Physics of the Human Body

Author: Irving P. Herman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319239325

Category: Science

Page: 953

View: 6548

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This book comprehensively addresses the physics and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the mechanical properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to clearly explain the physics issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the underlying physics. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This second edition enhances the treatments of the physics of motion, sports, and diseases and disorders, and integrates discussions of these topics as they appear throughout the book. Also, it briefly addresses physical measurements of and in the body, and offers a broader selection of problems, which, as in the first edition, are geared to a range of student levels. This text is geared to undergraduates interested in physics, medical applications of physics, quantitative physiology, medicine, and biomedical engineering.

Biomechanics of the Brain

Author: Karol Miller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441999973

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 5550

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Biomechanics of the Brain will present an introduction to brain anatomy for engineers and scientists. Experimental techniques such as brain imaging and brain tissue mechanical property measurement will be discussed, as well as computational methods for neuroimage analysis and modeling of brain deformations due to impacts and neurosurgical interventions. Brain trauma between the different sexes will be analyzed. Applications will include prevention and diagnosis of traumatic injuries, such as shaken baby syndrome, neurosurgical simulation and neurosurgical guidance, as well as brain structural disease modeling for diagnosis and prognosis. This book will be the first book on brain biomechanics. It will provide a comprehensive source of information on this important field for students, researchers, and medical professionals in the fields of computer-aided neurosurgery, head injury, and basic biomechanics.

The Physics of Pulsatile Flow

Author: M. Zamir

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461212820

Category: Medical

Page: 222

View: 521

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A presentation of the most elementary form of pulsatile flow as an important prerequisite for the study of other flow applications in biological systems. The book provides in a single source a complete treatment of the fluid dynamics of flow with the required mathematics and emphasis on the basis mechanics. The style and level of this book make it accessible to students and researchers in biophysics, biology, medicine, bioengineering and applied mathematics working in theoretical and clinical work on the cardiovascular system, as well as in the design of new instrumentation, medical imaging systems, and artificial organs. With problems and exercises.

Biomechanics of the Human Body

Author: Emico Okuno,Luciano Fratin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461485762

Category: Science

Page: 164

View: 2847

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Biomechanics of the Human Body teaches basic physics concepts using examples and problems based on the human body. The reader will also learn how the laws of mechanics may help to understand the conditions of the static and dynamic equilibrium of one of the marvels of nature: the human body. The mathematical language used in physics has always been pointed out as responsible for students’ difficulties. So, each concept given is followed by explanatory examples, with subsequent application and fixation exercises. It is a richly illustrated book that facilitates the comprehension of presented concepts. Biomechanics of the Human Body can be useful to students of physical and occupational therapy, physical education, the life sciences, and health care professionals who deal with biomechanics. This book is also recommended for sport practitioners as well as the general reader interested in the mechanics of the human body.

The Physics of Birdsong

Author: Gabriel B. Mindlin,Rodrigo Laje

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540282491

Category: Science

Page: 158

View: 6219

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Detailed report on a topic that has already attracted much popular interest. Provides fascinating reading for physicists, biologists and general readers alike.

Physics of the Human Body

Author: Richard P. McCall

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801894557

Category: Medical

Page: 301

View: 9738

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Blood pumping through our veins is a vital example of Poiseuille flow; the act of running requires friction to propel the runner forward; and the quality of our eyesight demonstrates how properties of light enable us to correct near- and far-sightedness. --

Molecular and Cellular Signaling

Author: Martin Beckerman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387260153

Category: Science

Page: 582

View: 2906

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Makes connections between diseases, drugs and signaling in those chapters not specifically devoted to pathogens. Reviews background in first 5 chapters then offers chapters on cancers and apoptosis and on bacteria and viruses. Signaling in the immune, endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems covered along with cancer, apoptosis and gene regulation. Each chapter ends with a problem section to facilitate discussion.

Thin Films and Coatings in Biology

Author: Soroush Nazarpour

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400725922

Category: Science

Page: 365

View: 980

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The surface of materials is routinely exposed to various environmental influences. Surface modification presents a technological challenge for material scientists, physicists, and engineers, particularly when those surfaces are subjected to function within human body environment. This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the major issues and topics dealing with interaction of soft living matter with the surface of implants. Fundamental scientific concepts are embedded through experimental data and a broad range of case studies. First chapters cover the basics on biocompatibility of many different thin films of metals, alloys, ceramics, hydrogels, and polymers, following with case studies dealing with orthopedic and dental coatings. Next, a novel and low-cost coating deposition technique capable of production of several types of nanostructures is introduced through simple calculations and several illustrations. Moreover, chapter 6 and 7 present important topics on surface treatment of polymers, which is a subject that has seen many developments over the past decade. The last chapters target mainly the applications of coatings in biology such as in bio-sensing, neuroscience, and cancer detection. With several illustrations, micrographs, and case studies along with suitable references in each chapter, this book will be essential for graduate students and researchers in the multidisciplinary field of bio-coatings.

Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics

Author: K. Bethge,G. Kraft,P. Kreisler,Gertrud Walter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662086085

Category: Science

Page: 209

View: 5675

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Methods involving nuclear physics are today finding applications in many disciplines, including important areas of medicine. This book intends to bridge the gap between the many applications in medicine and the underlying basic nuclear physics which needs to be understood by those applying the methods. In addition, those active in nuclear science will gain insight into the manifold applications of their subject. The main topics of the book are: physical foundations, instrumentation, diagnostics (imaging), therapies and radiation safety. The book will appeal to medical doctors active in nuclear medicine as well as to medical physicists.

E. coli in Motion

Author: Howard C. Berg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387216383

Category: Science

Page: 134

View: 9307

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Escherichia coli, commonly referred to as E. coli, has been the organism of choice for molecular genetics for decades. Its machinery and mobile behavior is one of the most fascinating topics for cell scientists. Scientists and engineers, not trained in microbiology, and who would like to learn more about living machines, can see it as a unique example. This cross-disciplinary monograph covers more than thirty years of research and is accessible to graduate students and scientists alike.

Physiology, Biophysics, and Biomedical Engineering

Author: Andrew W Wood

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1466552794

Category: Science

Page: 782

View: 6052

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Physiology, Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering provides a multidisciplinary understanding of biological phenomena and the instrumentation for monitoring these phenomena. It covers the physical phenomena of electricity, pressure, and flow along with the adaptation of the physics of the phenomena to the special conditions and constraints of biological systems. While the text focuses on human biological systems, some of the principles also apply to plants, bacteria, and other animals. The first section of the book presents a general introduction to physiological systems and describes specialized methods used to record electrical events from biological tissue. The next part examines molecules involved in cell transport and signaling as well as the proteins relevant in cells’ ability to contract and generate tension. The text goes on to cover the properties of the heart, blood, and circulation and the monitoring of cardiac and circulatory function. It then discusses the importance of the interrelationship of pressures and flows in organ systems, such as the lungs and kidneys, and details the organization and function of the nervous system. After focusing on the systems used to monitor signals, the book explores modeling, biomechanics, and emerging technologies, including the progressive miniaturization of sensors and actuators in biomedical engineering. Developed from the authors’ courses in medical biophysics and biomedical instrumentation, this book shows how biophysics and biomedical engineering have advanced modern medicine. It brings together the physical principles underlying human physiological processes and the physical methods used to monitor these processes. Requiring only basic mathematical knowledge, the text supplements mathematical formulae with qualitative explanations and illustrations to encourage an intuitive grasp on the processes discussed.

Biomimetics -- Materials, Structures and Processes

Examples, Ideas and Case Studies

Author: petra gruber,Dietmar Bruckner,Christian Hellmich,Heinz-Bodo Schmiedmayer,Herbert Stachelberger,Ille C. Gebeshuber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642119347

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 5995

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The book presents an outline of current activities in the field of biomimetics and integrates a variety of applications comprising biophysics, surface sciences, architecture and medicine. Biomimetics as innovation method is characterised by interdisciplinary information transfer from the life sciences to technical application fields aiming at increased performance, functionality and energy efficiency. The contributions of the book relate to the research areas: - Materials and structures in nanotechnology and biomaterials - Biomimetic approaches to develop new forms, construction principles and design methods in architecture - Information and dynamics in automation, neuroinformatics and biomechanics Readers will be informed about the latest research approaches and results in biomimetics with examples ranging from bionic nano-membranes to function-targeted design of tribological surfaces and the translation of natural auditory coding strategies.

Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology

Author: Robert Splinter

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142007525X

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 537

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In considering ways that physics has helped advance biology and medicine, what typically comes to mind are the various tools used by researchers and clinicians. We think of the optics put to work in microscopes, endoscopes, and lasers; the advanced diagnostics permitted through magnetic, x-ray, and ultrasound imaging; and even the nanotools, that allow us to tinker with molecules. We build these instruments in accordance with the closest thing to absolute truths we know, the laws of physics, but seldom do we apply those same constants of physics to the study of our own carbon-based beings, such as fluidics applied to the flow of blood, or the laws of motion and energy applied to working muscle. Instead of considering one aspect or the other, Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology explores the full gamut of physics’ relationship to biology and medicine in more than 40 chapters, written by experts from the lab to the clinic. The book begins with a basic description of specific biological features and delves into the physics of explicit anatomical structures starting with the cell. Later chapters look at the body's senses, organs, and systems, continuing to explain biological functions in the language of physics. The text then details various analytical modalities such as imaging and diagnostic methods. A final section turns to future perspectives related to tissue engineering, including the biophysics of prostheses and regenerative medicine. The editor’s approach throughout is to address the major healthcare challenges, including tissue engineering and reproductive medicine, as well as development of artificial organs and prosthetic devices. The contents are organized by organ type and biological function, which is given a clear description in terms of electric, mechanical, thermodynamic, and hydrodynamic properties. In addition to the physical descriptions, each chapter discusses principles of related clinical diagnostic methods and technological aspects of therapeutic applications. The final section on regenerative engineering, emphasizes biochemical and physiochemical factors that are important to improving or replacing biological functions. Chapters cover materials used for a broad range of applications associated with the replacement or repair of tissues or entire tissue structures.

Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

Author: Ervin B. Podgorsak

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319253824

Category: Science

Page: 906

View: 8017

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This textbook summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, the textbook covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary undergraduate physics and the intricacies of four medical physics specialties: diagnostic radiology physics, nuclear medicine physics, radiation oncology physics, and health physics. To recognize the importance of radiation dosimetry to medical physics three new chapters have been added to the 14 chapters of the previous edition. Chapter 15 provides a general introduction to radiation dosimetry. Chapter 16 deals with absolute radiation dosimetry systems that establish absorbed dose or some other dose related quantity directly from the signal measured by the dosimeter. Three absolute dosimetry techniques are known and described in detail: (i) calorimetric; (ii) chemical (Fricke), and (iii) ionometric. Chapter 17 deals with relative radiation dosimetry systems that rely on a previous dosimeter calibration in a known radiation field. Many relative radiation dosimetry systems have been developed to date and four most important categories used routinely in medicine and radiation protection are described in this chapter: (i) Ionometric dosimetry; (ii) Luminescence dosimetry; (iii) Semiconductor dosimetry; and (iv) Film dosimetry. The book is intended as a textbook for a radiation physics course in academic medical physics graduate programs as well as a reference book for candidates preparing for certification examinations in medical physics sub-specialties. It may also be of interest to many professionals, not only physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics or radiation physics and have a need or desire to improve their understanding of radiation physics.

Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology

Author: Russell K. Hobbie,Bradley J. Roth

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319126822

Category: Science

Page: 629

View: 3266

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This classic text has been used in over 20 countries by advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, neuroscience, and biomedical engineering. It bridges the gap between an introductory physics course and the application of physics to the life and biomedical sciences. Extensively revised and updated, the fifth edition incorporates new developments at the interface between physics and biomedicine. New coverage includes cyclotrons, photodynamic therapy, color vision, x-ray crystallography, the electron microscope, cochlear implants, deep brain stimulation, nanomedicine, and other topics highlighted in the National Research Council report BIO2010. As with the previous edition, the first half of the text is primarily biological physics, emphasizing the use of ideas from physics to understand biology and physiology, and the second half is primarily medical physics, describing the use of physics in medicine for diagnosis (mainly imaging) and therapy. Prior courses in physics and in calculus are assumed. Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology is also ideal for self study and as a reference for workers in medical and biological research. Over 850 problems test and enhance the student's understanding and provide additional biological examples. A solutions manual is available to instructors. Each chapter has an extensive list of references.

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering

Author: Donglu Shi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366206104X

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 2307

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The current interest in developing novel materials has motivated an increasing need for biological and medical studies in a variety of dinical applications. Indeed, it is dear that to achieve the requisite mechanical, chemical and biomedical properties, especially for new bioactive materials, it is necessary to develop novel synthesis routes. The tremendous success of materials science in developing new biomaterials and fostering technological innovation arises from its focus on interdisciplinary research and collaboration between materials and medical sciences. Materials scientists seek to relate one natural phenomenon to the basic structures of the materials and to recognize the causes and effects of the phenomena. In this way, they have developed explanations for the changing of the properties, the reactions of the materials to the environment, the interface behaviors between the artificial materials and human tissue, the time effects on the materials, and many other natural occurrences. By the same means, medical scientists have also studied the biological and medical effects of these materials, and generated the knowledge needed to produce useful medical devices. The concept of biomaterials is one of the most important ideas ever generated by the application of materials science to the medical field. In traditional materials research, interest focuses primarilyon the synthesis , structure, and mechanical properties of materials commonly used for structural purposes in industry, for instance in mechanical parts of machinery.

