Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy

Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe

Author: Gregory M. Luebbert

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198023073

Category: Political Science

Page: 432

View: 3311

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This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable to a discrete set of social class alliances, the author explores the origins and outcomes of the political development in the individual nations. In Britain, France, and Switzerland, countries with a unified middle class, liberal forces established political hegemony before World War I. By coopting considerable sections of the working class with reforms that weakened union movements, liberals essentially excluded the fragmented working class from the political process, remaining in power throughout the inter-war period. In countries with a strong, cohesive working class and a fractured middle class, Luebbert points out, a liberal solution was impossible. In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia, political coalitions of social democrats and the "family peasantry" emerged as a result of the First World War, leading to social democratic governments. In Italy, Spain, and Germany, on the other hand, the urban middle class united with a peasantry hostile to socialism to facilitate the rise of fascism.

Liberalism, Fascism, Or Social Democracy

Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe

Author: Gregory M. Luebbert

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195066103

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 1304

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This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable to a discrete set of social class alliances, the author explores the origins and outcomes of the political development in the individual nations. In Britain, France, and Switzerland, countries with a unified middle class, liberal forces established political hegemony before World War I. By coopting considerable sections of the working class with reforms that weakened union movements, liberals essentially excluded the fragmented working class from the political process, remaining in power throughout the inter-war period. In countries with a strong, cohesive working class and a fractured middle class, Luebbert points out, a liberal solution was impossible. In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia, political coalitions of social democrats and the "family peasantry" emerged as a result of the First World War, leading to social democratic governments. In Italy, Spain, and Germany, on the other hand, the urban middle class united with a peasantry hostile to socialism to facilitate the rise of fascism.

Liberalism, Fascism, Or Social Democracy

Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe

Author: Gregory M. Luebbert

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195066111

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 416

View: 6170

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This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable to a discrete set of social class alliances, the author explores the origins and outcomes of the political development in the individual nations. In Britain, France, and Switzerland, countries with a unified middle class, liberal forces established political hegemony before World War I. By coopting considerable sections of the working class with reforms that weakened union movements, liberals essentially excluded the fragmented working class from the political process, remaining in power throughout the inter-war period. In countries with a strong, cohesive working class and a fractured middle class, Luebbert points out, a liberal solution was impossible. In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia, political coalitions of social democrats and the "family peasantry" emerged as a result of the First World War, leading to social democratic governments. In Italy, Spain, and Germany, on the other hand, the urban middle class united with a peasantry hostile to socialism to facilitate the rise of fascism.

Liberal Fascism

The Secret History of the American Left, From Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning

Author: Jonah Goldberg

Publisher: Crown Forum

ISBN: 9780385517690

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 2520

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“Fascists,” “Brownshirts,” “jackbooted stormtroopers”—such are the insults typically hurled at conservatives by their liberal opponents. Calling someone a fascist is the fastest way to shut them up, defining their views as beyond the political pale. But who are the real fascists in our midst? Liberal Fascism offers a startling new perspective on the theories and practices that define fascist politics. Replacing conveniently manufactured myths with surprising and enlightening research, Jonah Goldberg reminds us that the original fascists were really on the left, and that liberals from Woodrow Wilson to FDR to Hillary Clinton have advocated policies and principles remarkably similar to those of Hitler's National Socialism and Mussolini's Fascism. Contrary to what most people think, the Nazis were ardent socialists (hence the term “National socialism”). They believed in free health care and guaranteed jobs. They confiscated inherited wealth and spent vast sums on public education. They purged the church from public policy, promoted a new form of pagan spirituality, and inserted the authority of the state into every nook and cranny of daily life. The Nazis declared war on smoking, supported abortion, euthanasia, and gun control. They loathed the free market, provided generous pensions for the elderly, and maintained a strict racial quota system in their universities—where campus speech codes were all the rage. The Nazis led the world in organic farming and alternative medicine. Hitler was a strict vegetarian, and Himmler was an animal rights activist. Do these striking parallels mean that today’s liberals are genocidal maniacs, intent on conquering the world and imposing a new racial order? Not at all. Yet it is hard to deny that modern progressivism and classical fascism shared the same intellectual roots. We often forget, for example, that Mussolini and Hitler had many admirers in the United States. W.E.B. Du Bois was inspired by Hitler's Germany, and Irving Berlin praised Mussolini in song. Many fascist tenets were espoused by American progressives like John Dewey and Woodrow Wilson, and FDR incorporated fascist policies in the New Deal. Fascism was an international movement that appeared in different forms in different countries, depending on the vagaries of national culture and temperament. In Germany, fascism appeared as genocidal racist nationalism. In America, it took a “friendlier,” more liberal form. The modern heirs of this “friendly fascist” tradition include the New York Times, the Democratic Party, the Ivy League professoriate, and the liberals of Hollywood. The quintessential Liberal Fascist isn't an SS storm trooper; it is a female grade school teacher with an education degree from Brown or Swarthmore. These assertions may sound strange to modern ears, but that is because we have forgotten what fascism is. In this angry, funny, smart, contentious book, Jonah Goldberg turns our preconceptions inside out and shows us the true meaning of Liberal Fascism.

