Metaphors of Mind

Conceptions of the Nature of Intelligence

Author: Robert J. Sternberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521386333

Category: Psychology

Page: 344

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This text enables readers to understand human intelligence from a variety of standpoints, such as psychology, anthropology, computational science, sociology, and philosophy. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the concept of intelligence and how ideas about it have evolved and are continuing to evolve. Much of the present confusion surrounding the concept of intelligence stems from our having looked at it from these different standpoints without considering how they relate to each other or how they might be combined into a unified view that goes beyond the boundaries of a particular discipline.

Metaphors: Figures of the Mind

Author: Z. Radman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401722544

Category: Philosophy

Page: 188

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This book deals with various aspects of metaphorics and yet it is not only, or perhaps not even primarily, about metaphor itself. Rather it is concerned with the argument from metaphor. In other words, it is about what I think we can learn from metaphor and the possible consequences of this lesson for a more adequate understanding, for instance, of our mental processes, the possibilities and limitations of our reasoning, the strictures of propositionality, the cognitive effect of fictional projections and so on. In this sense it is not, strictly speaking, a contribution to metaphorology; instead, it is an attempt to define the place of metaphor in the world of overall human intellectual activity, exemplary thematized here in the span that ranges from problems relating to the articulation of meanings up to general issues of creativity. Most of the aspects discussed, therefore, are examined not so much for the sake of gaining some new knowledge about metaphor (work conducted in the »science of metaphor« is presently so huge that an extra attempt to spell out another theory of metaphor may have an infiatory effect); the basic strategy of this book is to view metaphor within the complex of language usage and language competence, in human thought and action, and, finally, to see in what philosophically relevant way it improves our knowledge of ourselves. Certainly, by adopting this basic strategy we also simultaneously increase our knowledge of metaphors, of their functions and importance.

Metaphors of Mind in Fiction and Psychology

Author: Michael S. Kearns

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813163358

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 272

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Curiosity about the human mind -- what it is and how it functions -- began long before modern psychology. But because the mind and its processes are so elusive, they could be described only by means of metaphor. Michael Kearns, in this prize-winning study, examines the development of metaphors of the mind in psychological writings from Hobbes through William James and in fiction from Defoe through Henry James. Throughout the eighteenth century and even into the early nineteenth, metaphors of the mind as a relatively simple entity, either mechanical or biological, dominated both those engaged in psychological theorizing and novelists ranging from Richardson and Smollett through Dickens and the Brontes. In the nineteenth century, such psychologists as Herbert Spencer and Alexander Bain conceived of the mind as a complex organism quite different from that embodied in earlier thinking, but their figurative language did not keep pace. The result was a tension between theoretical expression and actual discussion of mental phenomena.

Metaphors of Memory

A History of Ideas about the Mind

Author: D. Draaisma

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521650243

Category: History

Page: 241

View: 9058

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What is memory? It is at the same time ephemeral, unreliable and essential to everything we do. Without memory we lose our sense of identity, reasoning, even our ability to perform simple physical tasks. Yet it is also elusive and difficult to define, and throughout the ages philosophers and psychologists have used metaphors as a way of understanding it. First published in 2000, this fascinating book takes the reader on a guided tour of these metaphors of memory from ancient times to the present day. Crossing continents and disciplines, it provides a compelling history of ideas about the mind by exploring the way these metaphors have been used - metaphors often derived from the techniques and instruments developed over the years to store information, ranging from wax tablets and books to photography, computers and even the hologram. Accessible and thought-provoking, this book should be read by anyone who is interested in memory and the mind.

