Loot, Legitimacy and Ownership

The Ethical Crisis in Archaeology

Author: Colin Renfrew

Publisher: Bristol Classical Press

ISBN: 9780715630341

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 8150

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Colin Renfrew argues that what is most precious in archaeology is the information that excavations can shed on our human past. Yet the clandestine and unpublished digging of archaeological sites for gain - looting - is destroying the context in which archaeological findings can be understood, as well as sabotaging the most valuable information. It is the source of most of the antiquities that appear on the art market today - unprovenanced antiquities, the product of illicit traffic financed, knowingly or not by the collectors and museums that buy them on a no-questions-asked basis. This trade has turned London as well as other international centres into a 'thieves kitchen' where greed triumphs over serious appreciation of the past. Unless a solution is found to this ethical crisis in archaeology, Renfrew argues that our record of the past will be vastly diminished, and his book lays bare the misunderstanding and hypocrisy that underlies that crisis.

Against Cultural Property

Archaeology,Heritage and Ownership

Author: John Carman

Publisher: Bristol Classical Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Art

Page: 144

View: 6087

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This series of short volumes, each devoted to a theme which is the subject of contemporary debate in archaeology, ranges from issues in theory and method to aspects of world archaeology. If 'all property is theft', then cultural property is nothing less than the theft of culture. The term 'cultural property' is widespread in the field of heritage management and is a particularly powerful concept in legal approaches. The term and the concept it represents are never discussed, however. The idea that material that comes to us from the past should be considered 'property' accordingly seems to be taken for granted by those charged with its care. Any debate that does take place is limited to comparing private with state ownership, often under the pretence that the latter represents a form of 'stewardship'. This radical work seeks to challenge the dominance of these limiting ideas by looking for alternatives. Taking as a starting-point the four different types of property relation generally recognised by lawyers and economists, the book explores the implications for cultural objects of different property regimes.In presenting an argument that the concept of 'property' is inappropriate for the heritage, the book challenges much that is taken for granted and undiscussed in the field of heritage management.

Archaeological Ethics

Author: Karen D. Vitelli,Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 0759114439

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 1300

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Looting. Reburial and repatriation. Relations with native peoples. Professional conduct. The second edition of Archaeological Ethics combines compelling articles on these topics written for a general audience with valuable teaching aids. The updated articles provide a fascinating introduction to the issues faced every day in archaeological practice. The article summaries, discussion questions, suggestions for further reading, and resource guide serve as excellent teaching aids and make this volume ideal for classroom use.

Who Owns Antiquity?

Museums and the Battle over Our Ancient Heritage

Author: James Cuno

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400839247

Category: Art

Page: 288

View: 1725

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Whether antiquities should be returned to the countries where they were found is one of the most urgent and controversial issues in the art world today, and it has pitted museums, private collectors, and dealers against source countries, archaeologists, and academics. Maintaining that the acquisition of undocumented antiquities by museums encourages the looting of archaeological sites, countries such as Italy, Greece, Egypt, Turkey, and China have claimed ancient artifacts as state property, called for their return from museums around the world, and passed laws against their future export. But in Who Owns Antiquity?, one of the world's leading museum directors vigorously challenges this nationalistic position, arguing that it is damaging and often disingenuous. "Antiquities," James Cuno argues, "are the cultural property of all humankind," "evidence of the world's ancient past and not that of a particular modern nation. They comprise antiquity, and antiquity knows no borders." Cuno argues that nationalistic retention and reclamation policies impede common access to this common heritage and encourage a dubious and dangerous politicization of antiquities--and of culture itself. Antiquities need to be protected from looting but also from nationalistic identity politics. To do this, Cuno calls for measures to broaden rather than restrict international access to antiquities. He advocates restoration of the system under which source countries would share newly discovered artifacts in exchange for archaeological help, and he argues that museums should again be allowed reasonable ways to acquire undocumented antiquities. Cuno explains how partage broadened access to our ancient heritage and helped create national museums in Cairo, Baghdad, and Kabul. The first extended defense of the side of museums in the struggle over antiquities, Who Owns Antiquity? is sure to be as important as it is controversial. Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.

