The Physics of Solar Cells

Author: Jenny Nelson

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1848168233

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 9303

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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. It covers: basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices; physical models of solar cell operation; characteristics and design of common types of solar cell; and approaches to increasing solar cell efficiency. The text explains the terms and concepts of solar cell device physics and shows the reader how to formulate and solve relevant physical problems. Exercises and worked solutions are included.

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices

The Role of the PN Junction

Author: Adrian Kitai

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119450993

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 3684

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The second edition of the text that offers an introduction to the principles of solar cells and LEDs, revised and updated The revised and updated second edition of Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices offers an introduction to the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The author – a noted expert in the field – presents information on the semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends it to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. In addition, the text offers information on the treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures including OLED devices and organic solar cells. This second edition contains a new chapter on the quantum mechanical description of the electron that will make the book accessible to students in any engineering discipline. The text also includes a new chapter on bipolar junction and junction field effect transistors as well as expanded chapters on solar cells and LEDs that include more detailed information on high efficiency devices. This important text: Offers an introduction to solar cells and LEDs, the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes Provides a solid theoretical basis for p-n junction devices Contains updated information and new chapters including better coverage of LED out-coupling design and performance and improvements in OLED efficiency Presents student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout the text Written for students in electrical engineering, physics and materials science and researchers in the electronics industry, Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices is the updated second edition that offers a guide to the physical concepts of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells.

Handbook of the Physics of Thin-Film Solar Cells

Author: Karl W. Böer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business

ISBN: 3642367488

Category: Science

Page: 882

View: 4553

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This handbook is a compendium giving a comprehensive description of the basics of semiconductor physics relevant to the design and analysis of thin film solar cell materials. It starts from the basics of material science, describing the material and its growth, defect and electrical properties, the basics of its interaction with photons and the involved statistics, proceeding to space charge effects in semiconductors and pn-junctions. Most attention is given to analyze homo- and hetero-junction solar cells using various models and applying the field-of-direction analysis for discussing current voltage characteristics, and helping to discover the involvement of high-field effects in solar cells. The comprehensive coverage of the main topics of - and relating to - solar cells with extensive reference to literature helps scientists and engineers at all levels to reach a better understanding and improvement of solar cell properties and their production. The author is one of the founders of thin film solar cell research.

Best of Soviet Semiconductor Physics and Technology, 1989-1990

Author: Mikhail Efimovich Levinshte?n

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810215798

Category: Science

Page: 638

View: 8039

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Each year a large number of first rate articles on the physics and technology of semiconductor devices, written by Soviet experts in the field, are published. However, due to the lack of exchange and personal contact, most of these, unfortunately, are neglected by many scientists from the United States, Japan as well as Western Europe. Consequently, many important developments in semiconductor physics are missed by the Western world.This book is a serious attempt to bridge the gap between the Soviet and Western scientific communities. Most of all, it is an effort towards facilitating the communication and sharing of knowledge amongst people from different parts of the world. Ultimately, the aim is to contribute towards the building of a better world for all ? one where the knowledge of advanced technology and scientific discoveries is used to improve the quality of life and not the pursuit of selfish mutually destructive behavior. For those in the field who wish to partake in this exchange of knowledge and as a gesture of support for their Soviet counterparts, the reading of this book provides the first step.

Physics and Technology of Amorphous-Crystalline Heterostructure Silicon Solar Cells

Author: Wilfried G. J. H. M. van Sark,Lars Korte,Francesco Roca

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642222757

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 582

View: 2370

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Today’s solar cell multi-GW market is dominated by crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer technology, however new cell concepts are entering the market. One very promising solar cell design to answer these needs is the silicon hetero-junction solar cell, of which the emitter and back surface field are basically produced by a low temperature growth of ultra-thin layers of amorphous silicon. In this design, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) constitutes both „emitter“ and „base-contact/back surface field“ on both sides of a thin crystalline silicon wafer-base (c-Si) where the electrons and holes are photogenerated; at the same time, a-Si:H passivates the c-Si surface. Recently, cell efficiencies above 23% have been demonstrated for such solar cells. In this book, the editors present an overview of the state-of-the-art in physics and technology of amorphous-crystalline heterostructure silicon solar cells. The heterojunction concept is introduced, processes and resulting properties of the materials used in the cell and their heterointerfaces are discussed and characterization techniques and simulation tools are presented.

Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystals

Author: Holger Borchert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319043889

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 236

View: 7199

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This book presents a new system of solar cells. Colloidal nanocrystals possess many physical and chemical properties which can be manipulated by advanced control over structural features like the particle size. One application field is photovoltaics where colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are explored as components of photo-active layers which can be produced from liquid media, often in combination with conductive polymers. The further development of this interdisciplinary field of research requires a deep understanding of the physics and chemistry of colloidal nanocrystals, conducting polymers and photovoltaic devices. This book aims at bridging gaps between the involved scientific disciplines and presents important fundamentals and the current state of research of relevant materials and different types of nanoparticle-based solar cells. The book will be of interest to researchers and PhD students. Moreover, it may also serve to accompany specialized lectures in related areas.

Dilute III-V Nitride Semiconductors and Material Systems

Physics and Technology

Author: Ayse Erol

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540745297

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 592

View: 7538

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This book reviews the current status of research and development in dilute III-V nitrides. It covers major developments in this new class of materials within 24 chapters from prominent research groups. The book integrates materials science and applications in optics and electronics in a unique way. It is valuable both as a reference work for researchers and as a study text for graduate students.

Physics of Semiconductor Devices

Proceedings of the Eleventh International Workshop on the Physics of Semiconductor Devices : (December 11-15, 2001)

Author: Vikram Kumar,Prasanta Kumar Basu

Publisher: Allied Publishers

ISBN: 9780819445001

Category: Semiconductors

Page: N.A

View: 4043

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Survey of Semiconductor Physics

Volume II Barriers, Junctions, Surfaces, and Devices

Author: Karl W. Böer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401129126

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1442

View: 6487

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Any book that covers a large variety of subjects and is written by one author lacks by necessity the depth provided by an expert in his or her own field of specialization. This book is no exception. It has been written with the encouragement of my students and colleagues, who felt that an extensive card file I had accumulated over the years of teaching solid state and semiconductor physics would be helpful to more than just a few of us. This file, updated from time to time, contained lecture notes and other entries that were useful in my research and permitted me to give to my students a broader spectrum of information than is available in typical textbooks. When assembling this material into a book, I divided the top ics into material dealing with the homogeneous semiconductor, the subject of the previously published Volume 1, and the inhomoge neous semiconductor, the subject of this Volume 2. In order to keep the book to a manageable size, sections of tutorial character which can be used as text for a graduate level class had to be interwoven with others written in shorter, reference style. The pointers at the right-hand page header will assist in distinguishing the more diffi cult reference parts of the book (with the pointer to the right) from the more easy-to-read basic educational sections (with the pointer tending to the left).

Microelectronic Materials

Author: C.R.M. Grovenor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780852742709

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 540

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This practical book shows how an understanding of structure, thermodynamics, and electrical properties can explain some of the choices of materials used in microelectronics, and can assist in the design of new materials for specific applications. It emphasizes the importance of the phase chemistry of semiconductor and metal systems for ensuring the long-term stability of new devices. The book discusses single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon, aluminium- and gold-based metallisation schemes, packaging semiconductor devices, failure analysis, and the suitability of various materials for optoelectronic devices and solar cells. It has been designed for senior undergraduates, graduates, and researchers in physics, electronic engineering, and materials science.

Organic Solar Cells

Theory, Experiment, and Device Simulation

Author: Wolfgang Tress

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319100971

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 464

View: 2852

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This book covers in a textbook-like fashion the basics or organic solar cells, addressing the limits of photovoltaic energy conversion and giving a well-illustrated introduction to molecular electronics with focus on the working principle and characterization of organic solar cells. Further chapters based on the author’s dissertation focus on the electrical processes in organic solar cells by presenting a detailed drift-diffusion approach to describe exciton separation and charge-carrier transport and extraction. The results, although elaborated on small-molecule solar cells and with focus on the zinc phthalocyanine: C60 material system, are of general nature. They propose and demonstrate experimental approaches for getting a deeper understanding of the dominating processes in amorphous thin-film based solar cells in general. The main focus is on the interpretation of the current-voltage characteristics (J-V curve). This very standard measurement technique for a solar cell reflects the electrical processes in the device. Comparing experimental to simulation data, the author discusses the reasons for S-Shaped J-V curves, the role of charge carrier mobilities and energy barriers at interfaces, the dominating recombination mechanisms, the charge carrier generation profile, and other efficiency-limiting processes in organic solar cells. The book concludes with an illustrative guideline on how to identify reasons for changes in the J-V curve. This book is a suitable introduction for students in engineering, physics, material science, and chemistry starting in the field of organic or hybrid thin-film photovoltaics. It is just as valuable for professionals and experimentalists who analyze solar cell devices.

