Military Anthropology

Soldiers, Scholars and Subjects at the Margins of Empire

Author: Montgomery McFate

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190934727

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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In almost every military intervention in its history, the US has made cultural mistakes that hindered attainment of its policy goals. From the strategic bombing of Vietnam to the accidental burning of the Koran in Afghanistan, it has blundered around with little consideration of local cultural beliefs and for the long-term effects on the host nation's society. Cultural anthropology--the so-called "handmaiden of colonialism"--has historically served as an intellectual bridge between Western powers and local nationals. What light can it shed on the intersection of the US military and foreign societies today? This book tells the story of anthropologists who worked directly for the military, such as Ursula Graham Bower, the only woman to hold a British combat command during WWII. Each faced challenges including the negative outcomes of exporting Western political models and errors of perception. Ranging from the British colonial era in Africa to the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, Military Anthropology illustrates the conceptual, cultural and practical barriers encountered by military organisations operating in societies vastly different from their own.

Social Science Goes to War

The Human Terrain System in Iraq and Afghanistan

Author: Montgomery McFate,Janice H. Laurence

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190613092

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 6949

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The Human Terrain System (HTS) was catapulted into existence in 2006 by the US military's urgent need for knowledge of the human dimension of the battlespace in Iraq and Afghanistan. Its centrepiece was embedded groups of mixed military and civilian personnel, known as Human Terrain Teams (HTTs), whose mission was to conduct social science research and analysis and to advise military commanders about the local population. Bringing social science - and actual social scientists - to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan was bold and challenging. Despite the controversy over HTS among scholars, there is little good, reliable source material written by those with experience of HTS or about the actual work carried out by teams in theatre. This volume goes beyond the anecdotes, snippets and blogs to provide a comprehensive, objective and detailed view of HTS. The contributors put the program in historical context, discuss the obstacles it faced, analyse its successes, and detail the work of the teams downrange. Most importantly, they capture some of the diverse lived experience of HTS scholars and practitioners drawn from an eclectic array of the social sciences.

The Oxford Handbook of Military Psychology

Author: Janice H. Laurence,Michael D. Matthews

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0195399323

Category: Psychology

Page: 417

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The Oxford Handbook of Military Psychology describes the critical link between psychology and military activity. The extensive coverage includes topics in of clinical, industrial/organizational, experimental, engineering, and social psychology. The contributors are leading international experts in military psychology.

Rebel Law

Insurgents, Courts and Justice in Modern Conflict

Author: Frank Ledwidge

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 184904922X

Category: Law

Page: N.A

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In most societies, courts are where the rubber of government meets the road of the people. If a state cannot settle disputes and ensure that its decisions are carried out, for practical purposes it is no longer in charge. This is why successful rebels put courts and justice at the top of their agendas. Rebel Law examines this key weapon in the armory of insurgent groups, ranging from the Ireland of the 1920s, where the IRA sapped British power using 'Republican Tribunals' to today's 'Caliphate of Law' - the Islamic State, by way of Algeria in the 1950s and the Afghan Taliban. Frank Ledwidge tells how insurgent courts bleed legitimacy from government, decide cases and enforce judgments on the battlefield itself. Astute counterinsurgents, especially in "ungoverned space," can ensure that they retain the initiative. The book describes French, Turkish and British colonial "judicial strategy" and contrasts their experience with the chaos of more recent "stabilization operations" in Iraq and Afghanistan, drawing lessons for contemporary counterinsurgents. Rebel Law builds on his insights and shows that the courts themselves can be used as weapons for both sides in highly unconventional warfare.

The End of Grand Strategy

US Maritime Operations in the Twenty-First Century

Author: Simon Reich,Peter Dombrowski

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501714643

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 9926

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In The End of Grand Strategy, Simon Reich and Peter Dombrowski challenge the common view of grand strategy as unitary. They eschew prescription of any one specific approach, chosen from a spectrum that stretches from global primacy to restraint and isolationism, in favor of describing what America’s military actually does, day to day. They argue that a series of fundamental recent changes in the global system, the inevitable jostling of bureaucratic politics, and the practical limitations of field operations combine to ensure that each presidential administration inevitably resorts to a variety of strategies. Proponents of different American grand strategies have historically focused on the pivotal role of the Navy. In response, Reich and Dombrowski examine six major maritime operations, each of which reflects one major strategy. One size does not fit all, say the authors—the attempt to impose a single overarching blueprint is no longer feasible. Reich and Dombrowski declare that grand strategy, as we know it, is dead. The End of Grand Strategy is essential reading for policymakers, military strategists, and analysts and critics at advocacy groups and think tanks.

Ruling Minds

Psychology in the British Empire

Author: Erik Linstrum

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674915305

Category: History

Page: N.A

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The British Empire used intelligence tests, laboratory studies, and psychoanalysis to measure and manage the minds of subjects in distant cultures. Challenging assumptions about the role of scientific knowledge in the exercise of power, Erik Linstrum shows that psychology did more to reveal the limits of imperial authority than to strengthen it.

