Low-Level Programming

C, Assembly, and Program Execution on Intel® 64 Architecture

Author: Igor Zhirkov

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1484224035

Category: Computers

Page: 435

View: 2265


Learn Intel 64 assembly language and architecture, become proficient in C, and understand how the programs are compiled and executed down to machine instructions, enabling you to write robust, high-performance code. Low-Level Programming explains Intel 64 architecture as the result of von Neumann architecture evolution. The book teaches the latest version of the C language (C11) and assembly language from scratch. It covers the entire path from source code to program execution, including generation of ELF object files, and static and dynamic linking. Code examples and exercises are included along with the best code practices. Optimization capabilities and limits of modern compilers are examined, enabling you to balance between program readability and performance. The use of various performance-gain techniques is demonstrated, such as SSE instructions and pre-fetching. Relevant Computer Science topics such as models of computation and formal grammars are addressed, and their practical value explained. What You'll Learn Low-Level Programming teaches programmers to: Freely write in assembly language Understand the programming model of Intel 64 Write maintainable and robust code in C11 Follow the compilation process and decipher assembly listings Debug errors in compiled assembly code Use appropriate models of computation to greatly reduce program complexity Write performance-critical code Comprehend the impact of a weak memory model in multi-threaded applications Who This Book Is For Intermediate to advanced programmers and programming students

Low-Level Programming

C, Assembly, and Program Execution on Intel x86-64 Architecture

Author: Igor Zhirkov

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 9781484224021

Category: Computers

Page: 350

View: 4173


This book teaches programmers and programming students how to use x64 assembly to write low-level code in C for performance-critical programs and how to compile and execute it inside the Intel 64 hardware and OS framework. Low-Level Programming presents Intel 64 architecture as a development of von Neumann architecture featuring protection mechanisms and performance amplifiers such as caches and branch predicting. It proceeds to investigate the compilation cycle and ELF object files. Elucidating a structured approach to C with code examples, exercises, and a companion annex of source code, the book models best coding practices for implementing language abstractions on top of assembly. The author examines the optimization capabilities and limits of modern compilers, and he demonstrates the use of various performance-gain techniques, such as specialized instructions and prefetching. What Readers Will LearnLow-Level Programming teaches programmers how to use assembly language and C to write code for Intel 64 platforms and to look under the hood for various purposes, including the following:• Making code more performant on the assembly level• Debugging compiler and optimizer errors in native code• Fixing executables by disassembly in the absence of source code• Diagnosing malware Who This Book Is ForIntermediate-to-advanced programmers and programming students.

X86 Assembly Language and C Fundamentals

Author: Joseph Cavanagh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498759742

Category: Computers

Page: 813

View: 1172


The predominant language used in embedded microprocessors, assembly language lets you write programs that are typically faster and more compact than programs written in a high-level language and provide greater control over the program applications. Focusing on the languages used in X86 microprocessors, X86 Assembly Language and C Fundamentals explains how to write programs in the X86 assembly language, the C programming language, and X86 assembly language modules embedded in a C program. A wealth of program design examples, including the complete code and outputs, help you grasp the concepts more easily. Where needed, the book also details the theory behind the design. Learn the X86 Microprocessor Architecture and Commonly Used Instructions Assembly language programming requires knowledge of number representations, as well as the architecture of the computer on which the language is being used. After covering the binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems, the book presents the general architecture of the X86 microprocessor, individual addressing modes, stack operations, procedures, arrays, macros, and input/output operations. It highlights the most commonly used X86 assembly language instructions, including data transfer, branching and looping, logic, shift and rotate, and string instructions, as well as fixed-point, binary-coded decimal (BCD), and floating-point arithmetic instructions. Get a Solid Foundation in a Language Commonly Used in Digital Hardware Written for students in computer science and electrical, computer, and software engineering, the book assumes a basic background in C programming, digital logic design, and computer architecture. Designed as a tutorial, this comprehensive and self-contained text offers a solid foundation in assembly language for anyone working with the design of digital hardware.

