Philosophy In The Flesh

Author: George Lakoff

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 9780465056743

Category: Philosophy

Page: 640

View: 2388


What are human beings like? How is knowledge possible? What is truth? Where do moral values come from? Questions like these have stood at the center of Western philosophy for centuries. In addressing them, philosophers have made certain fundamental assumptions-that we can know our own minds by introspection, that most of our thinking about the world is literal, and that reason is disembodied and universal-that are now called into question by well-established results of cognitive science. It has been shown empirically that:Most thought is unconscious. We have no direct conscious access to the mechanisms of thought and language. Our ideas go by too quickly and at too deep a level for us to observe them in any simple way.Abstract concepts are mostly metaphorical. Much of the subject matter of philosopy, such as the nature of time, morality, causation, the mind, and the self, relies heavily on basic metaphors derived from bodily experience. What is literal in our reasoning about such concepts is minimal and conceptually impoverished. All the richness comes from metaphor. For instance, we have two mutually incompatible metaphors for time, both of which represent it as movement through space: in one it is a flow past us and in the other a spatial dimension we move along.Mind is embodied. Thought requires a body-not in the trivial sense that you need a physical brain to think with, but in the profound sense that the very structure of our thoughts comes from the nature of the body. Nearly all of our unconscious metaphors are based on common bodily experiences.Most of the central themes of the Western philosophical tradition are called into question by these findings. The Cartesian person, with a mind wholly separate from the body, does not exist. The Kantian person, capable of moral action according to the dictates of a universal reason, does not exist. The phenomenological person, capable of knowing his or her mind entirely through introspection alone, does not exist. The utilitarian person, the Chomskian person, the poststructuralist person, the computational person, and the person defined by analytic philosopy all do not exist.Then what does?Lakoff and Johnson show that a philosopy responsible to the science of mind offers radically new and detailed understandings of what a person is. After first describing the philosophical stance that must follow from taking cognitive science seriously, they re-examine the basic concepts of the mind, time, causation, morality, and the self: then they rethink a host of philosophical traditions, from the classical Greeks through Kantian morality through modern analytic philosopy. They reveal the metaphorical structure underlying each mode of thought and show how the metaphysics of each theory flows from its metaphors. Finally, they take on two major issues of twentieth-century philosopy: how we conceive rationality, and how we conceive language.

Leben in Metaphern

Konstruktion und Gebrauch von Sprachbildern

Author: George Lakoff,Mark Johnson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783896704870

Category: Concepts

Page: 272

View: 6477


Metaphern sind integraler Bestandteil unserer alltäglichen Sprache, nicht bloß praktische oder rhethorische Mittel. Sie bestimmen unsere Wahrnehmung, unser Denken und Handeln und somit unsere Wirklichkeit. Die Lektüre dieses fesselnden und unterhaltsamen Buches führt dazu, dass man ganz neu über die Sprache und darüber, wie wir sie benutzen, denkt.

The Meaning of the Body

Aesthetics of Human Understanding

Author: Mark Johnson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022602699X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

View: 1033


In The Meaning of the Body, Mark Johnson continues his pioneering work on the exciting connections between cognitive science, language, and meaning first begun in the classic Metaphors We Live By. Johnson uses recent research into infant psychology to show how the body generates meaning even before self-consciousness has fully developed. From there he turns to cognitive neuroscience to further explore the bodily origins of meaning, thought, and language and examines the many dimensions of meaning—including images, qualities, emotions, and metaphors—that are all rooted in the body’s physical encounters with the world. Drawing on the psychology of art and pragmatist philosophy, Johnson argues that all of these aspects of meaning-making are fundamentally aesthetic. He concludes that the arts are the culmination of human attempts to find meaning and that studying the aesthetic dimensions of our experience is crucial to unlocking meaning's bodily sources. Throughout, Johnson puts forth a bold new conception of the mind rooted in the understanding that philosophy will matter to nonphilosophers only if it is built on a visceral connection to the world. “Mark Johnson demonstrates that the aesthetic and emotional aspects of meaning are fundamental—central to conceptual meaning and reason, and that the arts show meaning-making in its fullest realization. If you were raised with the idea that art and emotion were external to ideas and reason, you must read this book. It grounds philosophy in our most visceral experience.”—George Lakoff, author of Moral Politics

Metaphors We Live By

Author: George Lakoff,Mark Johnson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226470997

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 256

View: 3785


The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"—metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them. In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.

