Methods in Non-Aqueous Enzymology

Author: Munishwar N. Gupta

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034884729

Category: Science

Page: 218

View: 907

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Extending the range of enzymatic catalysis by using non-aqueous media has now developed into a powerful approach in biochemistry and biotechnology. One peculiar feature which distinguishes it from the conventional enzymology (carried out in aqueous buffers) is that the awareness of different parameters that control and influence the behaviour of enzymes in such environments has emerged rather slowly. Science is about being able to repeat what somebody else has done. Absence of knowledge about such well-defined parameters/fac tors has sometimes made some workers rather cautious and diffident about using this approach in their laboratories. But for this, non-aqueous enzymol ogy would be more widely practised. It is these thoughts that made me feel that the availability of some well-defined protocols for various applications invol ving enzymes in non-aqueous environments would further catalyze the growth of this area. Hence this book, in which each chapter has some protocols in a specific area. The protocols are preceded by brief background material. The early chapters, which are of general importance, concern control of water ac tivity and stabilization via immobilization. Some subsequent chapters provide the protocols for transformations involving lipids and carbohydrates, peptide synthesis, and preparation of chiral compounds. The disproportionate focus on lipases is not a coincidence; this class of enzymes has been used more often than others in non-aqueous enzymology.

Organic Synthesis with Enzymes in Non-Aqueous Media

Author: Giacomo Carrea,Sergio Riva

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527621733

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 3625

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Closing a gap in the literature, this comprehensive book examines and discusses different non-aqueous systems from organic solvents to ionic liquids for synthetic applications, thus opening the door to new successful methods for biocatalytic reactions. It gathers into one handy source the information otherwise widely spread throughout the literature, combining useful background information with a number of synthetic examples, including industrial scale processes for pharmaceutical and fine chemicals. Extremely well structured, the text introduces the fundamentals of non-aqueous enzymology, before going on to new reaction media and synthetic applications using hydrolases and non-hydrolytic enzymes. The one-stop reference for everyone working in this hot field.

Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents

Methods and Protocols

Author: Evgeny N. Vulfson,Peter J. Halling,Herbert L. Holland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592591124

Category: Science

Page: 679

View: 5420

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In recent years, enzymatic catalysis in organic solvents-as opposed to aqueous solutions-has gained considerable attention as a powerful new approach to the preparation of natural products, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and food ingredients. In Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols, leading chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists, and process engineers summarize for the first time a wide range of methods for executing enzymatic transformations under nonaqueous conditions. Each method includes detailed step-by-step instructions for its successful completion, a list of materials, and ancillary notes that explain the scientific basis of the procedure, as well as troubleshooting. Also provided are a generic description of key reactions, advice on biocatalyst preparation, discussion of reaction conditions, and instructions on bioreactor design. Comprehensive and state-of-the-art, Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols offers today's synthetic chemists, biochemists, and process engineers all the essential information needed to carry out enzymatic reactions in nonaqueous media, as well as to successfully scale up to production quantities.

Nitric Oxide

Part E

Author: Lester Packer,Enrique Cadenas

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780121828011

Category: Science

Page: 664

View: 2068

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Since the inception of the series, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. The series contains much material still relevant today - truly an essential publication for researchers in all field of life sciences. This final volume in the five-part Nitric Oxide series supplements MIE volumes 268, 269, 301 and 359. Nitric Oxide impinges on a wide range of fields in biological research, particularly in the areas of biomedicine and cell and organic biology, as well as fundamental chemistry. These volumes are a valuable resource for the experienced researcher and for those entering the field. *One of the most highly respected publication in the field of biochemistry since 1955 *Frequently consulted and praised by researchers and reviewers alike *Truly an essential publication for anyone in any field of the life sciences

Methods for Affinity-Based Separations of Enzymes and Proteins

Author: Munishwar N. Gupta

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034881274

Category: Science

Page: 225

View: 8995

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One major concern of biotechnology is either using enzymes or producing them. Enzyme/protein production is therefore an important starting point for biotechnology. Bioseparation or Downstream Processing constitutes about 40-90% of the total production cost. Driven by economics, highly selective technologies applicable to large-scale processing have emerged during the last decade. These technologies are slowly diffusing to enzymologists who are working on a smaller scale, looking for fast and efficient purification protocols. The affinity-based techniques (including precipitation, two-phase extractions, expanded bed chromatography, perfusion chromatography and monoliths) described in this volume provide current and new cutting-edge methods. Consequently, the book is of main interest to researchers in biochemistry, biochemical engineering and biotechnology, working either in academic or industrial sectors.

Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solvents

Author: B. Trémillon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401021236

Category: Science

Page: 285

View: 9486

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Arising no doubt from its pre-eminence as a natural liquid, water has always been considered by chemists as the original solvent in which very varied chemical reactions can take place, both for preparational and for analytical purposes. This explains the very long-standing interest shown in the study of aqueous solutions. In this con nection, it must be stressed that the theory of Arrhenius and Ostwald (1887-1894) on electrolytic dissociation, was originally devised solely for solutions in water and that the first true concept of acidity resulting from this is linked to the use of this solvent. The more recent development of numerous physico-chemical measurement methods has made possible an increase of knowledge in this area up to an extremely advanced degree of systematization. Thus today we have available both a very large amount of experimental data, together with very refined methods of deduction and of quantitative treatment of chemical reactions in solution which enable us to make the fullest use of this data. Nevertheless, . it appears quite evident at present that there are numerous chemical processes which cannot take place in water, and that its use as a solvent imposes 2 INTRODUCTION limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, it was natural that interest should be attracted to solvents other than water and that the new possibilities thus opened up should be explored.

Computational Approaches for Studying Enzyme Mechanism

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128053631

Category: Medical

Page: 558

View: 6065

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Computational Approaches for Studying Enzyme Mechanism Part A, is the first of two volumes in the Methods in Enzymology series, focusses on computational approaches for studying enzyme mechanism. The serial achieves the critically acclaimed gold standard of laboratory practices and remains one of the most highly respected publications in the molecular biosciences. Each volume is eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now with over 550 volumes, the series remains a prominent and essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences and biotechnology, including biochemistry, chemical biology, microbiology, synthetic biology, cancer research, and genetics to name a few. Focuses on computational approaches for studying enzyme mechanism Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers research methods in intermediate filament associated proteins, and contains sections on such topics as lamin-associated proteins, intermediate filament-associated proteins and plakin, and other cytoskeletal cross-linkers

Stability and Stabilization of Enzymes

Proceedings of an International Symposium Held in Maastricht, The Netherlands, 22-25 November 1992

Author: W.J.J. van den Tweel,A. Harder,R.M. Buitelaar

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483291332

Category: Science

Page: 535

View: 9916

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These proceedings contain most of the oral presentations and posters of the international symposium on Stability and Stabilization of Enzymes held in Maastricht in November 1992. They provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in this field. The possible applications of enzymes are enormous. Years of development have seen many enzymes brought onto the market, but they are still expensive to use. Therefore, their efficient application is a prerequisite for common usage. One of the main factors for this efficiency is the stability of the enzymes. The topics thus ranged from the extensive fundamental thermodynamic knowledge gathered in academic research to the practical applied knowledge built up in industry during the time that enzymes have been produced commercially. The subject Stability and Stabilization of Enzymes was discussed from various points of view, as was reflected in the themes of the symposium sessions. In the session on Fundamentals of Enzyme Stabilisation the thermodynamic background of the phenomenon was highlighted. In yet another session, the recently developed analytical tools to measure enzyme stability and stabilisation were discussed. Further sessions comprised the physical, chemical and biological ways to obtain enzyme stabilisation and finally, the industrial practice of enzyme stabilisation was treated by representatives of the world's most important enzyme producers. The book will be of interest to researchers in universities and industry in the fields of biochemistry, enzymology and biotechnology.

Enzyme Nanoarchitectures: Enzymes Armored with Graphene

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128152419

Category: Science

Page: 419

View: 8049

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Enzymes Conjugated to Graphene, Volume 609 in the Methods in Enzymology series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on Enzyme immobilization, Detection of Urea, Enzyme immobilization Enzyme immobilization, PAMAM dendrimer modified reduced graphene oxide post functionalized by horseradish peroxidase for biosensing H2O2, HRP immobilized for LEV detection, Enzyme immobilization, Graphene biocatalysts, Enzyme immobilization, Interactions, Enzyme immobilization, GQD, Enzyme Immobilization, and Enzyme immobilization on functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Methods of Enzymology series Updated release includes the latest information on the enzymes conjugated to graphene

Understanding Enzymes

Function, Design, Engineering, and Analysis

Author: Allan Svendsen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814669334

Category: Mathematics

Page: 700

View: 2671

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Understanding Enzymes: Function, Design, Engineering, and Analysis focuses on the understanding of enzyme function and optimization gained in the past decade, past enzyme function analysis, enzyme engineering, and growing insights from the simulation work and nanotechnology measurement of enzymes in action in vitro or in silico. The book also presents new insights into the mechanistic function and understanding of enzyme reactions, as well as touching upon structural characteristics, including X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural methods. A major focus of the book is enzyme molecules’ dependency on dynamic and biophysical environmental impacts on their function in ensembles as well as single molecules. A wide range of readers, including academics, professionals, PhD and master’s students, industry experts, and chemists, will immensely benefit from this exclusive book.

