Ocean Circulation

Author: Open University

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080537944

Category: Science

Page: 286

View: 2021

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This second edition retains the general structure of the first edition, but has been updated in the light of recent oceanographic research, and improved as a teaching text on the basis of feedback from past students and other readers. Notable additions include new sections addressing the topic of numerical modelling, and more discussion of natural oscillations in the ocean-atmosphere system (previously confined to the El Niño phenomenon). In particular, the Chapter on the North Atlantic now includes a discussion of the North Atlantic Oscillation, as well as of the Great Salinity Anomaly. In the final Chapter, treatment of water mass formation has been updated to reflect recent ideas about the processes involved and how they relate to climatic change over different time-scales, from decades to millennia. High quality full colour diagrams Substantial chapter summaries ideal for revision Answers, hints and notes for questions at back of the book

Ocean Circulation

Prepared by an Open University Course Team

Author: Joan Brown

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 148329269X

Category: Science

Page: 242

View: 3917

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The first two chapters outline the causes of circulation patterns in the atmosphere and oceans, emphasizing the interactions between them. Chapter 3 deals with the surface circulation (including mesoscale eddies), using a minimum of mathematics. Chapter 4 reviews the history of ideas about ocean circulation (with special reference to the North Atlantic gyre), and Chapter 5 describes the major current systems at high and low latitudes. The final Chapter returns to the theme of ocean-atmosphere interaction, especially the global transport of heat and freshwater, and the formation of sub-surface water masses. Fully illustrated in four coloursFully illustrated in four colours

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean

Author: Gerold Siedler,John Church,John Gould

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780126413519

Category: Science

Page: 715

View: 9787

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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

A 21st Century Perspective

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123918537

Category: Science

Page: 904

View: 874

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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ocean Circulation Theory

Author: Joseph Pedlosky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540604891

Category: Science

Page: 453

View: 436

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Basic questions of physical processes in large-scale dynamics of the oceans are discussed in this book. These large-scale circulations influence the climate of the earth and are of great importance for the future development of our climate system.

Ocean Circulation

Wind-Driven and Thermohaline Processes

Author: Rui Xin Huang

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521852285

Category: Science

Page: 791

View: 7004

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The modeling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science.

Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

Author: Robert N. Miller

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139461478

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4414

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The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This 2007 book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science.

Ocean Currents

A Derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

Author: John H. Steele,Steve A. Thorpe,Karl K. Turekian

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080964869

Category: Science

Page: 627

View: 6387

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Ocean Currents is a derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition and serves as an important reference on current ocean current knowledge and expertise in one convenient and accessible source. Its selection of articles—all written by experts in their field—focuses on key ocean current concepts. Its topics include ocean currents, the circulation of deep water, the contrasting circulations of the seas, the circulation in fjords, estuaries and the effects of rivers, and the intermittency and variability of the oceans. Ocean Currents serves as an ideal reference for topical research. References related articles on ocean currents to facilitate further research Richly illustrated with figures and tables that aid in understanding key concepts Includes an introductory overview of ocean currents and then explores each topic in detail, making it useful to experts and graduate-level researchers Topical arrangement makes it the perfect desk reference

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 1. The Ocean as a Component of the Climate System

Author: Thomas F. Stocker

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128058501

Category: Science

Page: 904

View: 1270

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A broad perspective of the ocean as a key component of the Earth System and of its role in the past, present, and future climate change is provided. The ocean is a huge reservoir of heat, mass, carbon, and many other quantities, and their estimated exchange fluxes suggest characteristic timescales of adjustment ranging from decades to many thousands of years. Surface patterns and meridional fluxes of these quantities highlight the important role of the wind-driven circulation and the deep ocean flow systems through all ocean basins. Ocean-dominated phenomena of natural variability, in particular associated with the tropical oceans, are explained. The relevance of the ocean circulation for abrupt climate change, as recorded from a variety of paleoclimate records, is discussed. This includes the bipolar seesaw concept which explains many features of interhemispheric response during the sequence of rapid warmings in the past ice age. Finally, the ocean’s role during the anthropocene, the time epoch which is dominated by the human-caused increase in greenhouse gases to levels unprecedented in the past 800,000 years, is explored. Both the warming and the increase in atmospheric transport of water polewards create conditions for the ocean that may induce large and irreversible changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 18. Dynamics of the Southern Ocean Circulation

