The Physics of Solar Cells

Author: Jenny Nelson

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1848168233

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 3861

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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. It covers: basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices; physical models of solar cell operation; characteristics and design of common types of solar cell; and approaches to increasing solar cell efficiency. The text explains the terms and concepts of solar cell device physics and shows the reader how to formulate and solve relevant physical problems. Exercises and worked solutions are included.

Solar Cell Device Physics

Author: Stephen Fonash

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323154638

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 9843

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Solar Cell Device Physics offers a balanced, in-depth qualitative and quantitative treatment of the physical principles and operating characteristics of solar cell devices. Topics covered include photovoltaic energy conversion and solar cell materials and structures, along with homojunction solar cells. Semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction cells and surface-barrier solar cells are also discussed. This book consists of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the basic physical principles and materials properties that are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion, with emphasis on various photovoltaic devices capable of efficiently converting solar energy into usable electrical energy. The electronic and optical properties of crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous materials with both organic and inorganic materials are considered, together with the manner in which these properties change from one material class to another and the implications of such changes for photovoltaics. Generation, recombination, and bulk transport are also discussed. The two mechanisms of photocarrier collection in solar cells, drift and diffusion, are then compared. The remaining chapters focus on specific solar cell device classes defined in terms of the interface structure employed: homojunctions, semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions, and surface-barrier devices. This monograph is appropriate for use as a textbook for graduate students in engineering and the sciences and for seniors in electrical engineering and applied physics, as well as a reference book for those actively involved in solar cell research and development.

Solar cells

operating principles, technology, and system applications

Author: Martin A. Green

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 274

View: 7389

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Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices

Properties and Applications

Author: Serge Zhuiykov

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 1782422242

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 466

View: 7422

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Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors. Semiconductor oxides are used in electronics, optics, catalysts, sensors, and other functional devices. In their 2D form, the reduction in size confers exceptional properties, useful for creating faster electronics and more efficient catalysts. After explaining the physics affecting the conductivity and electron arrangement of nanostructured semiconductors, the book addresses the structural and chemical modification of semiconductor nanocrystals during material growth. It then covers their use in nanoscale functional devices, particularly in electronic devices and carbon nanotubes. It explores the impact of 2D nanocrystals, such as graphene, chalcogenides, and oxide nanostructures, on research and technology, leading to a discussion of incorporating graphene and semiconductor nanostructures into composites for use in energy storage. The final three chapters focus on the applications of these functional materials in photovoltaic cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and in environmental sensors including pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved metal ion sensors. Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices is a crucial resource for scientists, applied researchers, and production engineers working in the fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and analysis of new semiconductor materials. This book is a valuable reference for those working in the analysis and characterization of new nanomaterials, and for those who develop technologies for practical devices fabrication. Focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors Reviews fundamental physics of conductivity and electron arrangement before proceeding to practical applications A vital resource for applied researchers and production engineers working with new semiconductor materials

Third Generation Photovoltaics

Advanced Solar Energy Conversion

Author: Martin Green

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540265635

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 160

View: 2960

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Photovoltaics, the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is now the fastest growing technology for electricity generation. Present "first generation" products use the same silicon wafers as in microelectronics. "Second generation" thin-films, now entering the market, have the potential to greatly improve the economics by eliminating material costs. Martin Green, one of the world’s foremost photovoltaic researchers, argues in this book that "second generation" photovoltaics will eventually reach its own material cost constraints, engendering a "third generation" of high performance thin-films. The book explores, self-consistently, the energy conversion potential of advanced approaches for improving photovoltaic performance and outlines possible implementation paths.

The Physics of Solar Cells

Perovskites, Organics, and Photovoltaic Fundamentals

Author: Juan Bisquert

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351395572

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 8647

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The book provides an explanation of the operation of photovoltaic devices from a broad perspective that embraces a variety of materials concepts, from nanostructured and highly disordered organic materials, to highly efficient devices such as the lead halide perovskite solar cells. The book establishes from the beginning a simple but very rich model of a solar cell, in order to develop and understand step by step the photovoltaic operation according to fundamental physical properties and constraints. It emphasizes the aspects pertaining to the functioning of a solar cell and the determination of limiting efficiencies of energy conversion. The final chapters of the book establish a more refined and realistic treatment of the many factors that determine the actual performance of experimental devices: transport gradients, interfacial recombination, optical losses and so forth. The book finishes with a short review of additional important aspects of solar energy conversion, such as the photonic aspects of spectral modification, and the direct conversion of solar photons to chemical fuel via electrochemical reactions.

