Plant Systematics

A Phylogenetic Approach

Author: Walter S. Judd,Michael J. Donoghue

Publisher: Sinauer Associates

ISBN: 9781605353890

Category: Plants

Page: 565

View: 2229

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Fourth Edition of Plant Systematics reflects changes in the circumscription of many orders and families to represent monophyletic groups, following the most recent classification of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.

Plant Systematics

Author: Michael G. Simpson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080514049

Category: Science

Page: 608

View: 340

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Plant Systematics is a comprehensive and beautifully illustrated text, covering the most up-to-date and essential paradigms, concepts, and terms required for a basic understanding of plant systematics. This book contains numerous cladograms that illustrate the evolutionary relationships of major plant groups, with an emphasis on the adaptive significance of major evolutionary novelties. It provides descriptions and classifications of major groups of angiosperms, including over 90 flowering plant families; a comprehensive glossary of plant morphological terms, as well as appendices on botanical illustration and plant descriptions. Pedagogy includes review questions, exercises, and references that complement each chapter. This text is ideal for graduate and undergraduate students in botany, plant taxonomy, plant systematics, plant pathology, ecology as well as faculty and researchers in any of the plant sciences. * The Henry Allan Gleason Award of The New York Botanical Garden, awarded for "Outstanding recent publication in the field of plant taxonomy, plant ecology, or plant geography" (2006) * Contains numerous cladograms that illustrate the evolutionary relationships of major plant groups, with an emphasis on the adaptive significance of major evolutionary novelties *Provides descriptions and classifications of major groups of angiosperms, including over 90 flowering plant families * Includes a comprehensive glossary of plant morphological terms as well as appendices on botanical illustration and plant description

Integrative Plant Anatomy

Author: William C. Dickison

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0122151704

Category: Nature

Page: 533

View: 1026

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Presents the basic concepts and terminology of plant anatomy with a special emphasis on its significance and applications to other disciplines. This book also highlights the important contribution made by studying anatomy to the solutions of a number of problems. It is illustrated with line drawings and photographs.

Phylogenetics

Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics

Author: E. O. Wiley,Bruce S. Lieberman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118017870

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 4937

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The long-awaited revision of the industry standard on phylogenetics Since the publication of the first edition of this landmark volume more than twenty-five years ago, phylogenetic systematics has taken its place as the dominant paradigm of systematic biology. It has profoundly influenced the way scientists study evolution, and has seen many theoretical and technical advances as the field has continued to grow. It goes almost without saying that the next twenty-five years of phylogenetic research will prove as fascinating as the first, with many exciting developments yet to come. This new edition of Phylogenetics captures the very essence of this rapidly evolving discipline. Written for the practicing systematist and phylogeneticist, it addresses both the philosophical and technical issues of the field, as well as surveys general practices in taxonomy. Major sections of the book deal with the nature of species and higher taxa, homology and characters, trees and tree graphs, and biogeography—the purpose being to develop biologically relevant species, character, tree, and biogeographic concepts that can be applied fruitfully to phylogenetics. The book then turns its focus to phylogenetic trees, including an in-depth guide to tree-building algorithms. Additional coverage includes: Parsimony and parsimony analysis Parametric phylogenetics including maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches Phylogenetic classification Critiques of evolutionary taxonomy, phenetics, and transformed cladistics Specimen selection, field collecting, and curating Systematic publication and the rules of nomenclature Providing a thorough synthesis of the field, this important update to Phylogenetics is essential for students and researchers in the areas of evolutionary biology, molecular evolution, genetics and evolutionary genetics, paleontology, physical anthropology, and zoology.

Homology and Systematics

Coding Characters for Phylogenetic Analysis

Author: Robert Scotland,R. Toby Pennington

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482268248

Category: Science

Page: 217

View: 5940

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Systematists, comparative biologists, taxonomists and evolutionary biologists all concern themselves with the evolutionary relationships between animals and plants. Homology is the principle underlying these disciplines. When looking at groups of organisms, shared positional similarities (homologues) provide the raw data from which hypotheses of common ancestry (homology) may be suggested. In order to explore the relationship between homologues (characters) and particular hypotheses of common ancestry, complex matrices are devised, where homologues are coded, allowing theories of homology to be developed and tested. Practically nothing has been written about this matrix-building process and yet it is of fundamental importance to our understanding of diversity and evolutionary history. This book fills the gap by discussing the different ways observations are coded and the consequences for the resulting hypotheses. It takes a pragmatic approach and uses case studies as well as theoretical examples to offer practical solutions.