Mastering Assembly Programming

From instruction set to kernel module with Intel processor

Author: Alexey Lyashko

Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1787120074

Category: Computers

Page: 290

View: 4116


Incorporate the assembly language routines in your high level language applications About This Book Understand the Assembly programming concepts and the benefits of examining the AL codes generated from high level languages Learn to incorporate the assembly language routines in your high level language applications Understand how a CPU works when programming in high level languages Who This Book Is For This book is for developers who would like to learn about Assembly language. Prior programming knowledge of C and C++ is assumed. What You Will Learn Obtain deeper understanding of the underlying platform Understand binary arithmetic and logic operations Create elegant and efficient code in Assembly language Understand how to link Assembly code to outer world Obtain in-depth understanding of relevant internal mechanisms of Intel CPU Write stable, efficient and elegant patches for running processes In Detail The Assembly language is the lowest level human readable programming language on any platform. Knowing the way things are on the Assembly level will help developers design their code in a much more elegant and efficient way. It may be produced by compiling source code from a high-level programming language (such as C/C++) but can also be written from scratch. Assembly code can be converted to machine code using an assembler. The first section of the book starts with setting up the development environment on Windows and Linux, mentioning most common toolchains. The reader is led through the basic structure of CPU and memory, and is presented the most important Assembly instructions through examples for both Windows and Linux, 32 and 64 bits. Then the reader would understand how high level languages are translated into Assembly and then compiled into object code. Finally we will cover patching existing code, either legacy code without sources or a running code in same or remote process. Style and approach This book takes a step-by-step, detailed approach to Comprehensively learning Assembly Programming.

Modern X86 Assembly Language Programming

32-bit, 64-bit, SSE, and AVX

Author: Daniel Kusswurm

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1484200640

Category: Computers

Page: 700

View: 3315


Modern X86 Assembly Language Programming shows the fundamentals of x86 assembly language programming. It focuses on the aspects of the x86 instruction set that are most relevant to application software development. The book's structure and sample code are designed to help the reader quickly understand x86 assembly language programming and the computational capabilities of the x86 platform. Please note: Book appendixes can be downloaded here: http://www.apress.com/9781484200650 Major topics of the book include the following: 32-bit core architecture, data types, internal registers, memory addressing modes, and the basic instruction set X87 core architecture, register stack, special purpose registers, floating-point encodings, and instruction set MMX technology and instruction set Streaming SIMD extensions (SSE) and Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) including internal registers, packed integer arithmetic, packed and scalar floating-point arithmetic, and associated instruction sets 64-bit core architecture, data types, internal registers, memory addressing modes, and the basic instruction set 64-bit extensions to SSE and AVX technologies X86 assembly language optimization strategies and techniques

Guide to Assembly Language

A Concise Introduction

Author: James T. Streib

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780857292711

Category: Computers

Page: 257

View: 9799


This book will enable the reader to very quickly begin programming in assembly language. Through this hands-on programming, readers will also learn more about the computer architecture of the Intel 32-bit processor, as well as the relationship between high-level and low-level languages. Topics: presents an overview of assembly language, and an introduction to general purpose registers; illustrates the key concepts of each chapter with complete programs, chapter summaries, and exercises; covers input/output, basic arithmetic instructions, selection structures, and iteration structures; introduces logic, shift, arithmetic shift, rotate, and stack instructions; discusses procedures and macros, and examines arrays and strings; investigates machine language from a discovery perspective. This textbook is an ideal introduction to programming in assembly language for undergraduate students, and a concise guide for professionals wishing to learn how to write logically correct programs in a minimal amount of time.

Assembly Language Step-by-Step

Programming with Linux

Author: Jeff Duntemann

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118080998

Category: Computers

Page: 648

View: 7364


The eagerly anticipated new edition of the bestselling introduction to x86 assembly language The long-awaited third edition of this bestselling introduction to assembly language has been completely rewritten to focus on 32-bit protected-mode Linux and the free NASM assembler. Assembly is the fundamental language bridging human ideas and the pure silicon hearts of computers, and popular author Jeff Dunteman retains his distinctive lighthearted style as he presents a step-by-step approach to this difficult technical discipline. He starts at the very beginning, explaining the basic ideas of programmable computing, the binary and hexadecimal number systems, the Intel x86 computer architecture, and the process of software development under Linux. From that foundation he systematically treats the x86 instruction set, memory addressing, procedures, macros, and interface to the C-language code libraries upon which Linux itself is built. Serves as an ideal introduction to x86 computing concepts, as demonstrated by the only language directly understood by the CPU itself Uses an approachable, conversational style that assumes no prior experience in programming of any kind Presents x86 architecture and assembly concepts through a cumulative tutorial approach that is ideal for self-paced instruction Focuses entirely on free, open-source software, including Ubuntu Linux, the NASM assembler, the Kate editor, and the Gdb/Insight debugger Includes an x86 instruction set reference for the most common machine instructions, specifically tailored for use by programming beginners Woven into the presentation are plenty of assembly code examples, plus practical tips on software design, coding, testing, and debugging, all using free, open-source software that may be downloaded without charge from the Internet.

