Persons, Interests, and Justice

Author: Nils Holtug

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199580170

Category: Philosophy

Page: 356

View: 8289

DOWNLOAD NOW »

In our lives, we aim to achieve welfare for ourselves, that is, to live good lives. But we also have another, more impartial perspective, where we aim to balance our concern for our own welfare against a concern for the welfare of others. This is a perspective of justice. Nils Holtug examines these two perspectives and the relations between them. The first part of the book is concerned with prudence; more precisely, with what the necessary and sufficient conditions are for having a self-interest in a particular benefit. It includes discussions of the extent to which self-interest depends on preferences, personal identity, and what matters in survival. It also considers the issue of whether it can benefit (or harm) a person to come into existence and what the implications are for our theory of self-interest. A 'prudential view' is defended, according to which a person has a present self-interest in a future benefit if and only if she stands in a relation of continuous physical realization of (appropriate) psychology to the beneficiary, where the strength of the self-interest depends both on the size of the benefit and on the strength of this relation. The second part of the book concerns distributive justice and so how to distribute welfare or self-interest fulfilment over individuals. It includes discussions of welfarism, egalitarianism and prioritarianism, population ethics, the importance of personal identity and what matters for distributive justice, and the importance of all these issues for various topics in applied ethics, including the badness of death. Here, a version of prioritarianism is defended, according to which, roughly, the moral value of a benefit to an individual at a time depends on both the size of the benefit and on the individual's self-interest, at that time, in the other benefits that accrue to her at this and other times.

Neo-statecraft and Meta-geopolitics

Reconciliation of Power, Interests and Justice in the 21st Century

Author: Nayef R. F. Al-Rodhan

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 3643800061

Category: Political Science

Page: 361

View: 7491

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This book proposes an innovative and comprehensive framework for conducting statecraft in the 21st century. Called neo-statecraft, this framework is based on the reconciliation of power, interests and justice. The author proposes four substrates of neo-statecraft: 1) a new structure he calls meta-geopolitics, which includes seven inter-related dimensions of state power and identifies a Geostrategic Tripwire Pivotal Corridor (TPC); 2) a sustainable national security paradigm that stresses the centrality of justice, symbiotic realism and transcultural synergy; 3) a new concept called just power, which states that power must be smart as well as just, and that global justice is above all a national interest of all states; and 4) a new concept called reconciliation statecraft of the eight global interests. Dr. Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan is Senior Scholar in Geostrategy and Director of the Programme on the Geopolitical Implications of Globalisation and Transnational Security at the Geneva Centre f

A Theory of Justice

Author: John RAWLS

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674042603

Category: Philosophy

Page: 623

View: 6871

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Though the revised edition of A Theory of Justice, published in 1999, is the definitive statement of Rawls's view, so much of the extensive literature on Rawls's theory refers to the first edition. This reissue makes the first edition once again available for scholars and serious students of Rawls's work.

Reasons and Persons

Author: Derek Parfit

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019824908X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 543

View: 3464

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This book challenges, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity. The author claims that we have a false view of our own nature; that it is often rational to act against our own best interests; that most of us have moral views that are directly self-defeating; and that, when we consider future generations the conclusions will often be disturbing. He concludes that moral non-religious moralphilosophy is a young subject, with a promising but unpredictable future.

Justice for the Past

Author: Stephen Kershnar

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791460719

Category: Political Science

Page: 158

View: 8973

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Among the most controversial issues in the United States is the question of whether public or private agencies should adopt preferential treatment programs or be required to pay reparations for slavery. Using a carefully reasoned philosophical approach, Stephen Kershnar argues that programs such as affirmative action and calls for slavery reparations are unjust for three reasons. First, the state has a duty to direct resources to those persons who, through their abilities, will benefit most from them. Second, he argues that, in the case of slavery, past injustice--where both the victims and perpetrators are long dead--cannot ground current claims to compensation. As terrible as slavery was, those who claim a right to compensation today owe their existence to it, he reasons, and since the events that bring about a person's existence are normally thought to be beneficial, past injustices do not warrant compensation. Finally, even if past injustices were allowed to serve as the basis of compensation in the present, other variables prevent a reasonable estimation of the amount owed.

Property and Justice

Author: J. W. Harris

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191024457

Category: Law

Page: 416

View: 7911

DOWNLOAD NOW »

When philosophers put forward claims for or against 'property', it is often unclear whether they are talking about the same thing that lawyers mean by 'property'. Likewise, when lawyers appeal to 'justice' in interpreting or criticizing legal rules we do not know if they have in mind something that philosophers would recognize as 'justice'. Bridging the gulf between juristic writing on property and speculations about it appearing in the tradition of western political philosophy, Professor Harris has built from entirely new foundations an analytical framework for understanding the nature of property and its connection with justice. Property and Justice ranges over natural property rights; property as a prerequisite of freedom; incentives and markets; demands for equality of resources; property as domination; property and basic needs; and the question of whether property should be extended to information and human bodily parts. It maintains that property institutions deal both with the use of things and the allocation of wealth, and that everyone has a 'right' that society should provide such an institution.