The Yeasts

A Taxonomic Study

Author: Cletus Kurtzman,J.W. Fell,Teun Boekhout

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080931272

Category: Science

Page: 2354

View: 8793

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The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study is a three-volume book that covers the taxonomic aspect of yeasts. The main goal of this book is to provide important information about the identification of yeasts. It also discusses the growth tests that can be used to identify different species of yeasts, and it examines how the more important species of yeasts provide information for the selection of species needed for biotechnology. • Volume 1 discusses the identification, classification and importance of yeasts in the field of biotechnology. • Volume 2 focuses on the identification and classification of ascomycetous yeasts. • Volume 3 deals with the identification and classification of basidiomycetous yeasts, along with the genus Prototheca. High-quality photomicrographs and line drawings Detailed phylogenetic trees Up-to-date, clearly presented yeast taxonomy and systematic, easy-to-use reference sequence accession numbers to allow for correct identification

Plant Biosystematics

Author: William F. Grant

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483273709

Category: Nature

Page: 690

View: 1265

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Plant Biosystematics is a compendium of papers from a symposium titled "Plant Biosystematics: Forty Years Later" held in Montreal in July 1983. This collection reviews the current field of biosystematics, particularly the evolution of natural biota, and how plant biosystematics can contribute to the welfare of humans. One paper reviews biosystematics, compares new approaches, and discusses the latest trend in comparative, molecular evolution of genes. One author discusses the cytology and biosystematics concerning the discontinuities and genetic independence occurring in the evolutionary process. Another author discusses chromosome pairing in species and hybrids that includes models of chromosome pairing in diploids. The text also describes chromosome banding and biosystematics, as well as the problems of chromosome banding that should be addressed to in future research. With estimates of the number of species being threatened with extinction numbering around 20,000 one paper address the issue of conservation and biosystematics. The author suggests that more biological information should be published to avoid duplication of effort, and possibly drive scientists to have their views more widely felt. Agriculturists, botanists, conservationists, environmentalists, and researchers in the field of botany, conservation, and plant genealogy will find this book valuable.

Biological Approaches and Evolutionary Trends in Plants

Author: Shoichi Kawano

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323150748

Category: Science

Page: 430

View: 876

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Biological Approaches and Evolutionary Trends in Plants is a collection of papers presented at the Fourth International Symposium of Plant Biosystematics held on July 10-14, 1989 in Kyoto, Japan. Contributors, some are world's leading plant biologists, discuss the findings in evolutionary biology and issues in plant biosystematics in light of the evidence and ideas brought forward at various levels of biological organization, from molecule to cell, individual, population, species, and community levels. This volume is organized into four sections encompassing 22 chapters and begins with an overview of discoveries concerning parapatric differentiation of weed populations, including adaptive evolution in herbicide resistant biotypes and complex evolutionary patterns in weed-crop complexes of various groups. The next section explores molecular approaches in plant biosystematics, focusing on amino acid sequencing of proteins; restriction-site variations of cpDNA, mitDNA, rDNA, etc.; and chromosome-banding patterns revealed by differential staining. The discussion shifts to a wave of research in plant population biology and evolutionary ecology since the 1970s and its impact on biology and biosystematics. The book considers various aspects of reproductive biology and evolutionary changes in significant reproductive parameters and attempts to demographically quantify these parameters. The final chapter is devoted to the use of functional phylogenetic systematics for predictive ecology. This book will be of interest to plant biologists and scientists and researchers in fields such as biochemistry, botany, microbiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology.

