Mathematical Induction

A Powerful and Elegant Method of Proof

Author: Titu Andreescu,Vlad Crisan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780996874595

Category: Induction (Mathematics)

Page: 432

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This book serves as a very good resource and teaching material for anyone who wants to discover the beauty of Induction and its applications, from novice mathematicians to Olympiad-driven students and professors teaching undergraduate courses. The authors explore 10 different areas of mathematics, including topics that are not usually discussed in an Olympiad-oriented book on the subject. Induction is one of the most important techniques used in competitions and its applications permeate almost every area of mathematics.

Handbook of Mathematical Induction

Theory and Applications

Author: David S. Gunderson

Publisher: Discrete Mathematics and its Applications

ISBN: 9781138199019

Category:

Page: 921

View: 7147

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Handbook of Mathematical Induction: Theory and Applications shows how to find and write proofs via mathematical induction. This comprehensive book covers the theory, the structure of the written proof, all standard exercises, and hundreds of application examples from nearly every area of mathematics. In the first part of the book, the author discusses different inductive techniques, including well-ordered sets, basic mathematical induction, strong induction, double induction, infinite descent, downward induction, and several variants. He then introduces ordinals and cardinals, transfinite induction, the axiom of choice, Zorn s lemma, empirical induction, and fallacies and induction. He also explains how to write inductive proofs. The next part contains more than 750 exercises that highlight the levels of difficulty of an inductive proof, the variety of inductive techniques available, and the scope of results provable by mathematical induction. Each self-contained chapter in this section includes the necessary definitions, theory, and notation and covers a range of theorems and problems, from fundamental to very specialized. The final part presents either solutions or hints to the exercises. Slightly longer than what is found in most texts, these solutions provide complete details for every step of the problem-solving process. "

Foundations of Optimization

Author: Osman Güler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387684079

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 442

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This book covers the fundamental principles of optimization in finite dimensions. It develops the necessary material in multivariable calculus both with coordinates and coordinate-free, so recent developments such as semidefinite programming can be dealt with.

The Induction Book

Author: Steven H. Weintraub

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486821234

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

View: 4276

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Mathematical induction — along with its equivalents, complete induction and well-ordering, and its immediate consequence, the pigeonhole principle — constitute essential proof techniques. Every mathematician is familiar with mathematical induction, and every student of mathematics requires a grasp of its concepts. This volume provides an introduction and a thorough exposure to these proof techniques. Geared toward students of mathematics at all levels, the text is particularly suitable for courses in mathematical induction, theorem-proving, and problem-solving. The treatment begins with both intuitive and formal explanations of mathematical induction and its equivalents. The next chapter presents many problems consisting of results to be proved by induction, with solutions omitted to enable instructors to assign them to students. Problems vary in difficulty; the majority of them require little background, and the most advanced involve calculus or linear algebra. The final chapter features proofs too complicated for students to find on their own, some of which are famous theorems by well-known mathematicians. For these beautiful and important theorems, the author provides expositions and proofs. The text concludes with a helpful Appendix providing the logical equivalence of the various forms of induction.

Putnam and Beyond

Author: Razvan Gelca,Titu Andreescu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038768445X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 798

View: 8768

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Putnam and Beyond takes the reader on a journey through the world of college mathematics, focusing on some of the most important concepts and results in the theories of polynomials, linear algebra, real analysis in one and several variables, differential equations, coordinate geometry, trigonometry, elementary number theory, combinatorics, and probability. Using the W.L. Putnam Mathematical Competition for undergraduates as an inspiring symbol to build an appropriate math background for graduate studies in pure or applied mathematics, the reader is eased into transitioning from problem-solving at the high school level to the university and beyond, that is, to mathematical research.

Advanced Problems in Mathematics

Preparing for University

Author: Stephen Siklos

Publisher: Open Book Publishers

ISBN: 1783741449

Category: Mathematics

Page: 186

View: 4040

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This book is intended to help students prepare for entrance examinations in mathematics and scientific subjects, including STEP (Sixth Term Examination Papers). STEP examinations are used by Cambridge colleges as the basis for conditional offers in mathematics and sometimes in other mathematics-related subjects. They are also used by Warwick University, and many other mathematics departments recommend that their applicants practice on past papers to become accustomed to university-style mathematics. Advanced Problems in Mathematics is recommended as preparation for any undergraduate mathematics course, even for students who do not plan to take the Sixth Term Examination Paper. The questions analysed in this book are all based on recent STEP questions selected to address the syllabus for Papers I and II, which is the A-level core (i.e. C1 to C4) with a few additions. Each question is followed by a comment and a full solution. The comments direct the reader’s attention to key points and put the question in its true mathematical context. The solutions point students to the methodology required to address advanced mathematical problems critically and independently. This book is a must read for any student wishing to apply to scientific subjects at university level and for anybody interested in advanced mathematics.

