Non-Renewable Resource Issues

Geoscientific and Societal Challenges

Author: Richard Sinding-Larsen,Friedrich Wellmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 904818679X

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 5762

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All the solid fuels fossil energy and mineral commodities we use come out of the Earth. Modern society is increasingly dependent on mineral and fossil energy sources. They differ in availability, cost of production, and geographical distribution. Even if solid fuels, fossil energy resources and mineral commodities are non-renewable, the extracted metals can to a large extent be recycled and used again and again. Although the stock of these secondary resources and their use increases, the world still needs and will continue to need primary mineral resources for the foreseeable future. Growing demands have begun to restrict availability of these resources. The Earth is not running out of critical mineral resources – at least for the near future – but the ability to explore and extract these resources is being restricted in many regions by competing land use, as well as political and environmental issues. Extraction of natural resources requires a clear focus on sustainable development, involving economic, environmental and socio-cultural aspects. Although we do not know what the most important resources will be in 100 years from now, we can be quite certain that society will still need energy and a wide range of raw materials. These resources will include oil and gas, coal, uranium, thorium, geothermal, metallic minerals, industrial and specialty minerals, including cement, raw materials, rare-earth elements. A global approach for assessing the magnitude and future availability of these resources is called for – an approach that, with appropriate international collaboration, was started within the triennium of the International Year of Planet Earth. Some global mineral resource assessments, involving inter-governmental collaboration, have already been initiated. The International Year of Planet Earth helped to focus attention on how the geosciences can generate prosperity locally and globally, as well as sustainability issues in both developed and developing countries.

Uranium for Nuclear Power

Resources, Mining and Transformation to Fuel

Author: Ian Hore-Lacy

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081003331

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 488

View: 597

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Uranium for Nuclear Power: Resources, Mining and Transformation to Fuel discusses the nuclear industry and its dependence on a steady supply of competitively priced uranium as a key factor in its long-term sustainability. A better understanding of uranium ore geology and advances in exploration and mining methods will facilitate the discovery and exploitation of new uranium deposits. The practice of efficient, safe, environmentally-benign exploration, mining and milling technologies, and effective site decommissioning and remediation are also fundamental to the public image of nuclear power. This book provides a comprehensive review of developments in these areas. Provides researchers in academia and industry with an authoritative overview of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle Presents a comprehensive and systematic coverage of geology, mining, and conversion to fuel, alternative fuel sources, and the environmental and social aspects Written by leading experts in the field of nuclear power, uranium mining, milling, and geological exploration who highlight the best practices needed to ensure environmental safety

Handbook of Industrial Drying, Fourth Edition

Author: Arun S. Mujumdar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 146659666X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1348

View: 6838

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By far the most commonly encountered and energy-intensive unit operation in almost all industrial sectors, industrial drying continues to attract the interest of scientists, researchers, and engineers. The Handbook of Industrial Drying, Fourth Edition not only delivers a comprehensive treatment of the current state of the art, but also serves as a consultative reference for streamlining industrial drying operations. New to the Fourth Edition: Computational fluid dynamic simulation Solar, impingement, and pulse combustion drying Drying of fruits, vegetables, sugar, biomass, and coal Physicochemical aspects of sludge drying Life-cycle assessment of drying systems Covering commonly encountered dryers as well as innovative dryers with future potential, the Handbook of Industrial Drying, Fourth Edition not only details the latest developments in the field, but also explains how improvements in dryer design and operation can increase energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Spatial Cloud Computing

A Practical Approach

Author: Chaowei Yang,Qunying Huang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466593172

Category: Computers

Page: 357

View: 6091

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An exploration of the benefits of cloud computing in geoscience research and applications as well as future research directions, Spatial Cloud Computing: A Practical Approach discusses the essential elements of cloud computing and their advantages for geoscience. Using practical examples, it details the geoscience requirements of cloud computing, covers general procedures and considerations when migrating geoscience applications onto cloud services, and demonstrates how to deploy different applications. The book discusses how to choose cloud services based on the general cloud computing measurement criteria and cloud computing cost models. The authors examine the readiness of cloud computing to support geoscience applications using open source cloud software solutions and commercial cloud services. They then review future research and developments in data, computation, concurrency, and spatiotemporal intensities of geosciences and how cloud service can be leveraged to meet the challenges. They also introduce research directions from the aspects of technology, vision, and social dimensions. Spatial Cloud Computing: A Practical Approach a common workflow for deploying geoscience applications and provides references to the concepts, technical details, and operational guidelines of cloud computing. These features and more give developers, geoscientists, and IT professionals the information required to make decisions about how to select and deploy cloud services.