Plant Systematics

An Intergrated Approach, Third Edition

Author: G. Singh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781138407664

Category:

Page: 791

View: 9957

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The focus of the present edition has been to further consolidate the information on the principles of plant systematic, include detailed discussion on all major systems of classification, and significantly, also include discussion on the selected families of vascular plants, without sacrificing the discussion on basic principles. The families included for discussion are largely those which have wide representation, as also those that are less known but significant in evaluating the phylogeny of angiosperms. The discussion of the families also has a considerable focus on their phylogenetic relationships, as evidenced by recent cladistic studies, with liberal citation of molecular data. Several additional families have been included for detailed discussion in the present volume.

Bayesian Phylogenetics

Methods, Algorithms, and Applications

Author: Ming-Hui Chen,Lynn Kuo,Paul O. Lewis

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466500794

Category: Mathematics

Page: 396

View: 3770

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Offering a rich diversity of models, Bayesian phylogenetics allows evolutionary biologists, systematists, ecologists, and epidemiologists to obtain answers to very detailed phylogenetic questions. Suitable for graduate-level researchers in statistics and biology, Bayesian Phylogenetics: Methods, Algorithms, and Applications presents a snapshot of current trends in Bayesian phylogenetic research. Encouraging interdisciplinary research, this book introduces state-of-the-art phylogenetics to the Bayesian statistical community and, likewise, presents state-of-the-art Bayesian statistics to the phylogenetics community. The book emphasizes model selection, reflecting recent interest in accurately estimating marginal likelihoods. It also discusses new approaches to improve mixing in Bayesian phylogenetic analyses in which the tree topology varies. In addition, the book covers divergence time estimation, biologically realistic models, and the burgeoning interface between phylogenetics and population genetics.

Plant Identification Terminology

An Illustrated Glossary

Author: James G. Harris,Melinda Woolf Harris

Publisher: Spring Lake Pub

ISBN: 9780964022164

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 9200

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Illustrated glossary. Terminology by category. Roots. Stems. Leaves. Surfaces. Inflorescences. Flowers. Fruits.

Flora of Middle-Earth

Plants of J.R.R. Tolkien's Legendarium

Author: Walter S. Judd,Graham A. Judd

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190276339

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 3795

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Few settings in literature are as widely known or celebrated as J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle-Earth. The natural landscape plays a major role in nearly all of Tolkien's major works, and readers have come to view the geography of this fictional universe as integral to understanding and enjoying Tolkien's works. And in laying out this continent, Tolkien paid special attention to its plant life; in total, over 160 plants are explicitly mentioned and described as a part of Middle-Earth. Nearly all of these plants are real species, and many of the fictional plants are based on scientifically grounded botanic principles. In Flora of Middle Earth: Plants of Tolkien's Legendarium, botanist Walter Judd gives a detailed species account of every plant found in Tolkien's universe, complete with the etymology of the plant's name, a discussion of its significance within Tolkien's work, a description of the plant's distribution and ecology, and an original hand-drawn illustration by artist Graham Judd in the style of a woodcut print. Among the over three-thousand vascular plants Tolkien would have seen in the British Isles, the authors show why Tolkien may have selected certain plants for inclusion in his universe over others, in terms of their botanic properties and traditional uses. The clear, comprehensive alphabetical listing of each species, along with the visual identification key of the plant drawings, adds to the reader's understanding and appreciation of the Tolkien canon.

Tree Thinking

An Introduction to Phylogenetic Biology

Author: David A. Baum,Stacey D. Smith

Publisher: Roberts & Company

ISBN: 9781936221165

Category: Science

Page: 476

View: 4790

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Baum and Smith, both professors evolutionary biology and researchers in the field of systematics, present this highly accessible introduction to phylogenetics and its importance in modern biology. Ever since Darwin, the evolutionary histories of organisms have been portrayed in the form of branching trees or "phylogenies." However, the broad significance of the phylogenetic trees has come to be appreciated only quite recently. Phylogenetics has myriad applications in biology, from discovering the features present in ancestral organisms, to finding the sources of invasive species and infectious diseases, to identifying our closest living (and extinct) hominid relatives. Taking a conceptual approach, Tree Thinking introduces readers to the interpretation of phylogenetic trees, how these trees can be reconstructed, and how they can be used to answer biological questions. Examples and vivid metaphors are incorporated throughout, and each chapter concludes with a set of problems, valuable for both students and teachers. Tree Thinking is must-have textbook for any student seeking a solid foundation in this fundamental area of evolutionary biology.