The Third Wave

Democratization in the Late 20th Century

Author: Samuel P. Huntington

Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press

ISBN: 0806186046

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 5244

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Between 1974 and 1990 more than thirty countries in southern Europe, Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe shifted from authoritarian to democratic systems of government. This global democratic revolution is probably the most important political trend in the late twentieth century. In The Third Wave, Samuel P. Huntington analyzes the causes and nature of these democratic transitions, evaluates the prospects for stability of the new democracies, and explores the possibility of more countries becoming democratic. The recent transitions, he argues, are the third major wave of democratization in the modem world. Each of the two previous waves was followed by a reverse wave in which some countries shifted back to authoritarian government. Using concrete examples, empirical evidence, and insightful analysis, Huntington provides neither a theory nor a history of the third wave, but an explanation of why and how it occurred. Factors responsible for the democratic trend include the legitimacy dilemmas of authoritarian regimes; economic and social development; the changed role of the Catholic Church; the impact of the United States, the European Community, and the Soviet Union; and the "snowballing" phenomenon: change in one country stimulating change in others. Five key elite groups within and outside the nondemocratic regime played roles in shaping the various ways democratization occurred. Compromise was key to all democratizations, and elections and nonviolent tactics also were central. New democracies must deal with the "torturer problem" and the "praetorian problem" and attempt to develop democratic values and processes. Disillusionment with democracy, Huntington argues, is necessary to consolidating democracy. He concludes the book with an analysis of the political, economic, and cultural factors that will decide whether or not the third wave continues. Several "Guidelines for Democratizers" offer specific, practical suggestions for initiating and carrying out reform. Huntington's emphasis on practical application makes this book a valuable tool for anyone engaged in the democratization process. At this volatile time in history, Huntington's assessment of the processes of democratization is indispensable to understanding the future of democracy in the world.

The Legacies of Liberalism

Path Dependence and Political Regimes in Central America

Author: James Mahoney

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801865527

Category: History

Page: 396

View: 5569

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Despite their many similarities, Central American countries during the twentieth century were characterized by remarkably different political regimes. In a comparative analysis of Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Nicaragua, James Mahoney argues that these political differences were legacies of the nineteenth-century liberal reform period. Presenting a theory of "path dependence," Mahoney shows how choices made at crucial turning points in Central American history established certain directions of change and foreclosed others to shape long-term development. By the middle of the twentieth century, three types of political regimes characterized the five nations considered in this study: military-authoritarian (Guatemala, El Salvador), liberal democratic (Costa Rica), and traditional dictatorial (Honduras, Nicaragua). As Mahoney shows, each type is the end point of choices regarding state and agrarian development made by these countries early in the nineteenth century. Applying his conclusions to present-day attempts at market creation in a neoliberal era, Mahoney warns that overzealous pursuit of market creation can have severely negative long-term political consequences. The Legacies of Liberalism presents new insight into the role of leadership in political development, the place of domestic politics in the analysis of foreign intervention, and the role of the state in the creation of early capitalism. The book offers a general theoretical framework that will be of broad interest to scholars of comparative politics and political development, and its overall argument will stir debate among historians of particular Central American countries.