Handbuch Körpersoziologie

Band 1: Grundbegriffe und theoretische Perspektiven

Author: Robert Gugutzer,Gabriele Klein,Michael Meuser

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658041366

Category: Social Science

Page: 392

View: 3987


Das Handbuch Körpersoziologie verfolgt das Ziel, den grundlegenden Stellenwert des Körpers für soziologisches Denken zu veranschaulichen. Die Körpersoziologie versteht den Körper als bedeutsam für subjektiv sinnhaftes Handeln sowie als eine soziale Tatsache, die hilft, Soziales zu erklären. Der menschliche Körper ist Produzent, Instrument und Effekt des Sozialen. Er ist gesellschaftliches und kulturelles Symbol sowie Agent, Medium und Instrument sozialen Handelns. Soziale Strukturen schreiben sich in den Körper ein, soziale Ordnung wird im körperlichen Handeln und Interagieren hergestellt. Sozialer Wandel wird durch körperliche Empfindungen motiviert und durch körperliche Aktionen gestaltet. Körpersoziologie ist in diesem Sinne als verkörperte Soziologie zu verstehen. Das Handbuch Körpersoziologie dokumentiert das breite Spektrum an körpersoziologischen Perspektiven und Ansätzen und den aktuellen Status Quo der Körpersoziologie. Band 1 präsentiert eine Übersicht zentraler körpersoziologischer Grundbegriffe sowie die Perspektiven einer Vielzahl soziologischer Theorien auf den Körper.

Geschichte der Sinne

von der Antike bis zum Cyberspace

Author: Robert Jütte

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 9783406467677

Category: Perception

Page: 416

View: 8279


Du denkst nicht mit dem Kopf allein

Vom geheimen Eigenleben unserer Sinne

Author: Thalma Lobel

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593399938

Category: Science

Page: 251

View: 5901


Wer hätte gedacht, dass es von Vorteil ist, wenn im Bewerbungsgespräch der zukünftige Chef eine duftende Tasse Kaffee in der Hand hält? Warum wir einen Verhandlungspartner besser auf einem weichen Stuhl platzieren sollten oder auch, warum wir der Bedienung mehr Trinkgeld geben, wenn sie uns zuvor am Arm berührt hat? Sehen, hören, riechen, schmecken und fühlen – unsere Sinne führen ein Leben in Eigenregie und beeinflussen unser Denken und Handeln in einem verblüffenden Ausmaß. Die Autorin Thalma Lobel zeigt anhand zahlreicher Beispiele, wie unsere Sinne uns täglich lenken, und bietet eine Fülle von Erkenntnissen darüber, wie wir diese Wirkungen für uns nutzen können. Begleiten Sie uns auf eine Reise durch das Labyrinth der Sinne.

The Ivory Leg in the Ebony Cabinet

Madness, Race, and Gender in Victorian America

Author: Thomas Cooley

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press

ISBN: 9781558492844

Category: History

Page: 302

View: 8221


"Essentially a "faculty" psychology, this model conceived of the human mind as a set of separate roomlike compartments, each with its proper office or capacity. Under this architecture, a healthy mind was characterized by the harmonious interrelation of these faculties; madness, conversely, was believed to occur when the "chambers" of the mind became cut off from one another. In addition, gender and racial qualities were associated with different mental functions: the reasoning intellect took on a "masculine" and "white" valence, while the emotions and appetitive faculties were considered "feminine" or "black."".

Scriptures, Schools and Forms of Practice in Daoism

A Berlin Symposium

Author: Poul Andersen,Florian C. Reiter

Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag

ISBN: 9783447051712

Category: Religion

Page: 262

View: 3505


Table of contents I. Daoist Scripture and Practice in Comparative Perspective A. Feldtkeller, Scriptures, Forms of Practice, and Comparative Religion P. Andersen, Scriptural Traditions West and East: Foundation of Belief vs. Frameworks for the Transmission of Methods S.R. Bokenkamp, Sackcloth and Ashes: Self and Family in the Tutan zhai J. Lagerwey, Scriptures are the Dregs of the Men of Old: Scripture and Practice in Comparative Perspective E.L. Davis, Daoist Scripture in Comparative Perspective: A Commentary on J. Lagerwey and P. Andersen II. Daoist Scripture and Practice Past and Present F.C. Reiter, The Name of the Nameless and Thunder Magic P. Nickerson, Attacking the Fortress: Prolegomenon to the Study of Ritual Efficacy in Vernacular Daoism Liu Yi, Research into the Catalogue of the Daozang of the Early Tang Dynasty: Based on Nanzhu guan ji and the Daoist Scriptures of Dunhuang Wang Zongyu, Historical Materials for the Quanzhen Daoism in the Wuxing Area V. Olles, Stars and Legends: Some Observations about Sacred Space in Daoism.

Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Linguistic Approaches to Food and Wine Description (Actas Del Primer Congreso Internacional Sobre Aproximaciones Lingüísticas a la Descripción de la Comida Y Del Vino, Que Tuvo Lugar en Madrid en Mayo de 2009)

Author: Margarita GODED RAMBAUD,Alfredo POVES LUELMO

Publisher: Editorial UNED

ISBN: 8436267680

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 264

View: 9541


Incluye una selección de las ponencias en el Primer Congreso Internacional sobre Aproximaciones Lingüísticas a la Descripción de la Comida y del Vino, que tuvo lugar en Madrid en mayo de 2009.

Creation Made Free

Open Theology Engaging Science

Author: Thomas Jay Oord

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1621894924

Category: Religion

Page: 280

View: 7163


Open Theology offers an advantageous framework for engaging the sciences. With its emphasis upon creaturely freedom, relationality, realist epistemology, and love, Open Theology makes a fruitful dialogue partner with leading fields and theories in contemporary science. In Creation Made Free, leading proponents of open theism explore natural and social scientific dimensions of reality as these dimensions both inform and are informed by Open Theology. Important themes addressed include evolution, creation ex nihilo, emergence theory, biblical cosmology, cognitive linguistics, quantum theory, and forgiveness.

Pristine Dao, The

Metaphysics in Early Daoist Discourse

Author: Thomas Michael

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791483176

Category: Philosophy

Page: 182

View: 2212


A new reading of Daoism, arguing that it originated in a particular textual tradition distinct from Confucianism and other philosophical traditions of early China.

From Judgment to Passion

Devotion to Christ and the Virgin Mary, 800–1200

Author: Rachel Fulton Brown

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231500769

Category: History

Page: 752

View: 1380


Devotion to the crucified Christ is one of the most familiar, yet most disconcerting artifacts of medieval European civilization. How and why did the images of the dying God-man and his grieving mother achieve such prominence, inspiring unparalleled religious creativity as well such imitative extremes as celibacy and self-flagellation? To answer this question, Rachel Fulton ranges over developments in liturgical performance, private prayer, doctrine, and art. She considers the fear occasioned by the disappointed hopes of medieval Christians convinced that the apocalypse would come soon, the revulsion of medieval Jews at being baptized in the name of God born from a woman, the reform of the Church in light of a new European money economy, the eroticism of the Marian exegesis of the Song of Songs, and much more. Devotion to the crucified Christ is one of the most familiar yet disconcerting artifacts of medieval European civilization. How and why did the images of the dying God-man and his grieving mother achieve such prominence, inspiring unparalleled religious creativity and emotional artistry even as they fostered such imitative extremes as celibacy, crusade, and self-flagellation? Magisterial in style and comprehensive in scope, From Judgment to Passion is the first systematic attempt to explain the origins and initial development of European devotion to Christ in his suffering humanity and Mary in her compassionate grief. Rachel Fulton examines liturgical performance, doctrine, private prayer, scriptural exegesis, and art in order to illuminate and explain the powerful desire shared by medieval women and men to identify with the crucified Christ and his mother. The book begins with the Carolingian campaign to convert the newly conquered pagan Saxons, in particular with the effort to explain for these new converts the mystery of the Eucharist, the miraculous presence of Christ's body at the Mass. Moving on to the early eleventh century, when Christ's failure to return on the millennium of his Passion (A.D. 1033) necessitated for believers a radical revision of Christian history, Fulton examines the novel liturgies and devotions that arose amid this apocalyptic disappointment. The book turns finally to the twelfth century when, in the wake of the capture of Jerusalem in the First Crusade, there occurred the full flowering of a new, more emotional sensibility of faith, epitomized by the eroticism of the Marian exegesis of the Song of Songs and by the artistic and architectural innovations we have come to think of as quintessentially high medieval. In addition to its concern with explaining devotional change, From Judgment to Passion presses a second, crucial question: How is it possible for modern historians to understand not only the social and cultural functions but also the experience of faith—the impulsive engagement with the emotions, sometimes ineffable, of prayer and devotion? The answer, magnificently exemplified throughout this book's narrative, lies in imaginative empathy, the same incorporation of self into story that lay at the heart of the medieval effort to identify with Christ and Mary in their love and pain.

