Metacommunity Ecology

Author: Mathew A. Leibold,Jonathan M. Chase

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400889065

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 3435

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Metacommunity ecology links smaller-scale processes that have been the provenance of population and community ecology—such as birth-death processes, species interactions, selection, and stochasticity—with larger-scale issues such as dispersal and habitat heterogeneity. Until now, the field has focused on evaluating the relative importance of distinct processes, with niche-based environmental sorting on one side and neutral-based ecological drift and dispersal limitation on the other. This book moves beyond these artificial categorizations, showing how environmental sorting, dispersal, ecological drift, and other processes influence metacommunity structure simultaneously. Mathew Leibold and Jonathan Chase argue that the relative importance of these processes depends on the characteristics of the organisms, the strengths and types of their interactions, the degree of habitat heterogeneity, the rates of dispersal, and the scale at which the system is observed. Using this synthetic perspective, they explore metacommunity patterns in time and space, including patterns of coexistence, distribution, and diversity. Leibold and Chase demonstrate how these processes and patterns are altered by micro- and macroevolution, traits and phylogenetic relationships, and food web interactions. They then use this scale-explicit perspective to illustrate how metacommunity processes are essential for understanding macroecological and biogeographical patterns as well as ecosystem-level processes. Moving seamlessly across scales and subdisciplines, Metacommunity Ecology is an invaluable reference, one that offers a more integrated approach to ecological patterns and processes.

Limnología

Author: Ramón Margalef

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1010

View: 3439

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Floods of Fortune

Ecology and Economy Along the Amazon

Author: Michael Goulding,Nigel J. H. Smith,Dennis J. Mahar

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231104210

Category: Science

Page: 193

View: 3389

DOWNLOAD NOW »

"Excellent photos accompany text that connects cultural and natural landscapes. Nine chapters examine problems and opportunities, settlement history, modern economic risks, and wildlife. Analyses concerning fish, plants, and floodplain agriculture are especially noteworthy. Excellent overview useful for both professionals and general public"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57.

Ecological Effects of Water-level Fluctuations in Lakes

Author: Karl M. Wantzen,Karl-Otto Rothhaupt,Martin Mörtl,Marco Cantonati,Lászlo G.-Tóth,Philipp Fischer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402091926

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 184

View: 4182

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Most aquatic ecosystems have variable water levels. These water-level fluctuations (WLF) have multiple effects on the organisms above and below the waterline. Natural WLF patterns in lakes guarantee both productivity and biodiversity, while untimely floods and droughts may have negative effects. Human impacts on WLF have led to a stabilization of the water levels of many lakes by hydraulic regulation, untimely drawdown due to water use, or floods due to water release from hydropower plants in the catchments. This book provides a first review in this field. It presents selected papers on the ecological effects of WLF in lakes, resulting from a workshop at the University of Konstanz in winter 2005. Issues addressed here include the extent of WLF, and analyses of their effects on different groups of biota from microorganisms to vertebrates. Applied issues include recommendations for the hydrological management of regulated lakes to reduce negative impacts, and a conceptual framework is delivered by an extension of the floodpulse concept for lakes. Current impacts on water use, including increasing demands on drinking and irrigation water, hydropower etc., and climate change effects on WLF make this book an essential resource for aquatic ecologists, engineers, and decision-makers dealing with the management of lake ecosystems and their catchments.

Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science

Author: Michael L. Pace,Peter M. Groffman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461217245

Category: Science

Page: 499

View: 7733

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Ecosystem research has emerged in recent decades as a vital, successful, and sometimes controversial approach to environmental science. This book emphasizes the idea that much of the progress in ecosystem research has been driven by the emergence of new environmental problems that could not be addressed by existing approaches. By focusing on successes and limitations of ecosystems studies, the book explores avenues for future ecosystem-level research.

Nitrogen in the Environment

Author: J.L. Hatfield,R.F. Follett

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080569895

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 720

View: 6724

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Nitrogen is one of the most critical elements for all life forms. In agricultural systems it is essential for the production of crops for feed, food, and fiber. The ever-increasing world population requires increasing use of nitrogen in agriculture to supply human needs for dietary protein. Worldwide demand for nitrogen will increase as a direct response to increasing population. Nitrogen in the Environment provides a wholistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen. The scope of this book is diverse covering a range of topics and issues related to furthering our understanding of nitrogen in the environment at farm and national levels. Issues of nitrogen from its effects on crops and human nutrition to nitrogen in ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed to provide a broad view of the problem and support scientists, researchers, and engineers in formulating comprehensive solutions. * The only source which presents an international, wholistic perspective of the effects of nitrogen in the environment with worldwide mitigation practices * Provides details on how to improve the quality of the environment by analyzing the development of emerging technologies * Develops strategies to be used by soil scientists, agronomists, hydrologists, and geophysicists for broad scale improvement of nitrogen efficiency