New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences

Author: Committee on New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309219248

Category: Science

Page: 132

View: 7104

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The 2001 National Research Council (NRC) report Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science (BROES) described how basic research in the Earth sciences serves five national imperatives: (1) discovery, use, and conservation of natural resources; (2) characterization and mitigation of natural hazards; (3) geotechnical support of commercial and infrastructure development; (4) stewardship of the environment; and (5) terrestrial surveillance for global security and national defense. This perspective is even more pressing today, and will persist into the future, with ever-growing emphasis. Today's world-with headlines dominated by issues involving fossil fuel and water resources, earthquake and tsunami disasters claiming hundreds of thousands of lives and causing hundreds of billions of dollars in damages, profound environmental changes associated with the evolving climate system, and nuclear weapons proliferation and testing-has many urgent societal issues that need to be informed by sound understanding of the Earth sciences. A national strategy to sustain basic research and training of expertise across the full spectrum of the Earth sciences is motivated by these national imperatives. New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences identifies new and emerging research opportunities in the Earth sciences over the next decade, including surface and deep Earth processes and interdisciplinary research with fields such as ocean and atmospheric sciences, biology, engineering, computer science, and social and behavioral sciences. The report also identifies key instrumentation and facilities needed to support these new and emerging research opportunities. The report describes opportunities for increased cooperation in these new and emerging areas between EAR and other government agency programs, industry, and international programs, and suggests new ways that EAR can help train the next generation of Earth scientists, support young investigators, and increase the participation of underrepresented groups in the field.

Gaia

A New Look at Life on Earth

Author: James Lovelock,J. E. Lovelock

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 0192862189

Category: Nature

Page: 148

View: 9889

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This classic work is now reissued in new covers with a new Preface by the author. Written for non-scientists, this is an original work in which James Lovelock puts forward his inspirational idea that life on earth functions as a single organism.

Introduction to Global Energy Issues

Author: Renaud Gicquel,May Gicquel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203503260

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 9076

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From the discovery of fire to that of the atom, the development of human societies has largely been based on the conquest of energy. In all countries, energy has gradually become one of the key factors of social and economic development, as well as capital, labor and natural resources, and now no one can do without it. After decades of cheap energy flowing without any problem, over the last forty years crises have become the rule. This disruption of the energy landscape is of particular concern as the impact of energy crises on human societies became considerable. This book seeks to provide a basis for reflection on all global energy problems, offering an analysis of the main aspects to consider: energy supply, resource-dependent industries and technology available, macroeconomic implications of energy demand, geopolitical issues, and specifics of the situation in developing countries. It does not thoroughly address environmental issues, which would require further study beyond the limits we set. This book is the second edition of a book published in 1992, at a time when obtaining energy and economic data was much more difficult than today, when many databases are freely accessible on the Internet. In this new context, we hope it will assist the reader in finding his/her way in the considerable amount of information available. Energy is a vast field that can be approached from multiple angles. The approach proposed here is to start by providing the reader with technical bases on energy, and thus energy supply, before considering the demand, that is to say, the socio- and macro-economic dimensions, then addressing global issues relating to energy, and finally complete the study of the main issues that arise in this area today. This book summarizes the main issues related to energy and requires no special knowledge beforehand, whether in economics, engineering or international relations. It consists of nine chapters, the first being the introduction. Chapter 2 introduces the main energy sectors (oil, natural gas, coal, synthetic hydrocarbons, nuclear power, renewable energy, thermal or pneumatic storage), i.e. how the main sources of energy can be exploited. Chapter 3 presents the main macroeconomic and energy indicators that are commonly used to assess the energy situation in a country. Concepts that are introduced being then used consistently in other chapters, it is essential to understand well their definitions and limitations. The fourth chapter analyzes the impacts of energy at the macro level, including the links between economic activity and energy consumption. The fifth chapter introduces the main principles generally accepted in the development of energy policy and planning, and then discusses the institutional aspects. The sixth chapter is devoted to geopolitics: current consumption of energy, energy reserves and resources worldwide, international energy trade, and specific problems faced by developing countries. The seventh chapter is devoted to the study of the energy situation in eleven different countries, showing the contrast between them, depending on their level of economic development, demography, natural resource endowments, etc. The list of countries includes high-income developed countries (France, United States, United Kingdom), the emerging group called the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa), a North African oil exporting country (Algeria), a west African country (Côte d'Ivoire), and an Asian exporter of coal and natural gas (Indonesia). The eighth chapter discusses emerging issues related to energy, in particular its relationship to the environment and the success of policies aiming at controlling demand. The ninth and final chapter begins with a prospective study of various scenarios for the medium and long term. The analyses presented in the book are then summarized by outlining the main pending issues. The book includes 22 tables, 150 figures and 3 mind maps, as well as links to databases available online (World Bank, United Nations, BP). Also available: an online course covering the main topics dealt with in this book. Please visit: http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/enseignement/cours-en-ligne/modules-d-auto-formation/energy-issues-course

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062316109

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 3900

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New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.

Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science

Author: Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Basic Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030907133X

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 1783

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Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science identifies areas of high-priority research within the purview of the Earth Science Division of the National Science Foundation, assesses cross-disciplinary connections, and discusses the linkages between basic research and societal needs. Opportunities in Earth science have been opened up by major improvements in techniques for reading the geological record of terrestrial change, capabilities for observing active processes in the present-day Earth, and computational technologies for realistic simulations of dynamic geosystems. This book examines six specific areas in which the opportunities for basic research are especially compelling, including integrative studies of the near-surface environment (the “Critical Zone”); geobiology; Earth and planetary materials; investigations of the continents; studies of Earth’s deep interior; and planetary science. It concludes with a discussion of mechanisms for exploiting these research opportunities, including EarthScope, natural laboratories, and partnerships.

UNEP Yearbook 2012

Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment

Author: United Nations,United Nations Environment Program

Publisher: United Nations Publications

ISBN: 9789280732146

Category: Political Science

Page: 68

View: 6817

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The UNEP Year Book is an annual publication that highlights emerging issues and environmental trends. Every year it provides an update on new science and developments that are relevant for policy makers. Since 2003, the UNEP Year Book series has contributed to strengthening the science-policy interface by bringing the latest environmental science and emerging issues to the attention of governments and by supporting science-based decision making.

Geology of Cuba

AAPG Studies in Geology 58

Author: Georges Pardo

Publisher: AAPG

ISBN: 089181065X

Category: Science

Page: 73

View: 5997

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Softcover plus CD

Climate Change Mitigation

A Balanced Approach to Climate Change

Author: Mitsutsune Yamaguchi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447142284

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

View: 4166

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Climate change is mainly caused by emissions of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, which provides over 85% of the world’s energy. Strategies for mitigating climate change are connected with handling economic and social activities through their effects on the use of energy. Climate Change Mitigation investigates the costs of mitigation measures in comparison to their benefits, and compares the effects of implementing mitigation measures on various areas such as energy security and energy economy. “For 20 years, diplomats have struggled to make progress on climate change, mostly because global diplomacy is not well-linked to the realities of how nations and firms control emissions and adapt to the impacts of a changing climate. In this excellent book, Dr Yamaguchi has assembled experts to guide the redesign of global policy. The authors underscore how global warming efforts must resonate with other policy goals.” David G. Victor, Director, Laboratory on International Law and Regulation and Professor, University of California San Diego “Climate Change Mitigation clarifies that climate change cannot be controlled by sacrificing economic growth or other global problems; however, action to control climate change cannot be delayed.Climate policy is pervasive and affects all dimensions of international policy;but it cannot be too ambitious: a balanced approach between mitigation and adaptation, economic growth and resource management, and short term development and long term investments, should be adopted. I recommend its reading.” Carlo Carraro,President, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice “The International Energy Agency estimates for every $1 of investment now toward sustainable energy, $4 of future spending can be saved. There is a business case for companies to reduce energy use. Companies in the energy and resource intensive industries must lead the way.” Chad Holliday, Chairman. World Business Council for Sustainable Development and former Chair and CEO, DuPont

Future Energy

Author: Julie Richards

Publisher: Macmillan Education AU

ISBN: 9781420261035

Category: Bioenergetics

Page: 168

View: 8293

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Energy makes the world work. Most of the worlds machines are powered by energy that comes from fossil fuels that are harmful to people and the environment.In this fascinating book, students will learn about alternative energy sources and the advantages and disadvantages of each. They can find out about how each energy is collected, stored, converted into power and used.Suitable for junior secondary, this book combines 6 individual titles, bound together in one bumper volume for a low pri

Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions

Author: G. Tyler Miller,Scott Spoolman

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1133169546

Category: Science

Page: 800

View: 4222

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Sustainability is the integrating theme of this current and thought-provoking book. LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT provides the basic scientific tools for understanding and thinking critically about the environment. Co-authors G. Tyler Miller and Scott Spoolman inspire students to take a positive approach toward finding and implementing useful environmental solutions in their own lives and in their careers. Updated with the most up-to-date information, art, and Good News examples, the text engages and motivates students with vivid case studies and hands-on quantitative exercises. The concept-centered approach transforms complex environmental topics and issues into key concepts that students will understand and remember. Overall, by framing the concepts with goals for more sustainable lifestyles and human communities, students see how promising the future can be. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Our Renewable Future

Laying the Path for One Hundred Percent Clean Energy

Author: Richard Heinberg,David Fridley

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1610917790

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 226

View: 7432

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"Over the next few decades, we will see a profound energy transformation as society shifts from fossil fuels to renewable resources like solar, wind, biomass. But what might a one hundred percent renewable future actually look like, and what obstacles will we face in this transition? Authors explore the practical challenges and opportunities presented by the shift to renewable energy."--Page 4 of cover.