Metaphors of Mind

An Eighteenth-Century Dictionary

Author: Brad Pasanek

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421416891

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 392

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An encyclopedic dictionary along the lines of Voltaire’s classic Dictionnaire Philosophique, Metaphors of Mind provides an in-depth look at the myriad ways in which Enlightenment writers used figures of speech to characterize the mind. Drawn from Brad Pasanek’s massive online archive, http://metaphorized.net, this volume constitutes a veritable treasury of mental metaphorics. Dividing the book into eleven broad metaphorical categories—Animals, Coinage, Court, Empire, Fetters, Impressions, Inhabitants, Metal, Mirror, Rooms, and Writing—Pasanek maps out constellations of metaphors. He frames his collection of literary excerpts in each section with a more descriptive and theoretical discussion of what he calls "desultory reading," a form of unsystematic perusal of writing frequently employed by Enlightenment thinkers. By surveying the printed past alongside the digital present, the book treats eighteenth-century writing as its topic while essentially exemplifying its rhetorical approach. More than an exercise in quotation, this intellectual history offers illuminating readings of fragmentary literary works and confrontations with neoclassical and contemporary theories of metaphor. The book’s entries complicate received ideas about Locke’s blank slate, question M. H. Abrams’ claims about mirrors and lamps, and chart changing frequencies of metal metaphors in a moment of industrial revolution. The book also responds to current anxieties about reading and the mass digitization of literature, touching on recent discussions of "distant reading," "shallow reading," and "surface reading." Promoting critical and creative anachronism, Metaphors of Mind redefines the notion of an archive in the age of Amazon and Google Books. -- Jenny Davidson, Columbia University, author of Reading Style: A Life in Sentences

Two Sciences of Mind

Readings in Cognitive Science and Consciousness

Author: Seán Ó Nualláin,Paul Mc Kevitt,Eoghan Mac Aogáin

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027251290

Category: Philosophy

Page: 498

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The Reaching for Mind workshop, held at AISB 95, explicitly addressed itself to the current crisis in Cognitive Science. In particular, the issue of how this discipline can address consciousness was a leitmotiv in the workshop. The conclusion seems inescapable that there is a need for two sciences in this area. Cognitive Science can be freed to become a fully-fledged experimental epistemology by the creation of a science of consciousness also encompassing subjectivity. This exciting collection of papers indicates where both these sciences may be heading. (Series B)The programme committee of the workshop included: Mike Brady (Oxford); Daniel Dennett (Tufts); Jerry Feldman (Berkeley); John Macnamara (McGill) and Zenon Pylyshyn (Rutgers).

Conrad's Models of Mind

Author: Bruce Johnson

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 9780816657957

Category: Psychology

Page: 244

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Conrad's Models of Mind was first published in 1971. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. In a new approach to understanding the psychological assumptions that lie behind the creation of a work of fiction, Professor Johnson analyzes a number of Joseph Conrad's novels and short stories, identifying and explaining Conrad's changing conceptions or models of mind. As he points out in his introduction: "Every writer makes assumptions about the nature of the mind, whether they may be elaborate theories, metaphors that seem simple but imply a great deal, downright beliefs, or vague gestalten. And such assumptions color his whole creation, the way his characters think and feel and react, possibly even his choice of subject matter." The author traces Conrad's steady progression away from deductive psychology, involving such entities as will, passion, ego, or sympathy, toward a flexible, and, for the period, new psychology that had implications for his entire development as a writer. Professor Johnson finds certain affinities between Conrad's models of mind and those of a number of other writers, among them, Schopenhauer, Sartre, and Pascal. He shows that one aspect of Conrad's psychology was closely allied to the Schopenhauerian concept of will but that when he wrote Lord Jim, Heart of Darkness, and Nostromo Conrad moved toward an existential concept of self-image and self-creation similar to Sartre's psychology in Being and Nothingness. Finally, Professor Johnson examines Conrad's novel The Rescue and shows how hopeless it was for Conrad to return to earlier conceptions of mind after he had explored the new existential models.

Metaphors of Conciousness

Author: Ronald S. Valle,Rolf von Eckartsberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461338026

Category: Psychology

Page: 544

View: 2030

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As we move into the 1980s, there is an increasing awareness that our civilization is going through a profound cultural transformation. At the heart of this transformation lies what is often called a "paradigm shift"-a dramatic change in the thoughts, perceptions, and values which form a particular vision of reality. The paradigm that is now shifting comprises a large number of ideas and values that have dominated our society for several hundred years; values that have been associated with various streams of Western culture, among them the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century, The Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution. They include the belief in the scientific method as the only valid approach to knowledge, the split between mind and matter, the view of nature as a mechanical system, the view of life in society as a competitive struggle for survival, and the belief in unlimited material progress to be achieved through economic and technological growth. All these ideas and values are now found to be severely limited and in need of radical revision.