Complex Fluids in Biological Systems

Experiment, Theory, and Computation

Author: Saverio Spagnolie

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493920650

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 5625

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This book serves as an introduction to the continuum mechanics and mathematical modeling of complex fluids in living systems. The form and function of living systems are intimately tied to the nature of surrounding fluid environments, which commonly exhibit nonlinear and history dependent responses to forces and displacements. With ever-increasing capabilities in the visualization and manipulation of biological systems, research on the fundamental phenomena, models, measurements, and analysis of complex fluids has taken a number of exciting directions. In this book, many of the world’s foremost experts explore key topics such as: Macro- and micro-rheological techniques for measuring the material properties of complex biofluids and the subtleties of data interpretation Experimental observations and rheology of complex biological materials, including mucus, cell membranes, the cytoskeleton, and blood The motility of microorganisms in complex fluids and the dynamics of active suspensions Challenges and solutions in the numerical simulation of biologically relevant complex fluid flows This volume will be accessible to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in engineering, mathematics, biology, and the physical sciences, but will appeal to anyone interested in the intricate and beautiful nature of complex fluids in the context of living systems.

Medical Image Processing

Techniques and Applications

Author: Geoff Dougherty

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441997791

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 380

View: 4228

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The book is designed for end users in the field of digital imaging, who wish to update their skills and understanding with the latest techniques in image analysis. The book emphasizes the conceptual framework of image analysis and the effective use of image processing tools. It uses applications in a variety of fields to demonstrate and consolidate both specific and general concepts, and to build intuition, insight and understanding. Although the chapters are essentially self-contained they reference other chapters to form an integrated whole. Each chapter employs a pedagogical approach to ensure conceptual learning before introducing specific techniques and “tricks of the trade”. The book concentrates on a number of current research applications, and will present a detailed approach to each while emphasizing the applicability of techniques to other problems. The field of topics is wide, ranging from compressive (non-uniform) sampling in MRI, through automated retinal vessel analysis to 3-D ultrasound imaging and more. The book is amply illustrated with figures and applicable medical images. The reader will learn the techniques which experts in the field are currently employing and testing to solve particular research problems, and how they may be applied to other problems.

Biomedical Devices and Their Applications

Author: D. Shi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662061082

Category: Science

Page: 201

View: 8145

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Biomedical devices that contact with blood or tissue represent a wide range of products. Depending on their potential harm to a body, medical devices are categorized according to the degree, so their safety can be assured. All biomaterials are by definition designed to contact with a body for a certain period of time. The nature of the body contact, as well as the duration a material contacts with the body may initiate unwanted biological In comparison with invasive devices Oike catheters and medical responses. implants contact directly with tissue or with the circulating blood) non invasive devices (like wound-dressings and contact lenses contact with the skin, the sclera, and the mucosa or with open wounds) have a lesser risk of hurting a patient. When blood contacts with a foreign material, plasma proteins become absorpted to the surface within a few seconds. The reactions that follow, the so-called intrinsic pathway lead to the formation of fibrin and activation of platelets and white blood cells, result in blood clot formation.

Implantable Neural Prostheses 1

Devices and Applications

Author: David Zhou,Elias Greenbaum

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387772615

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 376

View: 6847

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Significant progress has been made in the development of neural prostheses to restore human functions and improve the quality of human life. Biomedical engineers and neuroscientists around the world are working to improve design and performance of existing devices and to develop novel devices for artificial vision, artificial limbs, and brain–machine interfaces. This book, Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications,ispart one of a two-book series and describes state-of-the-art advances in techniques associated with implantable neural prosthetic devices and their applications. Devices covered include sensory prosthetic devices, such as visual implants, cochlear implants, auditory midbrain implants, and spinal cord stimulators. Motor prosthetic devices, such as deep brain stimulators, Bion microstimu- tors, the brain control and sensing interface, and cardiac electro-stimulation devices are also included. Progress in magnetic stimulation that may offer a non-invasive approach to prosthetic devices is introduced. Regulatory approval of implantable medical devices in the United States and Europe is also discussed.