspective on different stress tolerance mechanisms. Part I also covers the effect of specific stresses—including heavy metal, high and low temperature, salt, osmotic, and UV-B stress—on a wide range of vital physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes of cyanobacteria. Part II describes mechanisms of symbiosis, stress-induced bioproducts, and the role of environmental factors on nitrogen fixation, which along with photosynthesis is a major contributor to the current geochemical status of the planet. The text also covers mutation and cyanobacterial adaptation, and the most widely studied cyanotoxin, microcystin, which has effects on both human and animal health. With contributions from experts around the world, representing the global importance of cyanobacteria, this book provides a broad compilation of research that deals with cyanobacterial stress responses in both controlled laboratory conditions as well as in their natural environment.

Global change

effects on coniferous forests and grasslands

Author: Alicja I. Breymeyer,International Council of Scientific Unions. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment

Publisher: John Wiley & Son Ltd

ISBN: 9780471968375

Category: Nature

Page: 459

View: 2602

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This volume critically assesses the present state of our knowledge, reviews extant forest and grasslands models, and develops foundations for the design of diagnostic and predictive models, as well as identifying plans for future research on ecosystem response to global change. Carbon flow and storage are emphasised, although the flow and storage of key nutrients such as nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus are also considered when deemed necessary to understand changes in the carbon budget of coniferous forests and grasslands.

Terrestrial Global Productivity

Author: Jacques Roy,Bernard Saugier,Harold A. Mooney

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780125052900

Category: Science

Page: 573

View: 9825

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As the global climate changes, there are concomitant changes in global biological productivity. This book is devoted to the assessment of terrestrial Net Primary Productivity ("the total amount of energy acquired by green plants during photosynthesis, minus the energy lost through respiration"--APDS&T, pp. 1457). The book is comprised of three major sections. The first section is a review of the processes that operate globally to influence productivity--these are the initial conditions of any model of primary productivity. The second section is comprised of chapters that assess the contribution of particular ecosystems to global productivity. The final major section contains chapters of a synthetic nature that describe attempts to model global productivity. This book should appeal to both ecologists and environmental scientists.

The Ecozones of the World

The Ecological Divisions of the Geosphere

Author: Jürgen Schultz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540200147

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 7988

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This abundantly illustrated book provides a fundamental introduction to the ecological zones of the geosphere. The revised edition includes more than 70 new figures and tables, plus detailed maps of agricultural regions and soil classification. A large number of new Anglo-American ecological studies are included, along with a discussion of the correlation between northern ecosystems and the carbon dioxide balance in the global atmosphere.

Savanna Ecology and Management

Australian Perspectives and Intercontinental Comparisons

Author: P. A. Werner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444314122

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 805

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This volume is the fifth in a series of publications produced over the last five years on the ecology of tropical savannas. The volumes arise from work undertaken by the Responses of Savannas to Stress and Disturbance (RSSD) Program, under the auspices of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) Decade of the Tropics Programme, co-sponsored by the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program. Savannas cover just under one third of the world's land surface and contain a large and rapidly growing proportion of the world's population as well as the majority of its rangelands and livestock. Most savannas are experiencing increasing pressures from demographic and economic changes that have increased dramatically over the past few decades. In addition to the changing patterns in demography and economics, and the forecasts of global warming further alert us to the most important challenge - to conserve and manage wisely the savanna ecosystems of the world. It is this conservation that forms the basis of the work of the RSSD Program. This fifth publication is comprised of research papers presented at the RSSD's international symposium held in Darwin, Australia, in 1988. The papers address the Australian perspective and intercontinental comparisons and come from an international, expert authorship.

Encyclopedia of Ecology

Author: N.A

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 008091456X

Category: Science

Page: 3120

View: 3664

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The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the complete field of ecology, from general to applied. It includes over 500 detailed entries, structured to provide the user with complete coverage of the core knowledge, accessed as intuitively as possible, and heavily cross-referenced. Written by an international team of leading experts, this revolutionary encyclopedia will serve as a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles to be used as a point of entry for undergraduate students, or as a tool for active researchers looking for the latest information in the field. Entries cover a range of topics, including: Behavioral Ecology Ecological Processes Ecological Modeling Ecological Engineering Ecological Indicators Ecological Informatics Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Evolutionary Ecology General Ecology Global Ecology Human Ecology System Ecology The first reference work to cover all aspects of ecology, from basic to applied Over 500 concise, stand-alone articles are written by prominent leaders in the field Article text is supported by full-color photos, drawings, tables, and other visual material Fully indexed and cross referenced with detailed references for further study Writing level is suited to both the expert and non-expert Available electronically on ScienceDirect shortly upon publication

Marine Plants of the Texas Coast

Author: Roy L. Lehman

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

ISBN: 1623490898

Category: Nature

Page: 224

View: 8616

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Written for biology students, teachers, nature lovers, amateur naturalists, conservation workers, and parks and wildlife personnel, this up-to-date, easy-to-use guide describes the marine plants of the Gulf of Mexico coast. The author’s photographs accompany the updated identification keys, which are also visually oriented and simple to use. Veteran botanist and educator Roy L. Lehman describes the plants in four major sections, covering the common shoreline plants, seagrasses, mangroves, and marine algae (red, brown, and green seaweeds). Each section begins with an introduction that gives an overview of the plant group and includes information on the important traits and terminology used for identification. A simple key to the family or order directs the reader to the appropriate section, where the text is arranged alphabetically by family and then by genus and species. Each genus is illustrated by high quality photographs that include a close-up of each plant and images of its reproductive structures. Marine Plants of the Texas Coast collects these unique species for the first time in a single volume. As coastal issues, such as hurricane preparedness, beach erosion, wetland mitigation, freshwater inflows, and more, remain in the forefront of public concern, this botanical reference should find a permanent place on the bookshelves of scientists, policy makers, and citizens alike.