The Mirror and the Lamp

Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition

Author: Meyer Howard Abrams

Publisher: New York : Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195014716

Category: Comics & Graphic Novels

Page: 406

View: 8844

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Traces the evolution of the Romantic approach to literary criticism and compares it to the other methods which prevailed in the early nineteenth century.

The Psychology of Attention

Author: Elizabeth Styles

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135472165

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

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Views on attention have undergone continuous evolution since the early work of the 1950s. Since that time, the questions asked about attention, consciousness and control have changed, and evidence drawn into the debate comes not only from experimental psychology, but also from neurophysiology, neuropsychology and computational modelling. As evidence has accumalated, theories have changed and fundamental assumptions have been challenged. Rather than asking "What is attention?", people now consider "Why does attentional behaviour appear the way it is?" This textbook charts the development of these ideas, through the examination of a variety of tasks considered to involve attentional behaviour, together with evidence from studies of patients, neurophysiology and cognitive modelling.; After a consideration of what attention might be and whether it is a cause or an effect, this book describes and discusses work on selective auditory attention. It also deals with: problems of divided attention, task combination, automaticity and intentional control; selection for action; conscious and unconscious processing in both normal experimental subjects and neuropsychological patients; and neuropsychological and computational aspects of attention.

Cognitive Ethology

The Minds of Other Animals : Essays in Honor of Donald R. Griffin

Author: Donald Redfield Griffin,Carolyn A. Ristau

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780805802528

Category: Science

Page: 332

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This collection of essays was written by former students, associates, admirers, critics and friends of Donald R. Griffin -- the creator of cognitive ethology. Stimulated by his work, this volume presents ideas and experiments in the field of cognitive ethology -- the exploration of the mental experiences of animals as they behave in their natural environment during the course of their normal lives. Cognitive Ethologydiscusses the possibility that animals may have abilities to experience, communicate, reason, and plan beyond those usually ascribed to them in a "black box" or "stimulus-response" interpretation of their behavior. Contributions from scientists who have been associated with or influenced by Griffin offer a lively array of views, some disparate from one another and some especially selected to present approaches contrary to his.

The Poetics of Mind

Figurative Thought, Language, and Understanding

Author: Raymond W. Gibbs

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521429924

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 527

View: 9035

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Ideas and research from psychology, linguistics, philosophy, anthropology and literary theory establish important links between the poetic structure of thought and everyday language usage in this attempt to overturn the traditional view that poetic language requires unique linguistic skills.

Mysterious Minds: The Neurobiology of Psychics, Mediums, and Other Extraordinary People

The Neurobiology of Psychics, Mediums, and Other Extraordinary People

Author: Stanley Krippner Ph.D.,Harris L. Friedman

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313358672

Category: Psychology

Page: 219

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An introduction to the scientific study of psychics and mediums—those who are frauds, those who are psychotic, and those whose claims seem to defy easy dismissal. • Includes essays from several expert contributors, each an accomplished scientific researcher in the fields of parapsychology, neurobiology, and cognitive neuroscience • Offers case studies on definitive episodes of both fraudulent and not-easily-disproven psychic events • Provides a bibliography of references and additional readings, including print and online resources

Theory of Mind and Literature

Author: Paula Leverage

Publisher: Purdue University Press

ISBN: 1557535701

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 329

View: 9980

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Theory of Mind is what enables us to “put ourselves in another’s shoes.” It is mindreading, empathy, creative imagination of another’s perspective: in short, it is simultaneously a highly sophisticated ability and a very basic necessity for human communication. Theory of Mind is central to such commercial endeavors as market research and product development, but it is also just as important in maintaining human relations over a cup of coffee. Not surprisingly, it is a critical tool in reading and understanding literature, which abounds with characters, situations, and “other people’s shoes.” Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that reading literature also hones these critical mindreading skills. Theory of Mind and Literature is a collection of nineteen essays by prominent scholars (linguists, cognitive scientists, and philosophers) working in the cutting-edge field of cognitive literary studies, which explores how we use Theory of Mind in reading and understanding literature.

