Methods in Non-Aqueous Enzymology

Author: Munishwar N. Gupta

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034884729

Category: Science

Page: 218

View: 9658

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Extending the range of enzymatic catalysis by using non-aqueous media has now developed into a powerful approach in biochemistry and biotechnology. One peculiar feature which distinguishes it from the conventional enzymology (carried out in aqueous buffers) is that the awareness of different parameters that control and influence the behaviour of enzymes in such environments has emerged rather slowly. Science is about being able to repeat what somebody else has done. Absence of knowledge about such well-defined parameters/fac tors has sometimes made some workers rather cautious and diffident about using this approach in their laboratories. But for this, non-aqueous enzymol ogy would be more widely practised. It is these thoughts that made me feel that the availability of some well-defined protocols for various applications invol ving enzymes in non-aqueous environments would further catalyze the growth of this area. Hence this book, in which each chapter has some protocols in a specific area. The protocols are preceded by brief background material. The early chapters, which are of general importance, concern control of water ac tivity and stabilization via immobilization. Some subsequent chapters provide the protocols for transformations involving lipids and carbohydrates, peptide synthesis, and preparation of chiral compounds. The disproportionate focus on lipases is not a coincidence; this class of enzymes has been used more often than others in non-aqueous enzymology.

Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents

Methods and Protocols

Author: Evgeny N. Vulfson,Peter J. Halling,Herbert L. Holland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592591124

Category: Science

Page: 679

View: 5477

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In recent years, enzymatic catalysis in organic solvents-as opposed to aqueous solutions-has gained considerable attention as a powerful new approach to the preparation of natural products, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and food ingredients. In Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols, leading chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists, and process engineers summarize for the first time a wide range of methods for executing enzymatic transformations under nonaqueous conditions. Each method includes detailed step-by-step instructions for its successful completion, a list of materials, and ancillary notes that explain the scientific basis of the procedure, as well as troubleshooting. Also provided are a generic description of key reactions, advice on biocatalyst preparation, discussion of reaction conditions, and instructions on bioreactor design. Comprehensive and state-of-the-art, Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols offers today's synthetic chemists, biochemists, and process engineers all the essential information needed to carry out enzymatic reactions in nonaqueous media, as well as to successfully scale up to production quantities.

Methods for Affinity-Based Separations of Enzymes and Proteins

Author: Munishwar N. Gupta

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034881274

Category: Science

Page: 225

View: 9846

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One major concern of biotechnology is either using enzymes or producing them. Enzyme/protein production is therefore an important starting point for biotechnology. Bioseparation or Downstream Processing constitutes about 40-90% of the total production cost. Driven by economics, highly selective technologies applicable to large-scale processing have emerged during the last decade. These technologies are slowly diffusing to enzymologists who are working on a smaller scale, looking for fast and efficient purification protocols. The affinity-based techniques (including precipitation, two-phase extractions, expanded bed chromatography, perfusion chromatography and monoliths) described in this volume provide current and new cutting-edge methods. Consequently, the book is of main interest to researchers in biochemistry, biochemical engineering and biotechnology, working either in academic or industrial sectors.

Organic Synthesis with Enzymes in Non-Aqueous Media

Author: Giacomo Carrea,Sergio Riva

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527621733

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 3294

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Closing a gap in the literature, this comprehensive book examines and discusses different non-aqueous systems from organic solvents to ionic liquids for synthetic applications, thus opening the door to new successful methods for biocatalytic reactions. It gathers into one handy source the information otherwise widely spread throughout the literature, combining useful background information with a number of synthetic examples, including industrial scale processes for pharmaceutical and fine chemicals. Extremely well structured, the text introduces the fundamentals of non-aqueous enzymology, before going on to new reaction media and synthetic applications using hydrolases and non-hydrolytic enzymes. The one-stop reference for everyone working in this hot field.