Loot

The Battle over the Stolen Treasures of the Ancient World

Author: Sharon Waxman

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 1429960434

Category: Art

Page: 432

View: 3052

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A journey across four continents to the heart of the conflict over who should own the great works of ancient art Why are the Elgin Marbles in London and not on the Acropolis? Why do there seem to be as many mummies in France as there are in Egypt? Why are so many Etruscan masterworks in America? For the past two centuries, the West has been plundering the treasures of the ancient world to fill its great museums, but in recent years, the countries where ancient civilizations originated have begun to push back, taking museums to court, prosecuting curators, and threatening to force the return of these priceless objects. Where do these treasures rightly belong? Sharon Waxman, a former culture reporter for The New York Times and a longtime foreign correspondent, brings us inside this high-stakes conflict, examining the implications for the preservation of the objects themselves and for how we understand our shared cultural heritage. Her journey takes readers from the great cities of Europe and America to Egypt, Turkey, Greece, and Italy, as these countries face down the Louvre, the Metropolitan Museum, the British Museum, and the J. Paul Getty Museum. She also introduces a cast of determined and implacable characters whose battles may strip these museums of some of their most cherished treasures. For readers who are fascinated by antiquity, who love to frequent museums, and who believe in the value of cultural exchange, Loot opens a new window on an enduring conflict.

Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, and the Antiquities Trade

Author: Neil Brodie,Morag M. Kersel,Christina Luke

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780813033396

Category: Social Science

Page: 349

View: 7053

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"The looting of archaeological sites and museums has recently been brought vividly to public attention. In this book, many of the world's experts on the subject examine the extent of the problem, how trafficking in illicit artifacts is carried out, and what can be done to save our cultural heritage."--Ellen Herscher, contributing editor, Archaeology magazine Archaeological artifacts have become a traded commodity in large part because the global reach of Western society allows easy access to the world's archaeological heritage. Acquired by the world's leading museums and private collectors, antiquities have been removed from archaeological sites, monuments, or cultural institutions and illegally traded. This collection of essays by world-recognized experts investigates the ways that com-modifying artifacts fuels the destruction of archaeological heritage and considers what can be done to protect it. Despite growing national and international legislation to protect cultural heritage, increasing numbers of archaeological sites--among them, war-torn Afghanistan and Iraq--are subject to pillage as the monetary value of artifacts rises. Offering comprehensive examinations of archaeological site looting, the antiquities trade, the ruin of cultural heritage resources, and the international efforts to combat their destruction, the authors argue that the antiquities market impacts cultural heritage around the world and is a burgeoning global crisis. Neil Brodie is research director of the Illicit Antiquities Research Centre at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge. Morag M. Kersel, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Cambridge, is studying the legal trade of antiquities in the Middle East. Christina Luke is a research fellow in the department of archaeology at Boston University. Kathryn Walker Tubb is a lecturer in cultural heritage studies and conservation in the Institute of Archaeology, University College, London.

Stealing History

Tomb Raiders, Smugglers, and the Looting of the Ancient World

Author: Roger Atwood

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 9781429901352

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 2849

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Roger Atwood knows more about the market for ancient objects than almost anyone. He knows where priceless antiquities are buried, who is digging them up, and who is fencing and buying them. In this fascinating book, Atwood takes readers on a journey through Iraq, Peru, Hong Kong, and across America, showing how the worldwide antiquities trade is destroying what's left of the ancient sites before archaeologists can reach them, and thus erasing their historical significance. And it is getting worse. The discovery of the legendary Royal Tombs of Sipan in Peru started an epidemic. Grave robbers scouring the courntryside for tombs--and finding them. Atwood recounts the incredible story of the biggest piece of gold ever found in the Americas, a 2,000-year-old, three-pound masterpiece that cost one looter his life, sent two smugglers to jail, and wrecked lives from Panama to Pennsylvainia. Packed with true stories, this book not only reveals what has been found, but at what cost to both human life and history.

Trade in illicit antiquities

the destruction of the world's archaeological heritage

Author: Neil Brodie,Jennifer Doole,Colin Renfrew,McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research

Publisher: McDonald Inst of Archeological

ISBN: 9781902937175

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 8931

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All over the world archaeological sites are being looted to feed an ever-expanding antiquities market. The phenomenon has been well-documented, by journalists and TV documentaries as much as by academic study, but its true scale remains a matter for conjecture. With this in mind in October 1999 the McDonald Institute convened an international symposium of archaeologists and other interested parties, which allowed them to give accounts of looting in their own countries, share their experiences, and to consider possible remedies or preventative measures. The proceedings of the Symposium are now published in this volume.

Who Owns the Past?

Cultural Policy, Cultural Property, and the Law

Author: Kate Fitz Gibbon

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813536873

Category: Social Science

Page: 362

View: 5485

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The Classical Debt

Greek Antiquity in an Era of Austerity

Author: Johanna Hanink

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674978307

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 5789

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“Greek debt” means one thing to the country’s creditors. But for millions who prize culture over capital, it means the symbolic debt we owe Greece for democracy, philosophy, mathematics, and fine art. Johanna Hanink shows that our idealized image of ancient Greece dangerously shapes our view of the country’s economic hardship and refugee crisis.