Just Mercy

A Story of Justice and Redemption

Author: Bryan Stevenson

Publisher: Spiegel & Grau

ISBN: 0812994531

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 4161

DOWNLOAD NOW »

#1 New York Times Bestseller | Named one of the Best Books of the Year by The New York Times • The Washington Post • The Boston Globe • The Seattle Times • Esquire • Time Winner of the Carnegie Medal for Nonfiction | Winner of the NAACP Image Award for Nonfiction | Winner of a Books for a Better Life Award | Finalist for the Los Angeles Book Prize | Finalist for the Kirkus Reviews Prize | An American Library Association Notable Book A powerful true story about the potential for mercy to redeem us, and a clarion call to fix our broken system of justice—from one of the most brilliant and influential lawyers of our time Bryan Stevenson was a young lawyer when he founded the Equal Justice Initiative, a legal practice dedicated to defending those most desperate and in need: the poor, the wrongly condemned, and women and children trapped in the farthest reaches of our criminal justice system. One of his first cases was that of Walter McMillian, a young man who was sentenced to die for a notorious murder he insisted he didn’t commit. The case drew Bryan into a tangle of conspiracy, political machination, and legal brinksmanship—and transformed his understanding of mercy and justice forever. Just Mercy is at once an unforgettable account of an idealistic, gifted young lawyer’s coming of age, a moving window into the lives of those he has defended, and an inspiring argument for compassion in the pursuit of true justice. Praise for Just Mercy “Every bit as moving as To Kill a Mockingbird, and in some ways more so . . . a searing indictment of American criminal justice and a stirring testament to the salvation that fighting for the vulnerable sometimes yields.”—David Cole, The New York Review of Books “Searing, moving . . . Bryan Stevenson may, indeed, be America’s Mandela.”—Nicholas Kristof, The New York Times “You don’t have to read too long to start cheering for this man. . . . The message of this book . . . is that evil can be overcome, a difference can be made. Just Mercy will make you upset and it will make you hopeful.”—Ted Conover, The New York Times Book Review “Inspiring . . . a work of style, substance and clarity . . . Stevenson is not only a great lawyer, he’s also a gifted writer and storyteller.”—The Washington Post “As deeply moving, poignant and powerful a book as has been, and maybe ever can be, written about the death penalty.”—The Financial Times “Brilliant.”—The Philadelphia Inquirer “Not since Atticus Finch has a fearless and committed lawyer made such a difference in the American South. Though larger than life, Atticus exists only in fiction. Bryan Stevenson, however, is very much alive and doing God’s work fighting for the poor, the oppressed, the voiceless, the vulnerable, the outcast, and those with no hope. Just Mercy is his inspiring and powerful story.”—John Grisham “Bryan Stevenson is one of my personal heroes, perhaps the most inspiring and influential crusader for justice alive today, and Just Mercy is extraordinary. The stories told within these pages hold the potential to transform what we think we mean when we talk about justice.”—Michelle Alexander, author of The New Jim Crow

Blacks and Social Justice

Author: Bernard R. Boxill

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780847677108

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 296

View: 2551

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Delineate the principal arguments for and againist the major racial issues of our time.

Information Technology and Social Justice

Author: Rooksby, Emma

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1591409705

Category: Computers

Page: 292

View: 3542

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The term digital divide is still used regularly to characterize the injustice associated with inequalities in access to information and communication technologies (ICTs). As the debate continues and becomes more sophisticated, more and more aspects of the distribution of ICTs are singled out as relevant to characterizations of the digital divide and of its moral status. The best way to articulate the digital divide is to relate it to other aspects of social and distributive justice, using a mixture of pre-existing theories within moral and political philosophy. These theories are complemented with contributions from sociology, communication studies, information systems, and a range of other disciplines. Information Technology and Social Justice presents conceptual frameworks for understanding and tackling digital divides. It includes information on access and skills, access and motivation, and other various levels of access. It also presents a detailed analysis of the benefits and value of access to ICTs.

Experience and Conduct

A Philosophical Enquiry Into Practical Thinking

Author: Stephan K Rner

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521299435

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 7841

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This study details the concepts of morality, prudence, justice, welfare and legality, as well as the logical foundations, epistemology and metaphysics of practical thinking.

Freedom, Recognition and Non-Domination

A Republican Theory of (Global) Justice

Author: Fabian Schuppert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400768060

Category: Philosophy

Page: 201

View: 4859

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This book offers an original account of a distinctly republican theory of social and global justice. The book starts by exploring the nature and value of Hegelian recognition theory. It shows the importance of that theory for grounding a normative account of free and autonomous agency. It is this normative account of free agency which provides the groundwork for a republican conception of social and global justice, based on the core-ideas of freedom as non-domination and autonomy as non-alienation. As the author argues, republicans should endorse a sufficientarian account of social justice, which focuses on the nature of social relationships and their effects on people's ability to act freely and realize their fundamental interests. On the global level, the book argues for the cosmopolitan extension of the republican principles of non-domination and non-alienation within a multi-level democratic system. In so doing, the book addresses a major gap in the existing literature, presenting an original theory of justice, which combines Hegelian recognition theory and republican ideas of freedom, and applying this hybrid theory to the global domain.