Methods in Enzymology

Nitric oxide, part E

Author: Lester Packer,Enrique Cadenas

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780121828011

Category: Science

Page: 664

View: 5586

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Since the inception of the series, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. The series contains much material still relevant today - truly an essential publication for researchers in all field of life sciences. This final volume in the five-part Nitric Oxide series supplements MIE volumes 268, 269, 301 and 359. Nitric Oxide impinges on a wide range of fields in biological research, particularly in the areas of biomedicine and cell and organic biology, as well as fundamental chemistry. These volumes are a valuable resource for the experienced researcher and for those entering the field. *One of the most highly respected publication in the field of biochemistry since 1955 *Frequently consulted and praised by researchers and reviewers alike *Truly an essential publication for anyone in any field of the life sciences

Carrier-bound Immobilized Enzymes

Principles, Application and Design

Author: Linqiu Cao

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527607080

Category: Science

Page: 578

View: 1484

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The first systematic overview of this key technique since the early 1990s, this authoritative reference is the only handbook available to include all recent developments. The author draws on his wide-ranging experience in both academia and industry to systematically cover all types of enzyme immobilization methods, such as adsorption-based and covalent immobilization, as well as enzyme entrapment and encapsulation. Throughout, a careful review of materials and techniques for the generation of functional immobilized enzymes benefits both developers and users of carrier-bound enzymes. A must for biotechnologists, biochemists and preparative chemists using enzymes in their daily work.

Biosensors for Direct Monitoring of Environmental Pollutants in Field

Author: D.P. Nikolelis,Ulrich J. Krull,Joseph Wang,Marco Mascini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401589739

Category: Science

Page: 381

View: 1061

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Biosensors offer clear and distinct advantages over standard analytical methods for the direct monitoring of environmental pollutants in the field, such as real-time detection with minimum sample preparation and handling. The present book highlights recent advantages that will be of great value to a range of scientists, researchers and students dealing with analytical and environmental chemistry and biosensor technology. It presents recent trends in analytical methodology for the determination of indoor and outdoor pollutants, advances in DNA, biological and recognition-based sensors, examples of biosensors for use in field and water analysis, biosensors based on non-aqueous systems, and recent advances in the miniaturisation and micromachining of biosensors.

Immobilisierte Biokatalysatoren

Eine Einführung

Author: Winfried Hartmeier

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662078627

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 6810

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Obwohl oder gerade weil eine kaum mehr überschaubare Zahl von Publi kationen auf dem Gebiet der Immobilisierung von Biokatalysatoren existiert, ist es für den Anfänger, der einen Einstieg sucht, auf diesem Gebiet oft schwer, geeignete Informationen aus der Flut von Originalarbeiten herauszufinden. Einige gute, fast immer aber eng lischsprachige Monographien sind entweder außerordentlich umfang reich und teuer, oder sie behandeln nur ausgewählte Teilaspekte der Immobilisierung. Dem will die vorliegende Einführung abhelfen. Sie soll dem Leser zu einem raschen Überblick verhelfen und ihm den inzwischen abgesicherten Kenntnisstand nach Art eines kurzen Lehr buches vermitteln. Das Buch ist aus Erfahrungen in Vorlesungen, Praktika und Kursen entstanden. Es soll sich maßgeblich an Lernende wenden, auch wenn "Immobilisierte Biokatalysatoren" bisher noch nicht zum Stan dardrepertoire der Lehre an deutschen Universitäten und Fachhoch schulen gehören. Es ist jedoch die Oberzeugung des Autors, daß sich dies in den kommenden Jahren mit der wachsenden Bedeutung dieses Gebietes und mit der allgemeinen Etablierung der Biotechnologie an den Hochschulen ändern wird. Ober den Kreis der Studenten und Dozen ten hinaus wendet sich die Einführung aber auch an die vielen Natur wissenschaftler und Techniker der industriellen Praxis, die sich mit immobilisierten Biokatalysatoren befassen und sich dazu ein ent sprechendes Grundwissen aneignen wollen.