Cultural Anthropology

A Perspective on the Human Condition

Author: Emily A. Schultz,Robert H. Lavenda,Roberta Robin Dods

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780199028528

Category:

Page: 432

View: 9324

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Drawing on the authors' fieldwork experience, this text explores how cultural creativity, human agency, and the material conditions of everyday life interact to shape cultural practices. Discussions of ongoing controversies - including tribalism vs. globalization and increasing inequalitybetween "have" and "have not" regions - show how cultural anthropologists can tackle the world's most pressing social problems through their specialized knowledge and skills.

Laughing at Leviathan

Sovereignty and Audience in West Papua

Author: Danilyn Rutherford

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226731995

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 5975

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For West Papua and its people, the promise of sovereignty has never been realized, despite a long and fraught struggle for independence from Indonesia. In Laughing at Leviathan, Danilyn Rutherford examines this struggle through a series of interlocking essays that drive at the core meaning of sovereignty itself—how it is fueled, formed, and even thwarted by pivotal but often overlooked players: those that make up an audience. Whether these players are citizens, missionaries, competing governmental powers, nongovernmental organizations, or the international community at large, Rutherford shows how a complex interplay of various observers is key to the establishment and understanding of the sovereign nation-state. Drawing on a wide array of sources, from YouTube videos to Dutch propaganda to her own fieldwork observations, Rutherford draws the history of Indonesia, empire, and postcolonial nation-building into a powerful examination of performance and power. Ultimately she revises Thomas Hobbes, painting a picture of the Leviathan not as a coherent body but a fragmented one distributed across a wide range of both real and imagined spectators. In doing so, she offers an important new approach to the understanding of political struggle.

Rome's Gothic Wars

From the Third Century to Alaric

Author: Michael Kulikowski

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139458094

Category: History

Page: N.A

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Rome's Gothic Wars is a concise introduction to research on the Roman Empire's relations with one of the most important barbarian groups of the ancient world. The book uses archaeological and historical evidence to look not just at the course of events, but at the social and political causes of conflict between the empire and its Gothic neighbours. In eight chapters, Michael Kulikowski traces the history of Romano-Gothic relations from their earliest stage in the third century, through the development of strong Gothic politics in the early fourth century, until the entry of many Goths into the empire in 376 and the catastrophic Gothic war that followed. The book closes with a detailed look at the career of Alaric, the powerful Gothic general who sacked the city of Rome in 410.

Protecting the Roman Empire

Fortlets, Frontiers, and the Quest for Post-Conquest Security

Author: Matthew Symonds

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108383858

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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The Roman army enjoys an enviable reputation as an instrument of waging war, but as the modern world reminds us, an enduring victory requires far more than simply winning battles. When it came to suppressing counterinsurgencies, or deterring the depredations of bandits, the army frequently deployed small groups of infantry and cavalry based in fortlets. This remarkable installation type has never previously been studied in detail, and shows a new side to the Roman army. Rather than displaying the aggressive uniformity for which the Roman military is famous, individual fortlets were usually bespoke installations tailored to local needs. Examining fortlet use in north-west Europe helps explain the differing designs of the Empire's most famous artificial frontier systems: Hadrian's Wall, the Antonine Wall, and the Upper German and Raetian limites. The archaeological evidence is fully integrated with documentary sources, which disclose the gritty reality of life in a Roman fortlet.

The Battles that Changed History

Author: Fletcher Pratt

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048631894X

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 8045

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DIVHistorian profiles 16 crucial conflicts, ancient to modern, that changed the course of Western civilization. Gripping accounts of battles led by Alexander the Great, Joan of Arc, Ulysses S. Grant, other commanders. 27 maps. /div

The Scandal of Empire

Author: Nicholas B Dirks

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674034260

Category: History

Page: 416

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The Scandal of Empire reveals that the conquests and exploitations of the East India Company were critical to England's development in the eighteenth century and beyond. In this powerfully written critique, Nicholas Dirks shows how the empire projected its own scandalous behavior onto India itself. By returning to the moment when the scandal of empire became acceptable, we gain a new understanding of the modern culture of the colonizer and the colonized and the manifold implications for Britain, India, and the world.