Research Methods in Biomineralization Science

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124166555

Category: Science

Page: 704

View: 9233

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This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods in biomineralization science, and includes sections on such topics as determining solution chemistry, structure and nucleation; probing structure and dynamics at surfaces; and interfaces mapping biomineral and morphology and ultrastructure. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers research methods in biomineralization science Contains sections on such topics as and includes sections on such topics as determining solution chemistry, structure and nucleation; probing structure and dynamics at surfaces; and interfaces mapping biomineral and morphology and ultrastructure

Aqueous Two-phase Systems

Author: Harry Walter,Göte Johansson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780121821296

Category: Science

Page: 725

View: 3965

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This volume of Methods in Enzymology represents the sole collection of separation methods based on aqueous two-phase systems. It includes procedures for the isolation of proteins, especially enzymes, nucleic acids, cell membranes, and organelles, as well as for the separation and study of cells. Key Features * Use of affinity partitioning for enzyme purification * Separation and study of cells * Isolation of plasma membranes * Large scale biotechnical use

Ionic Liquids in Lipid Processing and Analysis

Opportunities and Challenges

Author: Xuebing Xu,Zheng Guo,Ling-Zhi Cheong

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1630670480

Category: Science

Page: 484

View: 3517

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This book serves as a reference for those interested in state-of-the-art research on the science and technology of ionic liquids (ILs), particularly in relation to lipids processing and analysis. Topics include a review of the chemistry and physics of ILs as well as a quantitative understanding of structure-activity relationships at the molecular level. Further, chapter authors examine the molecular basis of the toxicity of ILs, the prediction of the properties of ILs, and the rationale and steps toward a priori design of ionic liquids for task-defined applications. Emerging research in developing lipid-inspired ILs and their prospective use in drug formulation is described. Among the highlights are the latest advances in IL-mediated biocatalysis and biotransformation, along with lipase production, purification, and activation. Reviews the state-of-the-art applications of ionic liquids in lipid processing and relevant areas from a variety of perspectives Summarizes the latest advances in the measurement of the physical and chemical properties of ionic liquids and available databases of thermodynamic property datapoints Presents the tremendous opportunities provided and challenges faced from ionic liquids as a newly emerging technology for lipids processing area

Carrier-bound Immobilized Enzymes

Principles, Application and Design

Author: Linqiu Cao

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527607080

Category: Science

Page: 578

View: 8015

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The first systematic overview of this key technique since the early 1990s, this authoritative reference is the only handbook available to include all recent developments. The author draws on his wide-ranging experience in both academia and industry to systematically cover all types of enzyme immobilization methods, such as adsorption-based and covalent immobilization, as well as enzyme entrapment and encapsulation. Throughout, a careful review of materials and techniques for the generation of functional immobilized enzymes benefits both developers and users of carrier-bound enzymes. A must for biotechnologists, biochemists and preparative chemists using enzymes in their daily work.

Chemistry in Aqueous and Non-aqueous Solvents

Author: Mido & S. Taguchi

Publisher: Discovery Publishing House

ISBN: 9788171413317

Category:

Page: 166

View: 1688

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Contents: Aqueous Solution Chemistry, Acids and Bases, Solute-Solvent Interactions, Chemistry in Protonic Solvents Liquid Ammonia, Liquid Hydrogen, Fluoride, Sulphuric, Acid, Liquid, Hydrogen, Cyanide, Acetic Acid and Liquid Hydrogen Sulphide, Non- Protonic Solvents Liquid Dinitrogen Tetroxide, Liquid Sulphur, Dioxide and Liquid Halides.

Enzymology and Enzyme Technology

Author: Bhatt S.M.

Publisher: S. Chand Publishing

ISBN: 8121935849

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 3483

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Enzyme : An Introduction • Enzyme Structure • Enzyme Specificity & Catalysis • Purification & Characterization Of Enzymes • Enzyme Assay • Enzyme Engineering • Enzyme Microenvironment : Catalysis In Non-Aqueous Solvent • Bioenergetics • Introduction To Metabolism • Knzyme Kinetics • Single Substrate Enzyme Inhibition • Kinetics Of Multisubtrate Enzymes • Enzyme'S Regulation And Cooperativity • Enzymes Immbilsation Techniques• Enzyme Biosensor