Enzymatic Reactions in Organic Media

Author: A. Koskinen,A. Klibanov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401106118

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 4901

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The outlook of organic synthesis has changed many times during its tractable history. The initial focus on the synthesis of substances typical of living matter, exemplified by the first examples of organic chemistry through the synthesis of urea from inorganic substances by Liebig, was accepted as the birth of organic chemistry, and thus also of organic synthesis. Although the early developments in organic synthesis closely followed the pursuit of molecules typical in nature, towards the end of the 19th century, societal pressures placed higher demands on chemical methods appropriate for the emerging age of industrialization. This led to vast amounts of information being generated through the discovery of synthetic reactions, spectroscopic techniques and reaction mechanisms. The basic organic functional group transformations were discovered and improved during the early part of this century. Reaction mechanisms were elucidated at a growing pace, and extremely powerful spectroscopic tools, such as infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry were introduced as everyday tools for a practising organic chemist. By the 1950s, many practitioners were ready to agree that almost every molecule could be syn thesized. Some difficult stereochemical problems were exceptions; for example Woodward concluded that erythromycin was a "hopelessly complex target". This frustration led to a hectic phase of development of new and increasingly more ingenious protecting group strategies and functional group transformations, and also saw the emergence of asymmetric synthesis.

Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology

Author: Alton Meister

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470123435

Category: Science

Page: 495

View: 959

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Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology is a seminal series in the field of biochemistry, offering researchers access to authoritative reviews of the latest discoveries in all areas of enzymology and molecular biology. These landmark volumes date back to 1941, providing an unrivaled view of the historical development of enzymology. The series offers researchers the latest understanding of enzymes, their mechanisms, reactions and evolution, roles in complex biological process, and their application in both the laboratory and industry. Each volume in the series features contributions by leading pioneers and investigators in the field from around the world. All articles are carefully edited to ensure thoroughness, quality, and readability. With its wide range of topics and long historical pedigree, Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology can be used not only by students and researchers in molecular biology, biochemistry, and enzymology, but also by any scientist interested in the discovery of an enzyme, its properties, and its applications.

Microinjection

XD-US. ...

Author: Juan Carlos Lacal,Rosario Perona,James Feramisco

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764359737

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 7276

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The technique of needle microinjection has become a prominent experimental approach in biological research. This book presents information on the technique's principles, the required equipment, preparation of recipient cells and injected material and the analysis of the results. It provides detailed protocols for a wide range of important applications in different cellular systems from the fields of cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, study of transcriptional regulations, cytoskeletal functions, secretion and intracellular transport. Because of its outstanding relevance in cell biology, a large part of the book is dedicated to the Xenopus laevis oocyte system.

Analytical Biotechnology

Author: Thomas G.M. Schalkhammer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764365899

Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 8027

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Modern analytical biotechnology is focused on the use of a set of enabling platform technologies that provide contemporary, state-of-the-art tools for genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, drug discovery, screening, and analysis of natural product molecules. Thus, analytical biotechnology covers all areas of bioanalysis from biochips and nano-chemistry to biology and high throughput screening. Moreover, it aims to apply advanced automation and micro fabrica tion technology to the development of robotic and fluidic devices as well as integrated systems. This book focuses on enhancement technology development by promoting cross-disciplinary approaches directed toward solving key problems in biology and medicine. The scope thus brings under one umbrella many different techniques in allied areas. The purpose is to support and teach the fundamental principles and practical uses of major instrumental techniques. Major platforms are the use of immobilized molecules in biotechnology and bioanalysis, im munological techniques, immunological strip tests, fluorescence detection and confocal techniques, optical and electrochemical biosensors, biochips, micro dotting, novel transducers such as nano clusters, atomic force microscopy based techniques and analysis in complex media such as fermentation broth, plasma and serum. Techniques related to HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry have not been included in this book but will be covered by further publications. Fundamentals in analytical biotechnology include basic and practical aspects of characterizing and analyzing DNA, proteins, and small metabolites.