32/64-Bit 80x86 Assembly Language Architecture

Author: James Leiterman

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 1449612709

Category: Computers

Page: 545

View: 2031


The increasing complexity of programming environments provides a number of opportunities for assembly language programmers. 32/64-Bit 80x86 Assembly Language Architecture attempts to break through that complexity by providing a step-by-step understanding of programming Intel and AMD 80x86 processors in assembly language. This book explains 32-bit and 64-bit 80x86 assembly language programming inclusive of the SIMD (single instruction multiple data) instruction supersets that bring the 80x86 processor into the realm of the supercomputer, gives insight into the FPU (floating-point unit) chip in every Pentium processor, and offers strategies for optimizing code.

Advanced C and C++ Compiling

Author: Milan Stevanovic

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1430266686

Category: Computers

Page: 340

View: 4392


Learning how to write C/C++ code is only the first step. To be a serious programmer, you need to understand the structure and purpose of the binary files produced by the compiler: object files, static libraries, shared libraries, and, of course, executables. Advanced C and C++ Compiling explains the build process in detail and shows how to integrate code from other developers in the form of deployed libraries as well as how to resolve issues and potential mismatches between your own and external code trees. With the proliferation of open source, understanding these issues is increasingly the responsibility of the individual programmer. Advanced C and C++ Compiling brings all of the information needed to move from intermediate to expert programmer together in one place -- an engineering guide on the topic of C/C++ binaries to help you get the most accurate and pertinent information in the quickest possible time.

Professional Assembly Language

Author: Richard Blum

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0764579010

Category: Computers

Page: 546

View: 9028


Unlike high-level languages such as Java and C++, assembly language is much closer to the machine code that actually runs computers; it's used to create programs or modules that are very fast and efficient, as well as in hacking exploits and reverse engineering Covering assembly language in the Pentium microprocessor environment, this code-intensive guide shows programmers how to create stand-alone assembly language programs as well as how to incorporate assembly language libraries or routines into existing high-level applications Demonstrates how to manipulate data, incorporate advanced functions and libraries, and maximize application performance Examples use C as a high-level language, Linux as the development environment, and GNU tools for assembling, compiling, linking, and debugging

Visual C++ Optimization with Assembly Code

Author: Yury Magda

Publisher: БХВ-Петербург

ISBN: 193176932X

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 6146


Describing how the Assembly language can be used to develop highly effective C++ applications, this guide covers the development of 32-bit applications for Windows. Areas of focus include optimizing high-level logical structures, creating effective mathematical algorithms, and working with strings and arrays. Code optimization is considered for the Intel platform, taking into account features of the latest models of Intel Pentium processors and how using Assembly code in C++ applications can improve application processing. The use of an assembler to optimize C++ applications is examined in two ways, by developing and compiling Assembly modules that can be linked with the main program written in C++ and using the built-in assembler. Microsoft Visual C++ .Net 2003 is explored as a programming tool, and both the MASM 6.14 and IA-32 assembler compilers, which are used to compile source modules, are