Justice and Foreign Rule

On International Transitional Administration

Author: D. Jacob

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137452579

Category: Political Science

Page: 178

View: 7313

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Can foreign rule be morally justified? Since the end of the First World War, international transitional administrations have replaced dysfunctional states to create the conditions for lasting peace and democracy. In response to extreme state failure, the author argues, this form of foreign rule is not only justified, but a requirement of justice.

Democracy and the Quest for Justice

Russian and American Perspectives

Author: William Gay,T. A. Alekseeva

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9789042010994

Category: Philosophy

Page: 154

View: 3937

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This book examines the changes and challenges to democracy particularly in contemporary Russia. In the first section, Russian and American philosophers scrutinize the virtues and vices facing a country changing to a democratic government. The book, secondly, explores the challenges facing a democratic Russia. Lastly, the book considers carefully issues of social justice arising from the relationship between democracy and the current economic climate of globalization.The series Contemporary Russian Philosophyexplores a variety of perspectives in and on philosophy as it is currently being practiced in Russia. Co-sponsored by the Center for Professional and Applied Ethics at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte, and by the Russian Philosophical Society, this special series features collaborative works between Russians and Americans, collections of essays by Russians, and monographs by Russians. All volumes are published in English.

Justice and Justification

Reflective Equilibrium in Theory and Practice

Author: Norman Daniels

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521467117

Category: Medical

Page: 365

View: 5976

DOWNLOAD NOW »

A collection of essays exploring ethics and their relation to moral and non-moral beliefs.

Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice

Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309145449

Category: Medical

Page: 436

View: 9034

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Collaborations of physicians and researchers with industry can provide valuable benefits to society, particularly in the translation of basic scientific discoveries to new therapies and products. Recent reports and news stories have, however, documented disturbing examples of relationships and practices that put at risk the integrity of medical research, the objectivity of professional education, the quality of patient care, the soundness of clinical practice guidelines, and the public's trust in medicine. Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice provides a comprehensive look at conflict of interest in medicine. It offers principles to inform the design of policies to identify, limit, and manage conflicts of interest without damaging constructive collaboration with industry. It calls for both short-term actions and long-term commitments by institutions and individuals, including leaders of academic medical centers, professional societies, patient advocacy groups, government agencies, and drug, device, and pharmaceutical companies. Failure of the medical community to take convincing action on conflicts of interest invites additional legislative or regulatory measures that may be overly broad or unduly burdensome. Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice makes several recommendations for strengthening conflict of interest policies and curbing relationships that create risks with little benefit. The book will serve as an invaluable resource for individuals and organizations committed to high ethical standards in all realms of medicine.

Law, Justice and the State

Proceedings of the 16th World Congress of the International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy (IVR), Reykjavík, 26 May-2 June, 1993

Author: Aleksander Peczenik,Mikael M. Karlsson

Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag

ISBN: 9783515066051

Category: Human rights

Page: 272

View: 1462

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Disabled Justice?

Access to Justice and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Author: Eilionóir Flynn

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472418611

Category: Law

Page: 190

View: 5375

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Disability offers a new lens through which to view the effectiveness of access to justice, and the inclusiveness of the justice system as a whole. This book analyses the experience of people with disabilities through the entire justice system, from making a complaint, to investigation, and through the court/tribunal process. It also considers the participation of people with disabilities in a variety of roles in the justice system - as witness, defendant, complainant, plaintiff, lawyer, judge and juror. More broadly, it also critically examines the subtle barriers of access to justice which might exist in a given society - including barriers to grassroots disability advocacy, legal education and training, the right to vote and the right to stand for election which may apply to people with disabilities. The book is international and comparative in scope with a focus primarily on examples of legal practice and justice systems in common law countries. The work will be of interest to scholars working in the areas of human rights, equality and non-discrimination, disability rights activists and legal professionals who work with people with disabilities to achieve access to justice.

Justice, Rights, and Tort Law

Author: M.E. Bayles,Bruce Chapman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400972032

Category: Philosophy

Page: 272

View: 3372

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The essays in this volume are the result of a project on Values in Tort Law directed by the Westminster Institute for Ethics and Human Values. We are indebted to the Board of Westminster Col lege for its financial support. The project involved two meetings of a mixed group of lawyers and philosophers to discuss drafts of papers and general issues in tort law. Beyond the principal researchers, whose papers appear here, we are grateful to John Bargo, Dick Bronaugh, Craig Brown, Earl Cherniak, Bruce Feldthusen, Barry Hoffmaster and Steve Sharzer for their helpful discussion, and to Nancy Margolis for copy editing. All of these papers except one have appeared before in the journal Law and Philosophy (Vol. 1 No.3, December 1982 and Vol. 2 No.1, Apri11983). Chapman's paper which was previously published in The University of Western Ontario Law Review (Vol. 20 No.1, 1982) appears here with permission. Westminster Institute for Ethics and Human Values, M.D.B. Westminster College, London, Canada B.C. vii INTRODUCTION The law of torts is society's primary mechanism for resolving disputes arising from personal injury and property damage.