Trends in Colloid and Interface Science XIV

Author: Vitaly Buckin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540671285

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 2076

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The 13th Conference of the European Colloid and Interface Society (ECIS 99) was held in September 1999 in Dublin, Ireland. It brought together scientists from academic research and industry within the field of physics and chemistry of colloids and interfaces. The Conference focused on the following topics: - Surfactant colloids; - Polymer colloids and solid particles; - Food colloids; - Soft matter interfaces; - Biosystems; - Rheology; - Experimental methods in colloid and interface science.

Biosensors with Fiberoptics

Author: Jr. Wingard,Donald L. Wise

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461204836

Category: Medical

Page: 370

View: 2931

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Focusing on the rapidly increasing interaction between biotechnology and advanced fiberoptics/electronics, Biosensors with Fiberoptics emphasizes the three major phases of the developmental process from concept to marketplace: research, development, and applications. With contributions by leading experts directly involved in key areas of this exciting, fast-paced field, the book describes novel biosensor technologies and such current and potential applications as: chemical sensing • fluorescent labels • evanescent-wave biosensors and immunosensors • clinical applications • immunoassay kinetics • luminescence • monitoring of environmental toxins. Researchers and clinicians in a broad spectrum of disciplines will find Wise and Wingard's Biosensors with FIBEROPTICS an extremely practical, up-to-date reference text.

Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Drug Binding

Author: György Keserü,David C. Swinney

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527673059

Category: Medical

Page: 360

View: 7803

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This practical reference for medicinal and pharmaceutical chemists combines the theoretical background with modern methods as well as applications from recent lead finding and optimization projects. Divided into two parts on the thermodynamics and kinetics of drug-receptor interaction, the text provides the conceptual and methodological basis for characterizing binding mechanisms for drugs and other bioactive molecules. It covers all currently used methods, from experimental approaches, such as ITC or SPR, right up to the latest computational methods. Case studies of real-life lead or drug development projects are also included so readers can apply the methods learned to their own projects. Finally, the benefits of a thorough binding mode analysis for any drug development project are summarized in an outlook chapter written by the editors.

Enzymology and Enzyme Technology

Author: Bhatt S.M.

Publisher: S. Chand Publishing

ISBN: 8121935849

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 3932

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Enzyme : An Introduction • Enzyme Structure • Enzyme Specificity & Catalysis • Purification & Characterization Of Enzymes • Enzyme Assay • Enzyme Engineering • Enzyme Microenvironment : Catalysis In Non-Aqueous Solvent • Bioenergetics • Introduction To Metabolism • Knzyme Kinetics • Single Substrate Enzyme Inhibition • Kinetics Of Multisubtrate Enzymes • Enzyme'S Regulation And Cooperativity • Enzymes Immbilsation Techniques• Enzyme Biosensor

Enzyme Kinetics: Catalysis and Control

A Reference of Theory and Best-Practice Methods

Author: Daniel L. Purich

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0123809258

Category: Science

Page: 920

View: 6498

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Far more than a comprehensive treatise on initial-rate and fast-reaction kinetics, this one-of-a-kind desk reference places enzyme science in the fuller context of the organic, inorganic, and physical chemical processes occurring within enzyme active sites. Drawing on 2600 references, Enzyme Kinetics: Catalysis & Control develops all the kinetic tools needed to define enzyme catalysis, spanning the entire spectrum (from the basics of chemical kinetics and practical advice on rate measurement, to the very latest work on single-molecule kinetics and mechanoenzyme force generation), while also focusing on the persuasive power of kinetic isotope effects, the design of high-potency drugs, and the behavior of regulatory enzymes. Historical analysis of kinetic principles including advanced enzyme science Provides both theoretical and practical measurements tools Coverage of single molecular kinetics Examination of force generation mechanisms Discussion of organic and inorganic enzyme reactions