Physics of Solar Cells

From Basic Principles to Advanced Concepts

Author: Peter WÃ1⁄4rfel,Uli WÃ1⁄4rfel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 352741309X

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 2593

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The new edition of this highly regarded textbook provides a detailed overview of the most important characterization techniques for solar cells and a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. It describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. The text is now complete with examples of how the appropriate characterization techniques enable the distinction between several potential limitation factors, describing how quantities that have been introduced theoretically in earlier chapters become experimentally accessible. With exercises after each chapter to reinforce the newly acquired knowledge and requiring no more than standard physics knowledge, this book enables students and professionals to understand the factors driving conversion efficiency and to apply this to their own solar cell development.

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

Author: Tetsuo Soga

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080468303

Category: Science

Page: 614

View: 7990

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Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion covers a wide variety of materials and device types from inorganic materials to organic materials. This book deals with basic semiconductor physics, modelling of nanostructured solar cell, nanostructure of conventional solar cells such as silicon, CIS and CdTe, dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, photosynthetic materials, fullerene, extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cell, quantum structured solar cell, intermediate band solar cell, carbon nanotube, etc. including basic principle and the latest results. There are many books written on conventional p-n junction solar cells, but few books focus on new concepts in this area. * Focuses on the use of nanostructured materials for solar energy * Looks at a wide variety of materials and device types * Covers both organic and inorganic materials

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices

The Role of the PN Junction

Author: Adrian Kitai

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119450993

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 4969

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The second edition of the text that offers an introduction to the principles of solar cells and LEDs, revised and updated The revised and updated second edition of Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices offers an introduction to the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The author – a noted expert in the field – presents information on the semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends it to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. In addition, the text offers information on the treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures including OLED devices and organic solar cells. This second edition contains a new chapter on the quantum mechanical description of the electron that will make the book accessible to students in any engineering discipline. The text also includes a new chapter on bipolar junction and junction field effect transistors as well as expanded chapters on solar cells and LEDs that include more detailed information on high efficiency devices. This important text: Offers an introduction to solar cells and LEDs, the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes Provides a solid theoretical basis for p-n junction devices Contains updated information and new chapters including better coverage of LED out-coupling design and performance and improvements in OLED efficiency Presents student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout the text Written for students in electrical engineering, physics and materials science and researchers in the electronics industry, Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices is the updated second edition that offers a guide to the physical concepts of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells.

Nanostructured Semiconductors

Author: Serge Zhuiykov

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081019203

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 558

View: 1061

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Nanostructured Semiconductors focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors. Semiconductor oxides are used in electronics, optics, catalysts, sensors, and other functional devices. In their 2D form, the reduction in size confers exceptional properties, useful for creating faster electronics and more efficient catalysts. Since the first edition of the book, there has been significant progress in the development of new functional nanomaterials with unique and sometimes unpredictable quantum-confined properties within the class what it called two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors. These nanocrystals represent extremely thin nano-structures with thickness of just few nano-meters. Since that time, not only were 2D semiconductor oxides further developed, more importantly, 2D metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 and others also progressed significantly in their development demonstrating their superior properties compared to their bulk and microstructural counterparts. The book has been expanded to include these advancements. The book begins with the structure and properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (chapter 1), addresses electronic device applications (chapter 2), discusses 2-Dimensional oxides and dichalcogenide semiconductors (chapters 3 through 5), and ends with energy, environment, and bio applications (chapters 6 through 8). Focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals and their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells and chemical sensors Include other 2D materials, such as dichalcogenides to present a comprehensive resource on the latest advancements in nanostructured semiconductors Reviews the fundamental physics of conductivity and electron arrangement before proceeding to practical applications Contains a unique chapter dedicated to the new atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique which has the ability to develop 2D nanostructures with great precision

The Physics and Applications of Amorphous Semiconductors

Author: Arun Madan,M. P. Shaw

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080924433

Category: Science

Page: 545

View: 597

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This comprehensive, detailed treatise on the physics and applications of the new emerging technology of amorphous semiconductors focuses on specific device research problems such as the optimization of device performance. The first part of the book presents hydrogenated amorphous silicon type alloys, whose applications include inexpensive solar cells, thin film transistors, image scanners, electrophotography, optical recording and gas sensors. The second part of the book discusses amorphous chalcogenides, whose applications include electrophotography, switching, and memory elements. This book will serve as an excellent reference source for solid state scientists and engineers, and as a useful self-contained introduction to the field for graduate students.