Whose Culture?

The Promise of Museums and the Debate over Antiquities

Author: James Cuno

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400833043

Category: Art

Page: 232

View: 4849

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The international controversy over who "owns" antiquities has pitted museums against archaeologists and source countries where ancient artifacts are found. In his book Who Owns Antiquity?, James Cuno argued that antiquities are the cultural property of humankind, not of the countries that lay exclusive claim to them. Now in Whose Culture?, Cuno assembles preeminent museum directors, curators, and scholars to explain for themselves what's at stake in this struggle--and why the museums' critics couldn't be more wrong. Source countries and archaeologists favor tough cultural property laws restricting the export of antiquities, have fought for the return of artifacts from museums worldwide, and claim the acquisition of undocumented antiquities encourages looting of archaeological sites. In Whose Culture?, leading figures from universities and museums in the United States and Britain argue that modern nation-states have at best a dubious connection with the ancient cultures they claim to represent, and that archaeology has been misused by nationalistic identity politics. They explain why exhibition is essential to responsible acquisitions, why our shared art heritage trumps nationalist agendas, why restrictive cultural property laws put antiquities at risk from unstable governments--and more. Defending the principles of art as the legacy of all humankind and museums as instruments of inquiry and tolerance, Whose Culture? brings reasoned argument to an issue that for too long has been distorted by politics and emotionalism. In addition to the editor, the contributors are Kwame Anthony Appiah, Sir John Boardman, Michael F. Brown, Derek Gillman, Neil MacGregor, John Henry Merryman, Philippe de Montebello, David I. Owen, and James C. Y. Watt.

De-Introducing the New Testament

Texts, Worlds, Methods, Stories

Author: Todd Penner,Davina Lopez

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118432967

Category: Religion

Page: 256

View: 6578

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In De-Introducing the New Testament, the authors argue for a renewed commitment to the defamiliarizing power of New Testament studies and a reclaiming of the discipline as one that exemplifies the best practices of the humanities. A new approach that asks us to ‘defamiliarize’ what we think we know about the New Testament, articulating themes and questions about its study that encourage further reflection and engagement Looks behind the traditional ways in which the NT is “introduced” to critically engage the conceptual framework of the field as a whole Provides a critical intervention into several methodological impasses in contemporary NT scholarship Offers an appraisal of the relationship between economics and culture in the production of NT scholarship Written in a style that is clear and concise, ideal for student readership

Antiquities

What Everyone Needs to Know

Author: Maxwell L. Anderson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190614935

Category:

Page: 264

View: 2642

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The destruction of ancient monuments and artworks by the Taliban in Afghanistan and the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria has shocked observers worldwide. Yet iconoclastic erasures of the past date back at least to the mid-1300s BCE, during the Amarna Period of ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty. Far more damage to the past has been inflicted by natural disasters, looters, and public works. Art historian Maxwell Anderson's Antiquities: What Everyone Needs to Know(r) analyzes continuing threats to our heritage, and offers a balanced account of treaties and laws governing the circulation of objects; the history of collecting antiquities; how forgeries are made and detected; how authentic works are documented, stored, dispersed, and displayed; the politics of sending antiquities back to their countries of origin; and the outlook for an expanded legal market. Anderson provides a summary of challenges ahead, including the future of underwater archaeology, the use of drones, remote sensing, and how invisible markings on antiquities will allow them to be traced. Written in question-and-answer format, the book equips readers with a nuanced understanding of the legal, practical, and moral choices that face us all when confronting antiquities in a museum gallery, shop window, or for sale on the Internet.

Museum Ethics

Theory and Practice

Author: Gary Edson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134773951

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 308

View: 9051

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A number of developments in the museum movement during the last few years have forced museums to give greater attention to ethical issues. Members of a profession are increasingly regarded constituting an ethical community. Every person with such a community must have a sense of personal obligation as well as a responsibilty for others to assure ethical achievement. This volume firmly places notions of ethics in the field of action. Museum Ethics considers the theoretical and practical elements of the philosophy of conduct in relation to critical contemporaty issues and museums. This discussion encompasses the procurement of artifacts, the rights of indigenous peoples, repatriation, the politics of display, the conservation of objects and the role of education, as well as the day-to-day management of a museum. All persons active in museum matters, whether custodian, curator, or trustee have an ethical obligation to the museum profession and the public. This volume will allow the professional and student to work towards a more responsible and responsive museum community.