Hitler's Jewish Soldiers

The Untold Story of Nazi Racial Laws and Men of Jewish Descent in the German Military

Author: Bryan Mark Rigg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 433

View: 671

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The author explores the often overlooked historical issue of Jews or "partial Jews" serving in the Germany military--as many as 150,000 men who served as enlisted men, officers, and even generals. (Military History)

Marx at the Margins

On Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Non-Western Societies

Author: Kevin B. Anderson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022634570X

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

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In Marx at the Margins, Kevin Anderson uncovers a variety of extensive but neglected texts by Marx that cast what we thought we knew about his work in a startlingly different light. Analyzing a variety of Marx’s writings, including journalistic work written for the New York Tribune, Anderson presents us with a Marx quite at odds with conventional interpretations. Rather than providing us with an account of Marx as an exclusively class-based thinker, Anderson here offers a portrait of Marx for the twenty-first century: a global theorist whose social critique was sensitive to the varieties of human social and historical development, including not just class, but nationalism, race, and ethnicity, as well. Through highly informed readings of work ranging from Marx’s unpublished 1879–82 notebooks to his passionate writings about the antislavery cause in the United States, this volume delivers a groundbreaking and canon-changing vision of Karl Marx that is sure to provoke lively debate in Marxist scholarship and beyond. For this expanded edition, Anderson has written a new preface that discusses the additional 1879–82 notebook material, as well as the influence of the Russian-American philosopher Raya Dunayevskaya on his thinking.

Annihilating Difference

The Anthropology of Genocide

Author: Alexander Laban Hinton

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520230293

Category: Social Science

Page: 405

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This text presents a collection of original essays on genocide. It explores a wide range of cases, including Nazi Germany, Cambodia, Guatemala, Rwanda, and Bosnia.

Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C.–A.D. 400

Author: Thomas S. Burns

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801873065

Category: History

Page: 461

View: 7705

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The barbarians of antiquity, so long a fixture of the public imagination as the savages who sacked and destroyed Rome, emerge in this colorful, richly textured history as a much more complex—and far more interesting—factor in the expansion, and eventual unmaking, of the Roman Empire. Thomas S. Burns marshals an abundance of archeological and literary evidence, as well as three decades of study and experience, to bring forth an unusually far-sighted and wide-ranging account of the relations between Romans and non-Romans along the frontiers of western Europe from the last years of the Republic into late antiquity. Looking at a 500-year time span beginning with early encounters between barbarians and Romans around 100 B.C. and ending with the spread of barbarian settlement in the western Empire around A.D. 400, Burns removes the barbarians from their narrow niche as invaders and conquerors and places them in the broader context of neighbors, (sometimes bitter) friends, and settlers. His nuanced history subtly shows how Rome's relations with the barbarians—and vice versa—slowly but inexorably evolved from general ignorance, hostility, and suspicion toward tolerance, synergy, and integration. What he describes is, in fact, a drawn-out period of acculturation, characterized more by continuity than by change and conflict and leading to the creation of a new Romano-barbarian hybrid society and culture that anticipated the values and traditions of medieval civilization.

The Art of Not Being Governed

An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia

Author: James C. Scott

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300156529

Category: Political Science

Page: 465

View: 3503

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For two thousand years the disparate groups that now reside in Zomia (a mountainous region the size of Europe that consists of portions of seven Asian countries) have fled the projects of the organized state societies that surround them--slavery, conscription, taxes, corvee labor, epidemics, and warfare. This book, essentially an anarchist history, is the first-ever examination of the huge literature on state-making whose author evaluates why people would deliberately and reactively remain stateless. Among the strategies employed by the people of Zomia to remain stateless are physical dispersion in rugged terrain; agricultural practices that enhance mobility; pliable ethnic identities; devotion to prophetic, millenarian leaders; and maintenance of a largely oral culture that allows them to reinvent their histories and genealogies as they move between and around states. In accessible language, James Scott, recognized worldwide as an eminent authority in Southeast Asian, peasant, and agrarian studies, tells the story of the peoples of Zomia and their unlikely odyssey in search of self-determination. He redefines our views on Asian politics, history, demographics, and even our fundamental ideas about what constitutes civilization, and challenges us with a radically different approach to history that presents events from the perspective of stateless peoples and redefines state-making as a form of internal colonialism. This new perspective requires a radical reevaluation of the civilizational narratives of the lowland states. Scott's work on Zomia represents a new way to think of area studies that will be applicable to other runaway, fugitive, and marooned communities, be they Gypsies, Cossacks, tribes fleeing slave raiders, Marsh Arabs, or San-Bushmen.

Hell in Hurtgen Forest

The Ordeal and Triumph of an American Infantry Regiment

Author: Robert S. Rush

Publisher: Modern War Studies (Paperback)

ISBN: 9780700613601

Category: History

Page: 403

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The best and most complete account of the Battle of Hurtgen Forest, one of the most devastating battles of World War II.

The Curious Feminist

Searching for Women in a New Age of Empire

Author: Cynthia Enloe

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520242351

Category: Social Science

Page: 367

View: 434

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Annotation This brings together much of Enloe's recent work, including her famous pieces on sneakers and feminism, as well as showcasing some new, unpublished pieces.

Discipline & Punish

The Birth of the Prison

Author: Michel Foucault

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307819299

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

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In this brilliant work, the most influential philosopher since Sartre suggests that such vaunted reforms as the abolition of torture and the emergence of the modern penitentiary have merely shifted the focus of punishment from the prisoner's body to his soul.