Create Your Own Operating System

Author: Lucus Darnell

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781981624058


Page: 150

View: 5526


Have you ever wanted to build your own operating system, but didn't know where to begin? Then this book is for you! In this book, the author explains everything you need to know from getting and installing the necessary tools to writing, compiling, deploying, and testing your very own operating system. By the time you are done you will have an operating system to call your own. And, don't worry about destroying your existing hardware and software environment as everything in this book is written with the intention of running in a virtualized environment. However, should you choose to do so, the author also explains how to deploy and test your new OS on bare-metal hardware as well. The first few chapters give a brief overview of how modern day computers work. In these chapters you will (re)learn everything from memory allocation, stacks, and bootloaders to low-level machine code and programming languages. After that, you will jump into downloading and installing the tools you will use for building your very own operating system. Here you will learn how to develop a bootloader and kernel just like modern day computers rely on for operating. The last few chapters will explain how to deploy and test your operating system as well as how to expand your OS to do more and even how to cross-compile your shiny new operating system for other devices such as the Raspberry Pi. To give an idea of what you can find in this book, below is the Table of Contents. 0x01 OS Basics 0x02 Intro to Machine Code 0x03 Intro to the Assembly Programming Language 0x04 Into to the C Programming Language 0x05 Getting Started - Installing VirtualBox - Installing Linux - Installing GNOME - Preparing CentOS and the VM - Troubleshooting VirtualBox Guest Additions - Preparing the Development Environment 0x06 Bootstrapping with the Bootloader - Creating the Entry Point - GNU GRUB - Compiling the Entry Point 0x07 Welcome to the Kernel 0x08 Putting it all Together 0x09 Testing Your Operating System 0x0A Starting Your Architecture Library - Expanding the Console 0x0B Expanding Your OS 0x0C Cross-Compiling for Other Architectures - Create a Custom Cross-Compiler - Porting for the Raspberry Pi - Testing on Physical Hardware Conclusion Acknowledgements Appendix Index

Introduction to 64 Bit Intel Assembly Language Programming for Linux

Author: Ray Seyfarth

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781478119203

Category: Computers

Page: 310

View: 537


This is the second edition of this assembly language programming textbook introducing programmers to 64 bit Intel assembly language. The primary addition to the second edition is the discussion of the free integrated development environment, ebe, designed by the author specifically to meet the needs of assembly language programmers. Ebe is a Python program which uses the Tkinter and Pwm widget sets to implement a GUI environment consisting of a source window, a data window, a registers window, a console window, a terminal window and a project window. The source window includes a full-featured text editor with convenient controls for assembling, linking and debugging a program. The project facility allows a program to be built from C source code files and assembly source files. Assembly is performed automatically using the yasm assembler and linking is performed with ld or gcc. Debugging operates by transparently sending commands into the gdb debugger while automatically displaying registers and variables after each debugging step. Additional information about ebe can be found at http: //www.rayseyfarth.com. The book is intended as a first assembly language book for programmers experienced in high level programming in a language like C or C++. The assembly programming is performed using the yasm assembler automatically from the ebe IDE under the Linux operating system. The book primarily teaches how to write assembly code compatible with C programs. The reader will learn to call C functions from assembly language and to call assembly functions from C in addition to writing complete programs in assembly language. The gcc compiler is used internally to compile C programs. The book starts early emphasizing using ebe to debug programs, along with teaching equivalent commands using gdb. Being able to single-step assembly programs is critical in learning assembly programming. Ebe makes this far easier than using gdb directly. Highlights of the book include doing input/output programming using the Linux system calls and the C library, implementing data structures in assembly language and high performance assembly language programming. Early chapters of the book rely on using the debugger to observe program behavior. After a chapter on functions, the user is prepared to use printf and scanf from the C library to perform I/O. The chapter on data structures covers singly linked lists, doubly linked circular lists, hash tables and binary trees. Test programs are presented for all these data structures. There is a chapter on optimization techniques and 3 chapters on specific optimizations. One chapter covers how to efficiently count the 1 bits in an array with the most efficient version using the recently-introduced popcnt instruction. Another chapter covers using SSE instructions to create an efficient implementation of the Sobel filtering algorithm. The final high performance programming chapter discusses computing correlation between data in 2 arrays. There is an AVX implementation which achieves 20.5 GFLOPs on a single core of a Core i7 CPU. A companion web site, http: //www.rayseyfarth.com, has a collection of PDF slides which instructors can use for in-class presentations and source code for sample programs.

Memory as a Programming Concept in C and C++

Author: Frantisek Franek

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521520430

Category: Computers

Page: 262

View: 5881


A concise yet comprehensive view of the role memory plays in all aspects of programming, first published in 2004.