The Mathematics of Language

Author: Marcus Kracht

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110895668

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 605

View: 9746

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This book studies language(s) and linguistic theories from a mathematical point of view. Starting with ideas already contained in Montague's work, it develops the mathematical foundations of present day linguistics. It equips the reader with all the background necessary to understand and evaluate theories as diverse as Montague Grammar, Categorial Grammar, HPSG and GB. The mathematical tools are mainly from universal algebra and logic, but no particular knowledge is presupposed beyond a certain mathematical sophistication that is in any case needed in order to fruitfully work within these theories. The presentation focuses on abstract mathematical structures and their computational properties, but plenty of examples from different natural languages are provided to illustrate the main concepts and results. In contrast to books devoted to so-called formal language theory, languages are seen here as semiotic systems, that is, as systems of signs. A language sign correlates form with meaning. Using the principle of compositionality it is possible to gain substantial insight into the interaction between form and meaning in natural languages.

Generatingfunctionology

Author: Herbert S. Wilf

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483276635

Category: Mathematics

Page: 192

View: 6902

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Generatingfunctionology provides information pertinent to generating functions and some of their uses in discrete mathematics. This book presents the power of the method by giving a number of examples of problems that can be profitably thought about from the point of view of generating functions. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic concepts of a generating function. This text then discusses the different kinds of series that are widely used as generating functions. Other chapters explain how to make much more precise estimates of the sizes of the coefficients of power series based on the analyticity of the function that is represented by the series. This book discusses as well the applications of the theory of generating functions to counting problems. The final chapter deals with the formal aspects of the theory of generating functions. This book is a valuable resource for mathematicians and students.

Concrete Mathematics

A Foundation for Computer Science

Author: Ronald L. Graham,Donald Ervin Knuth,Oren Patashnik

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201558029

Category: Computers

Page: 657

View: 372

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This book, updated and improved, introduces the mathematics that supports advanced computer programming and the analysis of algorithms. The primary aim of its well-known authors is to provide a solid and relevant base of mathematical skills--the skills needed to solve complex problems, to evaluate horrendous-looking sums, to solve complex recurrence relations, and to discover subtle patterns in data. It is an indispensable text and reference, not only for computer scientists but for all technical professionals in virtually every discipline.

Advanced Calculus

Revised

Author: Lynn Harold Loomis,Shlomo Sternberg

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814583952

Category: Mathematics

Page: 596

View: 9914

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An authorised reissue of the long out of print classic textbook, Advanced Calculus by the late Dr Lynn Loomis and Dr Shlomo Sternberg both of Harvard University has been a revered but hard to find textbook for the advanced calculus course for decades. This book is based on an honors course in advanced calculus that the authors gave in the 1960's. The foundational material, presented in the unstarred sections of Chapters 1 through 11, was normally covered, but different applications of this basic material were stressed from year to year, and the book therefore contains more material than was covered in any one year. It can accordingly be used (with omissions) as a text for a year's course in advanced calculus, or as a text for a three-semester introduction to analysis. The prerequisites are a good grounding in the calculus of one variable from a mathematically rigorous point of view, together with some acquaintance with linear algebra. The reader should be familiar with limit and continuity type arguments and have a certain amount of mathematical sophistication. As possible introductory texts, we mention Differential and Integral Calculus by R Courant, Calculus by T Apostol, Calculus by M Spivak, and Pure Mathematics by G Hardy. The reader should also have some experience with partial derivatives. In overall plan the book divides roughly into a first half which develops the calculus (principally the differential calculus) in the setting of normed vector spaces, and a second half which deals with the calculus of differentiable manifolds.

115 Trigonometry Problems from the AwesomeMath Summer Program

Author: Titu Andreescu,Vlad Crisan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780999342800

Category: Trigonometry

Page: 200

View: 592

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Focusing on Trigonometry reveals a wealth of alternate approaches to solving intricate geometry problems while providing foundational support in other areas of mathematics such as Fourier Analysis and Differential Equations. It is time for Trigonometry to receive the attention it deserves in this stand-alone book where the theory chapter is an invaluable pedagogical resource with lots of examples and guided exercises and the subsequent chapters offer a collection of carefully selected introductory through advanced problems and solutions intended to enhance the problem-solving skills of the reader. This book is not only for those studying for mathematics Olympiads but all individuals who want a better understanding of Trigonometry so they will be more successful in different settings such as a calculus course. This book offers a comprehensive overview of the trigonometric functions and contains a collection of 115 carefully selected introductory and advanced problems in Trigonometry from world-wide renowned Olympiads and mathematical magazines, as well as original problems designed by the authors. Together with the beautiful examples and the creative solutions, the present text is a valuable resource and teaching material for anybody who wants to explore the beauty of Trigonometry.