Fundamentals Of Solar Cells

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

Author: Alan Fahrenbruch,Richard Bube

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323145388

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 580

View: 7578

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Fundamentals of Solar Cells: Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion provides an introduction to the fundamental physical principles of solar cells. It aims to promote the expansion of solar photovoltaics from relatively small and specialized use to a large-scale contribution to energy supply. The book begins with a review of basic concepts such as the source of energy, the role of photovoltaic conversion, the development of photovoltaic cells, and sequence of phenomena involved in solar power generation. This is followed by separate chapters on each of the processes that take place in solar cell. These include solar input; properties of semiconductors; recombination and the flow of photogenerated carriers; charge separation and the characteristics of junction barriers; and calculation of solar efficiency. Subsequent chapters deal with the operation of specific solar cell devices such as a single-crystal homojunction (Si); a single-crystal-heterojunction/buried-homojunction (AlGaAs/GaAs); and a polycrystalline, thin-film cell (CuxS/CdS). This book is intended for upper-level graduate students who have a reasonably good understanding of solid state physics and for scientists and engineers involved in research and development of solar cells.

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes

The Role of the PN Junction

Author: Adrian Kitai

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444318349

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 4143

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This textbook introduces the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p–n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. Semiconductor devices have made a major impact on the way we work and live. Today semiconductor p–n junction diode devices are experiencing substantial growth: solar cells are used on an unprecedented scale in the renewable energy industry; and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are revolutionizing energy efficient lighting. These two emerging industries based on p–n junctions make a significant contribution to the reduction in fossil fuel consumption. This book covers the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes – solar cells and LEDs – together with quantitative coverage of the physics of the p–n junction. The reader will gain a thorough understanding of p–n junctions as the text begins with semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. Treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures is also presented in a readable manner. Topics are divided into the following six chapters: Semiconductor Physics The PN Junction Diode Photon Emission and Absorption The Solar Cell Light Emitting Diodes Organic Semiconductors, OLEDs and Solar Cells Containing student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout, this textbook is intended for senior level undergraduate students doing courses in electrical engineering, physics and materials science. Researchers working on solar cells and LED devices, and those in the electronics industry would also benefit from the background information the book provides.

Handbook of the Physics of Thin-Film Solar Cells

Author: Karl W. Böer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business

ISBN: 3642367488

Category: Science

Page: 882

View: 2130

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This handbook is a compendium giving a comprehensive description of the basics of semiconductor physics relevant to the design and analysis of thin film solar cell materials. It starts from the basics of material science, describing the material and its growth, defect and electrical properties, the basics of its interaction with photons and the involved statistics, proceeding to space charge effects in semiconductors and pn-junctions. Most attention is given to analyze homo- and hetero-junction solar cells using various models and applying the field-of-direction analysis for discussing current voltage characteristics, and helping to discover the involvement of high-field effects in solar cells. The comprehensive coverage of the main topics of - and relating to - solar cells with extensive reference to literature helps scientists and engineers at all levels to reach a better understanding and improvement of solar cell properties and their production. The author is one of the founders of thin film solar cell research.

Best of Soviet Semiconductor Physics and Technology, 1989-1990

Author: Mikhail Efimovich Levinshte?n

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810215798

Category: Science

Page: 638

View: 9005

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Each year a large number of first rate articles on the physics and technology of semiconductor devices, written by Soviet experts in the field, are published. However, due to the lack of exchange and personal contact, most of these, unfortunately, are neglected by many scientists from the United States, Japan as well as Western Europe. Consequently, many important developments in semiconductor physics are missed by the Western world.This book is a serious attempt to bridge the gap between the Soviet and Western scientific communities. Most of all, it is an effort towards facilitating the communication and sharing of knowledge amongst people from different parts of the world. Ultimately, the aim is to contribute towards the building of a better world for all ? one where the knowledge of advanced technology and scientific discoveries is used to improve the quality of life and not the pursuit of selfish mutually destructive behavior. For those in the field who wish to partake in this exchange of knowledge and as a gesture of support for their Soviet counterparts, the reading of this book provides the first step.