Stolen, Smuggled, Sold

On the Hunt for Cultural Treasures

Author: Nancy Moses

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 075912194X

Category: Art

Page: 184

View: 4855

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Stolen, Smuggled Sold: On the Hunt for Cultural Treasures tells the dark and compelling stories of iconic cultural objects that were stolen, smuggled or sold, and eventually returned back to their original owner. The book includes full-color photos of the objects.

The Archaeology of the Colonized

Author: Michael Given

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113420079X

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 665

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The first book to integrate fully the archaeological study of the landscape with the concerns of colonial and postcolonial history, theory and scholarship, The Archaeology of the Colonized focuses on the experience of the colonized in their landscape setting, looking at case studies from areas of the world not often considered in the postcolonial debate. It offers original, exciting approaches to the growing area of research in archaeology and colonialism. From the pyramids of Old Kingdom Egypt to illicit whisky distilling in nineteenth-century Scotland, and from the Roman roads of Turkey to the threshing floors of Cyprus under British colonial rule, the case studies assist Dr. Given as he uses the archaeological evidence to create a vivid picture of how the lives and identities of farmers, artisans and labourers were affected by colonial systems of oppressive taxation, bureaucracy, forced labour and ideological control. This will be valuable to students, scholars or professionals investigating the relationship between local community and central control in a wide range of historical and archaeological contexts.

Archaeology

Theories, Methods, and Practice

Author: Colin Renfrew,Paul G. Bahn

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780500292105

Category: Social Science

Page: 672

View: 7577

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The best-selling archaeology textbook in the world, revised and updated, and now in its seventh edition

Theory in Archaeology

A World Perspective

Author: Peter J. Ucko

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134843461

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 2246

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Theory in Archaeology tackles important questions about the diversity in archaeological theory and practice which face the discipline in the 1990s. What is the relationship between theory and practice? How does `World' archaeological theory differ from `European'? Can one be a good practitioner without theory? This unique book brings together contributors from many different countries and continents to provide the first truly global perspective on archaeological theory. They examine the nature of material culture studies and look at problems of ethnicity, regionalism, and nationality. They consider, too, another fundamental of archaeological inquiry: can our research be objective, or must `the past' always be a relativistic construction? Theory in Archaeology is an important book whose authors bring together very different perceptions of the past. Its wide scope and interest will attract an international readership among students and academics alike.

Cosmopolitan Archaeologies

Author: Lynn Meskell

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822392429

Category: Social Science

Page: 303

View: 5146

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An important collection, Cosmopolitan Archaeologies delves into the politics of contemporary archaeology in an increasingly complex international environment. The contributors explore the implications of applying the cosmopolitan ideals of obligation to others and respect for cultural difference to archaeological practice, showing that those ethics increasingly demand the rethinking of research agendas. While cosmopolitan archaeologies must be practiced in contextually specific ways, what unites and defines them is archaeologists’ acceptance of responsibility for the repercussions of their projects, as well as their undertaking of heritage practices attentive to the concerns of the living communities with whom they work. These concerns may require archaeologists to address the impact of war, the political and economic depredations of past regimes, the livelihoods of those living near archaeological sites, or the incursions of transnational companies and institutions. The contributors describe various forms of cosmopolitan engagement involving sites that span the globe. They take up the links between conservation, natural heritage and ecology movements, and the ways that local heritage politics are constructed through international discourses and regulations. They are attentive to how communities near heritage sites are affected by archaeological fieldwork and findings, and to the complex interactions that local communities and national bodies have with international sponsors and universities, conservation agencies, development organizations, and NGOs. Whether discussing the toll of efforts to preserve biodiversity on South Africans living near Kruger National Park, the ways that UNESCO’s global heritage project universalizes the ethic of preservation, or the Open Declaration on Cultural Heritage at Risk that the Archaeological Institute of America sent to the U.S. government before the Iraq invasion, the contributors provide nuanced assessments of the ethical implications of the discursive production, consumption, and governing of other people’s pasts. Contributors. O. Hugo Benavides, Lisa Breglia, Denis Byrne, Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Alfredo González-Ruibal, Ian Hodder, Ian Lilley, Jane Lydon, Lynn Meskell, Sandra Arnold Scham

Dioskouroi

Studies Presented to W.G. Cavanagh and C.B. Mee on the Anniverary of Their 30-year Joint Contribution to Aegean Archaeology

Author: Chrysanthi Gallou,Mercourios Georgiadis,Georgina M. Muskett

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 369

View: 5436

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31 essays on the Bronze Age Aegean which cover a wide range of topics. They are grouped under the following headings: cult and death; Bronze Age material culture; gender; approaches to art; themes of ancient and modern identity; Homer once again; landscape and survey; ancient geography and regional studies; Sparta and Laconia.