Fractals of Brain, Fractals of Mind

In Search of a Symmetry Bond

Author: Earl R. Mac Cormac,Maksim Stamenov

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027251275

Category: Psychology

Page: 359

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This collective volume is the first to discuss systematically what are the possibilities to model different aspects of brain and mind functioning with the formal means of fractal geometry and deterministic chaos. At stake here is not an approximation to the way of actual performance, but the possibility of brain and mind to implement nonlinear dynamic patterns in their functioning. The contributions discuss the following topics (among others): the edge-of- chaos dynamics in recursively organized neural systems and in intersensory interaction, the fractal timing of the neural functioning on different scales of brain networking, aspects of fractal neurodynamics and quantum chaos in novel biophysics, the fractal maximum-power evolution of brain and mind, the chaotic dynamics in the development of consciousness, etc. It is suggested that the margins of our capacity for phenomenal experience, are fractal-limit phenomena . Here the possibilities to prove the plausibility of fractal modeling with appropriate experimentation and rational reconstruction are also discussed. A conjecture is made that the brain vs. mind differentiation becomes possible, most probably, only with the imposition of appropriate symmetry groups implementing a flowing interface of features of local vs. global brain dynamics. (Series B)

Potentiating Health and the Crisis of the Immune System

Integrative Approaches to the Prevention and Treatment of Modern Diseases

Author: S. Fulder,A. Mizrahi,N. Sheinman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489900594

Category: Medical

Page: 286

View: 2667

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With all the enormous resources that are invested in medicine, it is sometimes a mystery why there is so much sickness still in evidence. Our life span, though higher than at any time in history, has now leveled off and has not significantly increased in the last two generations. There is a one-third increase in long-term illness in the last 20 years and a 44% increase in cancer incidence, which are not related to demographic issues. In some modern countries, the level of morbidity (defined as days off work because of sickness) has increased by two thirds in this time. Despite $1 trillion spent on cancer research in 20 years, the "War On Cancer" has recently been pronounced a complete failure by the u. s. President's Cancer Panel. Evidently we still have a long way to go. The goal of "Health for All by the Year 2000" as the World Health Organization has put it, is another forgotten dream. As ever, the answer will be found in breaking out of the old philosophical patterns and discovering the new, as yet unacceptable concepts. The problems of medicine today require a Kuhnian breakthrough into new paradigms, and new ways of thinking. And these new ways will not be mere variations of the old, but radical departures. This book, and the conference upon which it was based, is part of a search for these new pathways.

Visions of Mind

Architectures for Cognition and Affect

Author: Darryl N. Davis

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781591404835

Category: Science

Page: 340

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This collection presents a diverse overview of advances in the development of artificial minds as the 21st century begins. Authors from the 2000 UK Society for Artificial Intelligence conference and others from around the world contributed to this multi-disciplinary approach to the long-term problem of designing a human-like mind for scientific, social or engineering purposes.

The Act of Thinking

Author: Derek Melser

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262263832

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

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A new theory proposes that thinking is a learned action. In this remarkable monograph, Derek Melser argues that the core assumption of both folk psychology and cognitive science—that thinking goes on in the head—is mistaken. Melser argues that thinking is not an intracranial process of any kind, mental or neural, but is rather a learned action of the person. After an introduction in which he makes a prima facie case that thinking is an action, Melser reviews action-based theories of thinking advanced by Ryle, Vygotsky, Hampshire and others. He then presents his own theory of "token concerting," according to which thinking is a special kind of token performance, by the individual, of certain social, concerted activity. He examines the developmental role of concerted activity, the token performance of concerted activity, the functions of speech, the mechanics and uses of covert tokening, empathy, the origins of solo action, the actional nature of perception, and various kinds and aspects of mature thinking. In addition, he analyzes the role of metaphors in the folk notion of mind. While intending his theory as a contribution to the philosophy of mind, Melser aims also at a larger goal: to establish actions as a legitimate philosophical given, self-explanatory and sui generis. To this end, he argues in the final chapter against the possibility of scientific explanation of actions. The Act of Thinking opens up a large new area for philosophical research.