Author: Stephen R. Rintoul,Alberto C. Naveira Garabato

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128058676

Category: Science

Page: 904

View: 9409

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The Southern Ocean circulation connects the ocean basins as well as the upper and deep layers of the ocean. As a result, the region has a profound influence on the global ocean circulation and climate. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the overturning circulation are dynamically linked through interactions between the mean flow, eddies, topography, air–sea forcing, and mixing and stirring by small- and mesoscale processes. A new dynamical paradigm is emerging that emphasizes the fully three-dimensional nature of the circulation, including the localization of meridional and vertical exchange of momentum, vorticity, and tracers by interactions between the flow and topography. Changes observed in the Southern Ocean in recent decades have implications for global climate and provide insight into the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to changes in forcing.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 2. Paleoclimatic Ocean Circulation and Sea-Level Changes

Author: Stefan Rahmstorf,Georg Feulner

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 012805851X

Category: Science

Page: 904

View: 7522

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The oceans play a crucial role in the Earth’s climate system due largely to their ability to store and transport heat. The instrumental record, spanning an order of magnitude of 100 years, is short compared with some of the important timescales of climate variability. To understand the oceans’ role in these long-term changes, proxy data from sediments, ice cores, and corals must be used. Using these proxy data, we examine the evidence for past ocean circulation and sea-level changes before instrumental oceanographic measurements began. We discuss what paleoclimatic data can tell us about past ocean states and what can be learned from ocean and climate models. Particular foci of the chapter are the ocean circulation and sea-level changes during the Quaternary and the Cretaceous, two particularly interesting periods in Earth’s history. The Quaternary covers the past 2.5 million years and is characterized by periodic glaciations, while the Cretaceous, reaching back around 100 million years, had a warm greenhouse climate with a weak temperature gradient between the tropics and the poles.

The Ocean Circulation Inverse Problem

Author: Carl Wunsch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521480901

Category: Mathematics

Page: 442

View: 6208

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This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, from a mathematical perspective.

Ocean Circulation and Pollution Control - A Mathematical and Numerical Investigation

A Mathematical and Numerical Investigation : a Diderot Mathematyical Forum

Author: J. I. Díaz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540406471

Category: Mathematics

Page: 111

View: 1800

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In the framework of the Diderot Mathematical Forum (DMF) of the European Mathematical Society (EMS), December 19-20, 1997, a Videoconference was held linking three teams of specialists in Amsterdam, Madrid and Venice respectively. The general subject of this videoconference, the second one of the DMF series, was Mathematics and Environment and more specifically, Problems related to Water. This volume contains the texts of the Madrid site contributions with important, new and unpublished, examples on the modeling, mathematical and numerical analysis and treatment of the associated control problems of relevant questions arising in Oceanography and Environment.

Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Author: Jens Bischof

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852336486

Category: Nature

Page: 215

View: 5272

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The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change.

Marine Geochemistry

Ocean Circulation, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

Author: Matthieu Roy-Barman,Catherine Jeandel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198787499

Category:

Page: 432

View: 7900

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Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works in terms of ocean circulation, chemical composition, biological activity and atmospheric CO2 regulation. This rapidly growing field is at a crossroad for many disciplines (physical, chemical and biological oceanography, geology, climatology, ecology, etc.). It provides important quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to anthropogenic pressure? This text gives a simple introduction to the concepts, the methods and the applications of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Overall introducing a very large number of topics (physical oceanography, ocean chemistry, isotopes, gas exchange, modelling, biogeochemical cycles), with a balance of didactic and indepth information, it provides an outline and a complete course in marine geochemistry. Throughout, the book uses a hands-on approach with worked out exercises and problems (with answers provided at the end of the book), to help the students work through the concepts presented. A broad scale approach is take including ocean physics, marine biology, ocean-climate relations, remote sensing, pollutions and ecology, so that the reader acquires a global perspective of the ocean. It also includes new topics arising from ongoing research programs. This textbook is essential reading for students, scholars, researchers and other professionals.