Survey of Semiconductor Physics

Barriers, Junctions, Surfaces, and Devices

Author: Karl W. Böer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780442006723

Category: Science

Page: 1438

View: 2643

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Taking up where the first volume left off, this work provides coverage of the inhomogeneous semiconductor. It deals mainly with Si and GaAs, but also investigates other materials of theoretical and practical interest, such as Ge, other III-V and II-VI compounds, and amorphous SiH. Equipped with this source, physicists, semiconductor engineers, device engineers and fabrication engineers will have access to a vast reservoir of practical information on the design, production and operations of semiconductor devices.

The Physics of Semiconductors

An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

Author: Marius Grundmann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319238809

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 989

View: 9663

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The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two-semester course. In the third edition several topics are extended and treated in more depth including surfaces, disordered materials, amorphous semiconductors, polarons, thermopower and noise. More than 1800 references guide the reader to historic and current literature including original and review papers and books.

Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells

Author: M. Parans Paranthaman,Winnie Wong-Ng,Raghu N Bhattacharya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319203312

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 279

View: 2747

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This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing. Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost. Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce costs, with particular focus on how to reduce the gap between laboratory scale efficiency and commercial module efficiency. This book will aid materials scientists and engineers in identifying research priorities to fulfill energy needs, and will also enable researchers to understand novel semiconductor materials that are emerging in the solar market. This integrated approach also gives science and engineering students a sense of the excitement and relevance of materials science in the development of novel semiconductor materials. · Provides a comprehensive introduction to solar PV cell materials · Reviews current and future status of solar cells with respect to cost and efficiency · Covers the full range of solar cell materials, from silicon and thin films to dye sensitized and organic solar cells · Offers an in-depth account of the semiconductor material strategies and directions for further research · Features detailed tables on the world leaders in efficiency demonstrations · Edited by scientists with experience in both research and industry

Fundamentals of Semiconductors

Physics and Materials Properties

Author: Peter YU,Manuel Cardona

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642007101

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 778

View: 4295

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Excellent bridge between general solid-state physics textbook and research articles packed with providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors "The most striking feature of the book is its modern outlook ... provides a wonderful foundation. The most wonderful feature is its efficient style of exposition ... an excellent book." Physics Today "Presents the theoretical derivations carefully and in detail and gives thorough discussions of the experimental results it presents. This makes it an excellent textbook both for learners and for more experienced researchers wishing to check facts. I have enjoyed reading it and strongly recommend it as a text for anyone working with semiconductors ... I know of no better text ... I am sure most semiconductor physicists will find this book useful and I recommend it to them." Contemporary Physics Offers much new material: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established, deep center known as the DX center, additional problems and the solutions to over fifty of the problems at the end of the various chapters.

Physics and Technology of Amorphous-Crystalline Heterostructure Silicon Solar Cells

Author: Wilfried G. J. H. M. van Sark,Lars Korte,Francesco Roca

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642222757

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 582

View: 6611

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Today’s solar cell multi-GW market is dominated by crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer technology, however new cell concepts are entering the market. One very promising solar cell design to answer these needs is the silicon hetero-junction solar cell, of which the emitter and back surface field are basically produced by a low temperature growth of ultra-thin layers of amorphous silicon. In this design, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) constitutes both „emitter“ and „base-contact/back surface field“ on both sides of a thin crystalline silicon wafer-base (c-Si) where the electrons and holes are photogenerated; at the same time, a-Si:H passivates the c-Si surface. Recently, cell efficiencies above 23% have been demonstrated for such solar cells. In this book, the editors present an overview of the state-of-the-art in physics and technology of amorphous-crystalline heterostructure silicon solar cells. The heterojunction concept is introduced, processes and resulting properties of the materials used in the cell and their heterointerfaces are discussed and characterization techniques and simulation tools are presented.