Aquatic Biofilms

Author: Helena Guasch Anna M. Romani

Publisher: Caister Academic Press

ISBN: 1910190187

Category: Science

Page: 242

View: 7937

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Biofilms in aquatic ecosystems colonize various surfaces (sand, rocks, leaves) and play a key role in the environment. Aquatic biofilms supply energy and organic matter to the food chain, they are important in recycling organic matter and contribute to water quality. This book is a concise review of the current knowledge on aquatic biofilms with an emphasis on the characteristics and ecology of biofilms in natural ecosystems and a focus on biofilm applications linked to water pollution problems. The volume is divided into three sections: Biofilms Mode of Life; Biofilms and Pollution; and New Technologies using Biofilms. In the first section the aquatic biofilm mode of life is described and reviewed. Key aspects covered include the three-dimensional structure and cell to cell communication of biofilms, their dynamic prokaryotic diversity and their vital role in biogeochemical cycles. In the second part of the book the use of biofilms in water quality is comprehensively covered. Chapters discuss biofilms in water quality, environmental risk assessment, monitoring and ecotoxicological approaches. Further topics include biofilm development in sewage pipes and the potential for microbial transformations in these systems. The final section focuses on important examples of novel technologies based on biofilms for water treatment, including the biodegradation of pollutants, the application of bioelectrogenic biofilms, and the biofilm capacity for nitrogen removal. With contributions from ecologists, engineers and microbiologists this book presents scientists and technicians with up-to-date knowledge and a clear understanding of aquatic biofilms from different and complementary points of view. An essential reference book for anyone working with biofilms.

Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality

First addendum to volume 1, Recommendations

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241546743

Category: Medical

Page: 68

View: 2279

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This publication contains the first addendum to Volume One of the 3rd edition (2004, ISBN 9241546387) of the WHO's guidelines which are used by countries worldwide to set standards for the regulation of drinking water quality and effective approaches to water safety management, including approaches to ensuring microbial safety. It gives details of all changes to the Guidelines since 2004, including the addition of three new chemical fact sheets and revisions to several others, updated guideline summary tables, new information to address local actions in response to chemical water quality problems and emergencies, an expanded discussion of chemicals used in water treatment and chemicals arising from materials in contact with water, and a complete list of minor revisions or amendments.

Aquatic Humic Substances

Ecology and Biogeochemistry

Author: Dag Hessen,Lars Tranvik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366203736X

Category: Science

Page: 346

View: 9439

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Humic substances occur in all kinds of aquatic systems, but are particularly important in northern, coniferous areas. They strongly modify the aquatic ecosystems and also constitute a major problem in the drinking water supply. This volume covers all aspects of aquatic humic substances, from their origin and chemical properties, their effects on light and nutrient regimes and biogeochemical cycling, to their role regarding organisms, productivity and food web organization from bacteria to fish. Special emphasis is paid to carbon cycling and food web organization in humic lakes, but aspects of marine carbon cycling related to humus are treated as well.

Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems

Science, Technology, and Public Policy

Author: Committee on Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309596149

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 540

View: 3311

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Aldo Leopold, father of the "land ethic," once said, "The time has come for science to busy itself with the earth itself. The first step is to reconstruct a sample of what we had to begin with." The concept he expressed--restoration--is defined in this comprehensive new volume that examines the prospects for repairing the damage society has done to the nation's aquatic resources: lakes, rivers and streams, and wetlands. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems outlines a national strategy for aquatic restoration, with practical recommendations, and features case studies of aquatic restoration activities around the country. The committee examines Key concepts and techniques used in restoration. Common factors in successful restoration efforts. Threats to the health of the nation's aquatic ecosystems. Approaches to evaluation before, during, and after a restoration project. The emerging specialties of restoration and landscape ecology.

Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water

Author: John David Hem,Geological Sur U . S. Geological Survey

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781410223081

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 1657

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The chemical composition of natural water is derived from many different sources of solutes, including gases and aerosols from the atmosphere, weathering and erosion of rocks and soil, solution or precipitation reactions occurring below the land surface, and cultural effects resulting from activities of man. Some of the processes of solution or precipitation of minerals can be closely evaluated by means of principles of chemical equilibrium including the law of mass action and the Nernst equation. Other processes are irreversible and require consideration of reaction mechanisms and rates. The chemical composition of the crustal rocks of the earth and the composition of the ocean and the atmosphere are significant in evaluating sources of solutes in natural fresh water. The ways in which solutes are taken up or precipitated and the amounts present in solution are influenced by many environmental factors, especially climate, structure and position of rock strata, and biochemical effects associated with life cycles of plants and animals, both microscopic and macroscopic. Taken all together and in application with the further influence of the general circulation of all water in the hydrologic cycle, the chemical principles and environmental factors form a basis for the developing science of natural-water chemistry. Fundamental data used in the determination of water quality are obtained by the chemical analysis of water samples in the laboratory or onsite sensing of chemical properties in the field. Sampling is complicated by changes in composition of moving water and the effects of particulate suspended material. Most of the constituents determined are reported in gravimetric units, usually milligrams per liter or milliequivalents per liter. More than 60 constituents and properties are included in water analyses frequently enough to provide a basis for consideration of the sources from which each is generally derived, most probable forms of elements and ions in solution, solubility controls, expected concentration ranges and other chemical factors. Concentrations of elements that are commonly present in amounts less than a few tens of micrograms per liter cannot always be easily explained, but present information suggests many are controlled by solubility of hydroxide or carbonate or by sorption on solid particles. Chemical analyses may be grouped and statistically evaluated by averages, frequency distributions, or ion correlations to summarize large volumes of data. Graphing of analyses or of groups of analyses aids in showing chemical relationships among waters, probable sources of solutes, areal water-quality regimen, and water-resources evaluation. Graphs may show water type based on chemical composition, relationships among ions, or groups of ions in individual waters or many waters considered simultaneously. The relationships of water quality to hydrologic parameters, such as stream discharge rate or ground-water flow patterns, can be shown by mathematical equations, graphs, and maps. About 75 water analyses selected from the literature are tabulated to illustrate the relationships described, and some of these, along with many others that are not tabulated, are also utilized in demonstrating graphing and mapping techniques. Relationships of water composition to source rock type are illustrated by graphs of some of the tabulated analyses. Activities of man maymodify water composition extensively through direct effects of pollution and indirect results of water development, such as intrusion of sea water in ground-water aquifiers. Water-quality standards for domestic, agricultural, and industrial use have been published by various agencies. Irrigation project requirements for water quality are particularly intricate. Fundamental knowledge of processes that control natural water composition is required for rational management of water quality.

Man and Fisheries on an Amazon Frontier

Author: M. Goulding

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401721610

Category: Science

Page: 137

View: 2512

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The southwestern Amazon basin, centering on the Territory of Rondönia and the State of Acre, is symbolically if not exactly geographically, the Wild Wild West of Brazil's northern rainforest fron tier. In Brazil the name Rondönia evokes exaggerated images of lawlessness, land feuding, and indigent peasants in search of a homestead. Despite the problems and the perception, the region has pushed ahead, in the view of the govern ment, with large-scale deforestation and the establishment of cattle ranches and agricultural farms raising manioc, rice, bananas, and other cash crops. The mining industry has been launched with the exploitation oftin stone, and the recent gold rush has attracted thousands of miners that are sifting alluvial deposits along the rivers for the precious ore. In an energy-short world, the region boasts of its large hydroelectric potential waiting development in the rivers falling off the Brazilian Shield and draining into the Rio Madeira. Planners are optimistic that Rondönia's resources, once developed, will more than justify, at least in this corner of the rainforest frontier, the Economic Conquest ofthe Amazon. Sandwiched between the economic take-off and the dream, however, are the biological resources - the plants and animals - that must serve as sources of energy and food until human dominated ecosystems replace naturaiones. These resources are, ofnecessity, being heavily attacked to support the shaky economy of the region, but they are very poorly understood in terms of potential productivity and proper management.

Ecoregions of Saskatchewan

Author: G. A. Padbury,Donald F. Acton,Colette T. Stushnoff,University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center,Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management

Publisher: University of Regina Press

ISBN: 9780889770973

Category: History

Page: 205

View: 6725

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Ensuring a healthy environment, while at the same time ensuring prosperity for people, is an ongoing challenge. Decisions regarding the environment must be made on a broaded and more inclusive basis than has been done in the past, recognizing that, in one way or another, everything is linked. Without healthy ecosystems, a high quality of human life and prosperity cannot be sustained. An ecological perspective recognizes the importance of viewing ourselves as part of, rather than separate from, the world's ecosystems.

Protecting Groundwater for Health

Managing the Quality of Drinking-water Sources

Author: Oliver Schmoll,World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241546689

Category: Medical

Page: 678

View: 839

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This publication provides a structured approach to analyzing hazards to groundwater quality, assessing the risk they may cause for a specific supply, setting priorities in addressing these, and developing management strategies for their control. This book summarizes which pathogens and chemicals are relevant to human health, how they are transported, reduced, removed or retarded; provides practical guidance on characterizing the drinking-water catchment area and assessing potential health hazards; provides guidance on prioritising both hazards and management responses; presents key information on potential management actions and explains their integration into a comprehensive Water Safety Plan from catchment to consumer; and describes policy, land-use planning and implementation of pollution prevention, groundwater, with overviews of specific management approaches applicable to agriculture, sanitation, industry, mining, military sites, waste disposal and traffic.--Publisher's description.