Plant Taxonomy

The Systematic Evaluation of Comparative Data

Author: Tod F. Stuessy

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231518641

Category: Science

Page: 568

View: 7537

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The field of plant taxonomy has transformed rapidly over the past fifteen years, especially with regard to improvements in cladistic analysis and the use of new molecular data. The second edition of this popular resource reflects these far-reaching and dramatic developments with more than 3,000 new references and many new figures. Synthesizing current research and trends, Plant Taxonomy now provides the most up-to-date overview in relation to monographic, biodiversity, and evolutionary studies, and continues to be an essential resource for students and scholars. This text is divided into two parts: Part 1 explains the principles of taxonomy, including the importance of systematics, characters, concepts of categories, and different approaches to biological classification. Part 2 outlines the different types of data used in plant taxonomic studies with suggestions on their efficacy and modes of presentation and evaluation. This section also lists the equipment and financial resources required for gathering each type of data. References throughout the book illuminate the historical development of taxonomic terminology and philosophy while citations offer further study. Plant Taxonomy is also a personal story of what it means to be a practicing taxonomist and to view these activities within a meaningful conceptual framework. Tod F. Stuessy recalls the progression of his own work and shares his belief that the most creative taxonomy is done by those who have a strong conceptual grasp of their own research.

Fungal Phylogenetics and Phylogenomics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128132620

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 1764

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Fungal Phylogenetics and Phylogenomics, Volume 99, the latest release in the Advances in Genetics series, presents users with new chapters that delve into such topics as the Advances of fungal phylogenomics and the impact on fungal systematics, Data crunching for fungal phylogenomics: insights into data collection and phylogenetic inference based on genome data for fungi, Genomic and epigenomic traits of emerging fungal pathogens, Advances in fungal gene cluster diversity and evolution, Phylogenomics of Fusarium oxysporum species complex, Phylogenomic analyses of pathogenic yeasts, and the Phylogenetics and phylogenomics of rust fungi. The series continually publishes important reviews of the broadest interest to geneticists and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines, critically analyzing future directions. Critically analyzes future directions for the study of clinical genetics Written and edited by recognized leaders in the field Presents new medical breakthroughs that are occurring as a result of advances in our knowledge of genetics

Plants of the World

An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Vascular Plants

Author: Maarten J. M. Christenhusz,Michael F. Fay,Mark W. Chase

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022653670X

Category: Nature

Page: 816

View: 3566

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Plants of the World is the first book to systematically explore every vascular plant family on earth—more than four hundred and fifty of them—organized in a modern phylogenetic order. Detailed entries for each family include descriptions, distribution, evolutionary relationships, and fascinating information on economic uses of plants and etymology of their names. All entries are also copiously illustrated in full color with more than 2,500 stunning photographs. A collaboration among three celebrated botanists at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Plants of the World is authoritative, comprehensive, and beautiful. Covering everything from ferns to angiosperms, it will be an essential resource for practicing botanists, horticulturists, and nascent green thumbs alike.

Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics

Author: Masatoshi Nei,Sudhir Kumar

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199881227

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 3463

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During the last ten years, remarkable progress has occurred in the study of molecular evolution. Among the most important factors that are responsible for this progress are the development of new statistical methods and advances in computational technology. In particular, phylogenetic analysis of DNA or protein sequences has become a powerful tool for studying molecular evolution. Along with this developing technology, the application of the new statistical and computational methods has become more complicated and there is no comprehensive volume that treats these methods in depth. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics fills this gap and present various statistical methods that are easily accessible to general biologists as well as biochemists, bioinformatists and graduate students. The text covers measurement of sequence divergence, construction of phylogenetic trees, statistical tests for detection of positive Darwinian selection, inference of ancestral amino acid sequences, construction of linearized trees, and analysis of allele frequency data. Emphasis is given to practical methods of data analysis, and methods can be learned by working through numerical examples using the computer program MEGA2 that is provided.

Field Manual of Michigan Flora

Author: Edward G Voss,Anton A Reznicek

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 0472118110

Category: Nature

Page: 990

View: 4258

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A comprehensive guide to Michigan’s wild-growing seed plants