Numbers: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Peter M. Higgins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199584052

Category: Mathematics

Page: 132

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In this Very Short Introduction Peter M. Higgins presents an overview of the number types featured in modern science and mathematics. Providing a non-technical account, he explores the evolution of the modern number system, examines the fascinating role of primes, and explains their role in contemporary cryptography.

Algebra

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Peter M. Higgins

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198732821

Category: Algebra

Page: 144

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This introduction invites readers to revisit algebra and appreciate the elegance and power of equations and inequalities. Offering a clear explanation of algebra through theory and example, Higgins shows how equations lead to complex numbers, matrices, groups, rings, and fields.--

Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Timothy Gowers

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 9780192853615

Category: Mathematics

Page: 143

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This book aims to explain, in clear non-technical language,what it is that mathematicians do, and how that differs from and builds on the mathematics that most people are familiar with from school. It is the ideal introduction for anyone who wishes to deepen their understanding of mathematics.

Combinatorics

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Robin Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198723490

Category: Mathematics

Page: 144

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How many possible sudoku puzzles are there? In the lottery, what is the chance that two winning balls have consecutive numbers? Who invented Pascal's triangle? (it was not Pascal) Combinatorics, the branch of mathematics concerned with selecting, arranging, and listing or counting collections of objects, works to answer all these questions. Dating back some 3000 years, and initially consisting mainly of the study of permutations and combinations, its scope has broadened to include topics such as graph theory, partitions of numbers, block designs, design of codes, and latin squares. In this Very Short Introduction Robin Wilson gives an overview of the field and its applications in mathematics and computer theory, considering problems from the shortest routes covering certain stops to the minimum number of colours needed to colour a map with different colours for neighbouring countries. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Objectivity: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen Gaukroger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199606692

Category: Philosophy

Page: 112

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Objectivity is both an essential and elusive philosophical concept. This Very Short Introduction explores the theoretical and practical problems raised by objectivity, and also deals with the way in which particular understandings of objectivity impinge on social research, science, and art.

Infinity: a Very Short Introduction

Author: Ian Stewart

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198755236

Category: Mathematics

Page: 144

View: 7349

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Infinity is an intriguing topic, with connections to religion, philosophy, metaphysics, logic, and physics as well as mathematics. Its history goes back to ancient times, with especially important contributions from Euclid, Aristotle, Eudoxus, and Archimedes. The infinitely large (infinite) isintimately related to the infinitely small (infinitesimal). Cosmologists consider sweeping questions about whether space and time are infinite. Philosophers and mathematicians ranging from Zeno to Russell have posed numerous paradoxes about infinity and infinitesimals. Many vital areas ofmathematics rest upon some version of infinity. The most obvious, and the first context in which major new techniques depended on formulating infinite processes, is calculus. But there are many others, for example Fourier analysis and fractals.In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart discusses infinity in mathematics while also drawing in the various other aspects of infinity and explaining some of the major problems and insights arising from this concept. He argues that working with infinity is not just an abstract, intellectualexercise but that it is instead a concept with important practical everyday applications, and considers how mathematicians use infinity and infinitesimals to answer questions or supply techniques that do not appear to involve the infinite.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Philip V. Mladenov

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199695059

Category: Science

Page: 156

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In this Very Short Introduction, Philip Mladenov provides a fascinating overview of marine biology. Including a tour of marine life and marine processes that ranges from the polar oceans to tropical coral reefs, he outlines the principles of marine biology whilst demonstrating the fundamental impact humans have on the oceans and their ecology.

Cancer: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Nick James,Nicholas James

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199560234

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 137

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In 1961 John F. Kennedy pledged to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. Ten years later, Richard Nixon echoed this pledge by declaring a 'war' on cancer. More than 30 years later, however, cancer remains one of the largest causes of death worldwide, with around 1 in 3 developing the disease.

Judaism

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Norman Solomon

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199687358

Category: Religion

Page: 151

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Outlines the basics of practical Judaism and considers how Judaism has responded to, and dealt with, a number of key issues and debates, including the impact of the Holocaust and the establishment of the State of Israel.

Chaos

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Leonard Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192853783

Category: Mathematics

Page: 180

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An introduction to chaotic behavior dynamics describes its behavior in both science and the real world.