Environmental Geochemistry in Tropical and Subtropical Environments

Author: Luiz Drude de Lacerda,Ricardo Erthal Santelli,Egbert K. Duursma,Jorge Joao Abrao

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366207060X

Category: Nature

Page: 385

View: 8803

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This book incorporates twenty contributions on diverse aspects of the environmental geochemistry in tropical and sub-tropical environments, drawing together extensive original research not readily available elsewhere. Coverage includes intercontinental comparisons drawn on paleoclimatology, environmental impacts of mining and geochemistry of continetal shelf sediments.

Biology

Author: Eldra Solomon,Linda Berg,Diana W. Martin

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1133170323

Category: Science

Page: 1408

View: 7166

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Solomon/Berg/Martin, BIOLOGY -- often described as the best majors text for LEARNING biology -- is also a complete teaching program. The superbly integrated, inquiry-based learning system guides students through every chapter. Key concepts appear clearly at the beginning of each chapter and learning objectives start each section. Students then review the key points at the end of each section before moving on to the next one. At the end of the chapter, a specially focused Summary provides further reinforcement of the learning objectives. The ninth edition offers expanded integration of the text's three guiding themes of biology (evolution, information transfer, and energy for life) and innovative online and multimedia resources for students and instructors Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems

Author: James R. Ehleringer,Thure Cerling,M. Denise Dearing

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387270485

Category: Science

Page: 530

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Based in extensive research in geology, atmospheric science, and paleontology, this book offers a detailed history of CO2 in the atmosphere, and an understanding of factors that have influenced changes in the past. The text illuminates the role of atmospheric CO2 in the modern carbon cycle and in the evolution of plants and animals, and addresses the future role of atmospheric CO2 and its likely effects on ecosystems.

Social-Ecological Systems in Transition

Author: Shoko Sakai,Chieko Umetsu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431549102

Category: Science

Page: 198

View: 355

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This book presents an overview of current knowledge about social–ecological systems (SESs), a productive new field dedicated to understanding the relationships between human society and nature. To make the reader aware of how SESs are necessary to maintain our society, the book begins with a broad perspective about what social–ecological systems are and what the related research issues in this field are as well. The second part discusses how human activities have changed ecosystems from temperate grasslands to tropical areas. The third part focuses on the adaptability of societies to unpredictable fluctuation in ecosystems, while the last part summarizes factors for the resilience of society against social and ecological shocks. Human activities have severely degraded most natural ecosystems, which are now in critical condition. Various approaches have been developed to improve the SESs, to understand environmental problems and explore better ways to increase the sustainability both of ecosystems and of human societies. However, a clear perspective on how to address such problems is still lacking. Part of the difficulty arises because of the diversity and complexity of ecosystems and human societies. Another important factor is the effect of extremely rapid changes in the social and economic characteristics of social–ecological systems. Consequently, adaptability and resilience clearly are essential for the sustainability of SESs. Although there is no one, direct method to achieve high adaptability and resilience, a possible way is to compare and understand the diverse problems associated with differing social–ecological systems. This published work makes a useful contribution to a greater understanding of the way that essential social responses linked to changes in ecosystems can potentially stimulate further research on this important and interesting subject. The book will attract the attention of scholars in environmental sciences, ecology, and sociology, and indeed of anyone interested in the concept of social–ecological systems.

Climate Change: Significance for Agriculture and Forestry

Systems Approaches Arising from an IPCC Meeting

Author: David H. White,S. Mark Howden

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401583285

Category: Science

Page: 146

View: 6596

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Societies throughout the world depend on food, fiber and forest products. Continuity and security of agricultural and forest production are therefore of paramount importance. Predicted changes in climate could be expected to alter, perhaps significantly, the levels and relative agricultural and forestry production of different nations over the next few decades. Agriculture and forestry are also likely to influence the rate and magnitude of such change, as they can be both significant sources and sinks of a number of greenhouse gases. Adaptive management strategies therefore need to be formulated and implemented for these sectors, to enable them to both adapt to future environmental change, and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. This book arose from an international workshop held in Canberra, Australia, under the auspices of the former IPCC Working Group III - Agriculture, Forestry and Other Human Activities Sub-Group (AFOS). A number of leading speakers at the workshop were approached to encapsulate the concepts discussed and developed at this workshop. The resulting papers make up this volume. The book promotes a greater understanding of the major sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within intensive and extensive cropping and animal production systems, and of agroforestry. It highlights the need to adopt a holistic systems approach to monitoring and reducing greenhouse gas emissions and assessing impacts, and to integrate climate change-related goals and activities with other issues, such as biodiversity, desertification, and sustainable agriculture and forestry.

Soils of Tropical Forest Ecosystems

Characteristics, Ecology and Management

Author: Andreas Schulte,Daddy Ruhiyat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662036495

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 8717

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An understanding of the characteristics and the ecology of soils, particularly those of forest ecosystems in the humid tropics, is central to the development of sustainable forest management systems. The present book examines the contribution that forest soil science and forest ecology can make to sustainable land use in the humid tropics. Four main issues are addressed: characteristics and classification of forest soils, chemical and hydrological changes after forest utilization, soil fertility management in forest plantations and agroforestry systems as well as ecosystem studies from the dipterocarp forest region of Southeast Asia. Additionally, case studies include work from Guyana, Costa Rica, the Philippines, Malaysia, Australia and Nigeria.