The Return of Theory in Early Modern English Studies

Tarrying with the Subjunctive

Author: Paul Cefalu,Bryan Reynolds

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230317901

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 7654


Over the last ten years, scholars of early modern English literature, theatre and culture have become increasingly reluctant to engage critical theory. Yet some scholars have maintained an active interest in theory, and this marginal group is growing. Recently, the work of Gilles Deleuze, Sam Weber, Giorgio Agamben, Alain Badiou, Jean-Luc Marion, Slavoj Žižek and others, including work in related fields such as consciousness studies and cognitive neuroscience, have received attention. Such theoretical work has been applied to enhance our understanding of early modern political theory, theology, authorship, and publishing, as well as subjectivity and affect. With sections on posthumanism and cognitive science, the religious turn in early modern studies, and rematerialisms and performance, this is the first collection of essays to explore the growing rapprochement between contemporary theory and early modern English literature and culture. The book includes essays by thirteen leading scholars whose work incorporates the most recent and sophisticated theoretical inquiries into new readings of early modern texts.

Psychoanalytic Approaches to Myth

Author: Daniel Merkur

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135575274

Category: Religion

Page: 172

View: 6248


This book surveys the history of psychoanalytic treatments of myths variously as symptoms of psychopathology, as cultural defense mechanisms, and as metaphoric expressions of ideas that may include therapeutic insights.

Why Faith Is a Virtue

Author: Philip D. Smith

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630871486

Category: Religion

Page: 182

View: 5438


What is faith? In what ways might faith be a virtue, a component of a life well lived? How might faith be corrupted and become a vice? In Why Faith Is a Virtue, Philip D. Smith builds on the work of Alasdair MacIntyre and Robert Adams to argue that faith contributes to human excellence. To make the argument, Smith sorts through conflicting possible faiths and shows how some of them are not virtues at all. Nevertheless, he argues that faith, properly understood, contributes to crucial human practices: scientific research, social reform, and parenting. He explains how and why faith is a virtue.

Interpretation in International Law

Author: Andrea Bianchi,Daniel Peat,Matthew Windsor

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191038709

Category: Law

Page: 380

View: 7211


International lawyers have long recognised the importance of interpretation to their academic discipline and professional practice. As new insights on interpretation abound in other fields, international law and international lawyers have largely remained wedded to a rule-based approach, focusing almost exclusively on the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Such an approach neglects interpretation as a distinct and broader field of theoretical inquiry. Interpretation in International Law brings international legal scholars together to engage in sustained reflection on the theme of interpretation. The book is creatively structured around the metaphor of the game, which captures and illuminates the constituent elements of an act of interpretation. The object of the game of interpretation is to persuade the audience that one's interpretation of the law is correct. The rules of play are known and complied with by the players, even though much is left to their skills and strategies. There is also a meta-discourse about the game of interpretation - 'playing the game of game-playing' - which involves consideration of the nature of the game, its underlying stakes, and who gets to decide by what rules one should play. Through a series of diverse contributions, Interpretation in International Law reveals interpretation as an inescapable feature of all areas of international law. It will be of interest and utility to all international lawyers whose work touches upon theoretical or practical aspects of interpretation.

The Story of Pain

From Prayer to Painkillers

Author: Joanna Bourke

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191003557

Category: Medical

Page: 336

View: 6600


Everyone knows what is feels like to be in pain. Scraped knees, toothaches, migraines, giving birth, cancer, heart attacks, and heartaches: pain permeates our entire lives. We also witness other people - loved ones - suffering, and we 'feel with' them. It is easy to assume this is the end of the story: 'pain-is-pain-is-pain', and that is all there is to say. But it is not. In fact, the way in which people respond to what they describe as 'painful' has changed considerably over time. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, for example, people believed that pain served a specific (and positive) function - it was a message from God or Nature; it would perfect the spirit. 'Suffer in this life and you wouldn't suffer in the next one'. Submission to pain was required. Nothing could be more removed from twentieth and twenty-first century understandings, where pain is regarded as an unremitting evil to be 'fought'. Focusing on the English-speaking world, this book tells the story of pain since the eighteenth century, addressing fundamental questions about the experience and nature of suffering over the last three centuries. How have those in pain interpreted their suffering - and how have these interpretations changed over time? How have people learnt to conduct themselves when suffering? How do friends and family react? And what about medical professionals: should they immerse themselves in the suffering person or is the best response a kind of professional detachment? As Joanna Bourke shows in this fascinating investigation, people have come up with many different answers to these questions over time. And a history of pain can tell us a great deal about how we might respond to our own suffering in the present - and, just as importantly, to the suffering of those around us.