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Author: Kentaro Ito

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111843787X

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 4034

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Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground–mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth–abundant, low–cost and non–toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS–based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS–based solar cells have the potential to be used for large–scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.

Survey of Semiconductor Physics

Barriers, Junctions, Surfaces, and Devices

Author: Karl Wolfgang Böer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780442006723

Category: Semiconductors

Page: 1396

View: 3561

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Taking up where the first volume left off, this work provides coverage of the inhomogeneous semiconductor. It deals mainly with Si and GaAs, but also investigates other materials of theoretical and practical interest, such as Ge, other III-V and II-VI compounds, and amorphous SiH. Equipped with this source, physicists, semiconductor engineers, device engineers and fabrication engineers will have access to a vast reservoir of practical information on the design, production and operations of semiconductor devices.

High-Efficiency Solar Cells

Physics, Materials, and Devices

Author: Xiaodong Wang,Zhiming M. Wang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319019880

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 656

View: 1900

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As part of the effort to increase the contribution of solar cells (photovoltaics) to our energy mix, this book addresses three main areas: making existing technology cheaper, promoting advanced technologies based on new architectural designs, and developing new materials to serve as light absorbers. Leading scientists throughout the world create a fundamental platform for knowledge sharing that combines the physics, materials, and device architectures of high-efficiency solar cells. While providing a comprehensive introduction to the field, the book highlights directions for further research, and is intended to stimulate readers’ interest in the development of novel materials and technologies for solar energy applications.

Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices

Properties and Applications

Author: Serge Zhuiykov

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 1782422242

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 466

View: 6881

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Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors. Semiconductor oxides are used in electronics, optics, catalysts, sensors, and other functional devices. In their 2D form, the reduction in size confers exceptional properties, useful for creating faster electronics and more efficient catalysts. After explaining the physics affecting the conductivity and electron arrangement of nanostructured semiconductors, the book addresses the structural and chemical modification of semiconductor nanocrystals during material growth. It then covers their use in nanoscale functional devices, particularly in electronic devices and carbon nanotubes. It explores the impact of 2D nanocrystals, such as graphene, chalcogenides, and oxide nanostructures, on research and technology, leading to a discussion of incorporating graphene and semiconductor nanostructures into composites for use in energy storage. The final three chapters focus on the applications of these functional materials in photovoltaic cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and in environmental sensors including pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved metal ion sensors. Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices is a crucial resource for scientists, applied researchers, and production engineers working in the fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and analysis of new semiconductor materials. This book is a valuable reference for those working in the analysis and characterization of new nanomaterials, and for those who develop technologies for practical devices fabrication. Focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors Reviews fundamental physics of conductivity and electron arrangement before proceeding to practical applications A vital resource for applied researchers and production engineers working with new semiconductor materials

Quaternary Alloys Based on III-V Semiconductors

Author: Vasyl Tomashyk

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429019262

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 928

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III-V semiconductors have attracted considerable attention due to their applications in the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices as light emitting diodes and solar cells. The electrical properties of these semiconductors can also be tuned by adding impurity atoms. Because of their wide application in various devices, the search for new semiconductor materials and the improvement of existing materials is an important field of study. Doping with impurities is a common method of modifying and diversifying the properties of physical and chemical semiconductors. This book covers all known information about phase relations in quaternary systems based on III-V semiconductors.

The Materials Science of Semiconductors

Author: Angus Rockett

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387686509

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 622

View: 8162

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This book describes semiconductors from a materials science perspective rather than from condensed matter physics or electrical engineering viewpoints. It includes discussion of current approaches to organic materials for electronic devices. It further describes the fundamental aspects of thin film nucleation and growth, and the most common physical and chemical vapor deposition techniques. Examples of the application of the concepts in each chapter to specific problems or situations are included, along with recommended readings and homework problems.

Solar Cells

Outlook for Improved Efficiency

Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Ad Hoc Panel on Solar Cell Efficiency

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Solar batteries

Page: 73

View: 9790

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Photoelectrochemical Materials and Energy Conversion Processes

Author: Richard C. Alkire,Dieter M. Kolb,Jacek Lipkowski,Phil N. Ross

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527633235

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 927

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An international group of leading scientists from the field has contributed to the 12th volume in this series, covering a range of different types of solar cells and including a critical comparison of the different techniques available for manufacturing the semiconductors needed. The result is an expert insight the central questions surrounding photovoltaic materials and systems, reflecting the latest developments in this hot and timely green topic.