Write Great Code, Volume 1

Understanding the Machine

Author: Randall Hyde

Publisher: No Starch Press

ISBN: 1593270992

Category: Computers

Page: 464

View: 9967


Today's programmers are often narrowly trained because the industry moves too fast. That's where Write Great Code, Volume 1: Understanding the Machine comes in. This, the first of four volumes by author Randall Hyde, teaches important concepts of machine organization in a language-independent fashion, giving programmers what they need to know to write great code in any language, without the usual overhead of learning assembly language to master this topic. A solid foundation in software engineering, The Write Great Code series will help programmers make wiser choices with respect to programming statements and data types when writing software.

LINUX Assembly Language Programming

Author: Bob Neveln

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional

ISBN: 9780130879400

Category: Computers

Page: 249

View: 1966


Master x86 language from the Linux point of view with this one-concept-at-a-time guide. Neveln gives an "under the hood" perspective of how Linux works and shows how to create device drivers. The CD-ROM includes all source code from the book plus edlinas, an x86 simulator that's perfect for hands-on, interactive assembler development.

Professional WebGL Programming

Developing 3D Graphics for the Web

Author: Andreas Anyuru

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119940591

Category: Computers

Page: 320

View: 4978


Everything you need to know about developinghardware-accelerated 3D graphics with WebGL! As the newest technology for creating 3D graphics on the web, inboth games, applications, and on regular websites, WebGL gives webdevelopers the capability to produce eye-popping graphics. Thisbook teaches you how to use WebGL to create stunning cross-platformapps. The book features several detailed examples that show you howto develop 3D graphics with WebGL, including explanations of codesnippets that help you understand the why behind the how. You will also develop a stronger understanding of WebGLdevelopment from coverage that: •Provides a comprehensive overview of WebGL and shows howit relates to other graphics-related technologies •Addresses important topics such as the WebGL graphicspipeline, 3D transformations, texturing and lighting •Teaches you how to write vertex shaders and fragment shadersfor WebGL •Includes a lot of useful guidelines, tips, and tricks forWebGL performance optimizations Professional WebGL Programming is the first book on themarket to delve into this fascinating topic and it puts you on yourway to mastering the possibilities that exist with WebGL.

Modeling with Data

Tools and Techniques for Scientific Computing

Author: Ben Klemens

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400828746

Category: Mathematics

Page: 472

View: 7706


Modeling with Data fully explains how to execute computationally intensive analyses on very large data sets, showing readers how to determine the best methods for solving a variety of different problems, how to create and debug statistical models, and how to run an analysis and evaluate the results. Ben Klemens introduces a set of open and unlimited tools, and uses them to demonstrate data management, analysis, and simulation techniques essential for dealing with large data sets and computationally intensive procedures. He then demonstrates how to easily apply these tools to the many threads of statistical technique, including classical, Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and Monte Carlo methods. Klemens's accessible survey describes these models in a unified and nontraditional manner, providing alternative ways of looking at statistical concepts that often befuddle students. The book includes nearly one hundred sample programs of all kinds. Links to these programs will be available on this page at a later date. Modeling with Data will interest anyone looking for a comprehensive guide to these powerful statistical tools, including researchers and graduate students in the social sciences, biology, engineering, economics, and applied mathematics.

Linkers and Loaders

Author: John R. Levine

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 9781558604964

Category: Computers

Page: 256

View: 5743


Whatever your programming language, whatever your platform, you probably tap into linker and loader functions all the time. But do you know how to use them to their greatest possible advantage? Only now, with the publication of Linkers & Loaders, is there an authoritative book devoted entirely to these deep-seated compile-time and run-time processes. The book begins with a detailed and comparative account of linking and loading that illustrates the differences among various compilers and operating systems. On top of this foundation, the author presents clear practical advice to help you create faster, cleaner code. You'll learn to avoid the pitfalls associated with Windows DLLs, take advantage of the space-saving, performance-improving techniques supported by many modern linkers, make the best use of the UNIX ELF library scheme, and much more. If you're serious about programming, you'll devour this unique guide to one of the field's least understood topics. Linkers & Loaders is also an ideal supplementary text for compiler and operating systems courses. *Includes a linker construction project written in Perl, with project files available for download. *Covers dynamic linking in Windows, UNIX, Linux, BeOS, and other operating systems. *Explains the Java linking model and how it figures in network applets and extensible Java code. *Helps you write more elegant and effective code, and build applications that compile, load, and run more efficiently.