Mathematical Methods for Physicists

Author: George B. Arfken,Hans J. Weber

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483288064

Category: Science

Page: 1029

View: 3191

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This new and completely revised Fourth Edition provides thorough coverage of the important mathematics needed for upper-division and graduate study in physics and engineering. Following more than 28 years of successful class-testing, Mathematical Methods for Physicists is considered the standard text on the subject. A new chapter on nonlinear methods and chaos is included, as are revisions of the differential equations and complex variables chapters. The entire book has been made even more accessible, with special attention given to clarity, completeness, and physical motivation. It is an excellent reference apart from its course use. This revised Fourth Edition includes: Modernized terminology Group theoretic methods brought together and expanded in a new chapter An entirely new chapter on nonlinear mathematical physics Significant revisions of the differential equations and complex variables chapters Many new or improved exercises Forty new or improved figures An update of computational techniques for today's contemporary tools, such as microcomputers, Numerical Recipes, and Mathematica(r), among others

The Cauchy-Schwarz Master Class

An Introduction to the Art of Mathematical Inequalities

Author: J. Michael Steele

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521546775

Category: Mathematics

Page: 306

View: 3633

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This lively, problem-oriented text, first published in 2004, is designed to coach readers toward mastery of the most fundamental mathematical inequalities. With the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality as the initial guide, the reader is led through a sequence of fascinating problems whose solutions are presented as they might have been discovered - either by one of history's famous mathematicians or by the reader. The problems emphasize beauty and surprise, but along the way readers will find systematic coverage of the geometry of squares, convexity, the ladder of power means, majorization, Schur convexity, exponential sums, and the inequalities of Hölder, Hilbert, and Hardy. The text is accessible to anyone who knows calculus and who cares about solving problems. It is well suited to self-study, directed study, or as a supplement to courses in analysis, probability, and combinatorics.

The Algorithm Design Manual

Author: Steven S Skiena

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1848000707

Category: Computers

Page: 730

View: 7244

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This newly expanded and updated second edition of the best-selling classic continues to take the "mystery" out of designing algorithms, and analyzing their efficacy and efficiency. Expanding on the first edition, the book now serves as the primary textbook of choice for algorithm design courses while maintaining its status as the premier practical reference guide to algorithms for programmers, researchers, and students. The reader-friendly Algorithm Design Manual provides straightforward access to combinatorial algorithms technology, stressing design over analysis. The first part, Techniques, provides accessible instruction on methods for designing and analyzing computer algorithms. The second part, Resources, is intended for browsing and reference, and comprises the catalog of algorithmic resources, implementations and an extensive bibliography. NEW to the second edition: • Doubles the tutorial material and exercises over the first edition • Provides full online support for lecturers, and a completely updated and improved website component with lecture slides, audio and video • Contains a unique catalog identifying the 75 algorithmic problems that arise most often in practice, leading the reader down the right path to solve them • Includes several NEW "war stories" relating experiences from real-world applications • Provides up-to-date links leading to the very best algorithm implementations available in C, C++, and Java

Mathematics for Computer Science

Author: Eric Lehman,F. Thomson Leighton,Albert R. Meyer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789888407064

Category:

Page: 979

View: 3967

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This book covers elementary discrete mathematics for computer science and engineering. It emphasizes mathematical definitions and proofs as well as applicable methods. Topics include formal logic notation, proof methods; induction, well-ordering; sets, relations; elementary graph theory; integer congruences; asymptotic notation and growth of functions; permutations and combinations, counting principles; discrete probability. Further selected topics may also be covered, such as recursive definition and structural induction; state machines and invariants; recurrences; generating functions.

Transition to Higher Mathematics

Structure and Proof

Author: Bob A. Dumas,John Edward McCarthy

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN: 9780071106474

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: 296

View: 6769

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The authors teach how to organize and structure mathematical thoughts, how to read and manipulate abstract definitions, and how to prove or refute proofs by effectively evaluating them. There is a large array of topics and many exercises.

Introduction to the Theory of Computation

Author: Michael Sipser

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1285401069

Category: Computers

Page: 504

View: 4364

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Now you can clearly present even the most complex computational theory topics to your students with Sipser's distinct, market-leading INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COMPUTATION, 3E. The number one choice for today's computational theory course, this highly anticipated revision retains the unmatched clarity and thorough coverage that make it a leading text for upper-level undergraduate and introductory graduate students. This edition continues author Michael Sipser's well-known, approachable style with timely revisions, additional exercises, and more memorable examples in key areas. A new first-of-its-kind theoretical treatment of deterministic context-free languages is ideal for a better understanding of parsing and LR(k) grammars. This edition's refined presentation ensures a trusted accuracy and clarity that make the challenging study of computational theory accessible and intuitive to students while maintaining the subject's rigor and formalism. Readers gain a solid understanding of the fundamental mathematical properties of computer hardware, software, and applications with a blend of practical and philosophical coverage and mathematical treatments, including advanced theorems and proofs. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COMPUTATION, 3E's comprehensive coverage makes this an ideal ongoing reference tool for those studying theoretical computing. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.