Nuclear Weapons

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Joseph M. Siracusa

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198727232

Category: Law

Page: 127

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This title explains the history and politics of the bomb, from the technology of nuclear weapons, to the revolutionary implications of the H-bomb, and the politics of nuclear deterrence. The issues are set against a backdrop of the changing international landscape, from the early days of development through the Cold War. Despite not having been used in anger since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Bomb is still the biggest threat that faces us in the 21st century. But what significant lessons can be learnt from the history of the nuclear weapons era?

Probability: A Very Short Introduction

Author: John Haigh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199588481

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

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Making good decisions under conditions of uncertainty requires an appreciation of the way random chance works. In this Very Short Introduction, John Haigh provides a brief account of probability theory; explaining the philosophical approaches, discussing probability distributions, and looking its applications in science and economics.

Internationale Migration

Author: Khalid Koser

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150186930

Category: Emigration and immigration

Page: 204

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"Es gibt aktuell auf der Welt mehr Migranten denn jemals zuvor; Kriege und Bürgerkriege sind genauso Gründe dafür wie Armut, wirtschaftliche Ansprüche oder gar Unternehmensgeist. Neu ist das Phänomen gleichwohl nicht, es hat die Geschichte von Kulturen und Staaten immer schon mitgeprägt. Khalid Koser, ein international gefragter Migrationsexperte des Genfer Zentrums für Sicherheitspolitik, stellt das Phänomen mit all seinen Problemen und Auswirkungen knapp, abgewogen und differenziert dar, widerlegt zahlreiche dazu umlaufende Mythen und plädiert dafür, den Wert der Migration für Volkswirtschaften und Kulturen zu erkennen und zu würdigen."--Verl.

Fundamentalism

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Malise Ruthven

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199212705

Category: Political Science

Page: 154

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Fundamentalism is seen as the major threat to world peace, a conclusion impossible to ignore since the events in New York on September 11 2001. This book investigates fundamentalism's historical, social, religious, political, and ideological roots, and tackles the polemic and stereotypes surrounding this complex phenomenon.

Statistics: A Very Short Introduction

Author: David J. Hand

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191578924

Category: Mathematics

Page: 136

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Modern statistics is very different from the dry and dusty discipline of the popular imagination. In its place is an exciting subject which uses deep theory and powerful software tools to shed light and enable understanding. And it sheds this light on all aspects of our lives, enabling astronomers to explore the origins of the universe, archaeologists to investigate ancient civilisations, governments to understand how to benefit and improve society, and businesses to learn how best to provide goods and services. Aimed at readers with no prior mathematical knowledge, this Very Short Introduction explores and explains how statistics work, and how we can decipher them. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

International Migration

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Khalid Koser

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199298017

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 140

View: 4067

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This Very Short Introduction examines the phenomenon of international human migration - both legal and illegal. Taking a global look at politics, economics, and globalization, the author presents the human side of topics such as asylum and refugees, human trafficking, migrant smuggling, development, and the international labour force.

Measurement

Author: David J. Hand

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198779569

Category: Mathematics

Page: 144

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Measurement is a fundamental concept that underpins almost every aspect of the modern world. It is central to the sciences, social sciences, medicine, and economics, but it affects everyday life. We measure everything - from the distance of far-off galaxies to the temperature of the air, levels of risk, political majorities, taxes, blood pressure, IQ, and weight. The history of measurement goes back to the ancient world, and its story has been one of gradual standardization. Today there are different types of measurement, levels of accuracy, and systems of units, applied in different contexts. Measurement involves notions of variability, accuracy, reliability, and error, and challenges such as the measurement of extreme values. In this Very Short Introduction, David Hand explains the common mathematical framework underlying all measurement, the main approaches to measurement, and the challenges involved. Following a brief historical account of measurement, he discusses measurement as used in the physical sciences and engineering, the life sciences and medicine, the social and behavioural sciences, economics, business, and public policy. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Sebastian G.B. Amyes

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0199578761

Category: Science

Page: 152

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In this Very Short Introduction, Sebastian Amyes explores the nature of bacteria. As a fundamental branch of life, they inhabit every part of the Earth's surface. Amyes examines their origin and evolution, bacteria in the environment, and bacteria and disease, to demonstrate the fundamental role they play in our existence.