The Making and Unmaking of Democracy

Lessons from History and World Politics

Author: Theodore K. Rabb,Ezra N. Suleiman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113670468X

Category: Political Science

Page: 392

View: 7633

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First Published in 2003. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Democratization in the Global South

The Importance of Transformative Politics

Author: K. Stokke,O. Törnquist

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230370047

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 8699

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Given the weaknesses of mainstream democratisation since the 1980s, the authors present a cutting edge examination of dynamics of political change in the direction of more substantive democracy. While focusing on the Global South, they also draw comparisons from historical and contemporary experiences from Scandinavia.

Party System Change

Approaches and Interpretations

Author: Peter Mair

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019829235X

Category: Political Science

Page: 244

View: 2054

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Mair examines how we interpret the evidence of change and stability in modern parties and party systems. Focusing on processes of political adaptation and control, he also looks at how parties generate or freeze their own momentum.

Fascism, Liberalism, and Social Democracy in Central Europe

Past and Present

Author: Lene Bøgh Sørensen,Leslie C. Eliason

Publisher: Aarhus Universitetsforlag

ISBN: 9788772887197

Category: Political Science

Page: 364

View: 6894

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The three main currents in twentieth century political thought and practice "fascism, liberalism, and social democracy", emerged not in isolation from one another, but rather as competing and conflicting ideologies connected with particular social strata in different parts of Central Europe. That historical legacy continues to exert influence on popular perceptions and the relationship of contemporary political parties in the post-communist world. This volume of essays seeks to place the forces of Neo-Liberalism, Social Democracy, and Neo-Fascism within their historical perspective and their appeal to contemporary constituencies. In addressing the left, center, and right political elements, an international group of authors presents detailed analyses of a myriad of political options, including the skinheads and Neo-Nazis of central Europe, Hungarian Social Democracy, the Civic Forum in the Czech Republic, the party system in Slovakia, the development of FPÖ in Austria, and the Radical right in the Czech Republic. Papers also document the fall and rise of Social Democracy in the Czech Republic, the undermining of Slovak democracy, and Austrian Social Democracy before and after 1945. Concluding articles reflect on the limitations of Liberalism in Hungary and the ideology and role of socialist parties in the post-socialist milieu of Eastern-Central Europe. This book will be invaluable in providing the historical environment with an understanding of a vibrant, sometimes turbulent political arena.

Dark Continent

Europe's Twentieth Century

Author: Mark Mazower

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 030755550X

Category: History

Page: 512

View: 5136

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"A useful, important book that reminds us, at the right time, how hard [European unity] has been, and how much care must be taken to avoid the terrible old temptations." --Los Angeles Times Dark Continent provides an alternative history of the twentieth century, one in which the triumph of democracy was anything but a forgone conclusion and fascism and communism provided rival political solutions that battled and sometimes triumphed in an effort to determine the course the continent would take. Mark Mazower strips away myths that have comforted us since World War II, revealing Europe as an entity constantly engaged in a bloody project of self-invention. Here is a history not of inevitable victories and forward marches, but of narrow squeaks and unexpected twists, where townships boast a bronze of Mussolini on horseback one moment, only to melt it down and recast it as a pair of noble partisans the next. Unflinching, intelligent, Dark Continent provides a provocative vision of Europe's past, present, and future-and confirms Mark Mazower as a historian of valuable gifts. From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Age of Social Democracy

Norway and Sweden in the Twentieth Century

Author: Francis Sejersted,Madeleine B. Adams

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691147744

Category: History

Page: 543

View: 4514

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This is the history of how two countries on the northern edge of Europe built societies in the twentieth century that became objects of inspiration and envy around the world. Francis Sejersted, one of Scandinavia's leading historians, tells how Norway and Sweden achieved a rare feat by realizing grand visions of societies that combine stability, prosperity, and social welfare. It is a history that holds many valuable lessons today, at a time of renewed interest in the Scandinavian model. The book tells the story of social democracy from the separation of Norway and Sweden in 1905 through the end of the century, tracing its development from revolutionary beginnings through postwar triumph, as it became a hegemonic social order that left its stamp on every sector of society, the economy, welfare, culture, education, and family. The book also tells how in the 1980s, partly in reaction to the strong state, a freedom and rights revolution led to a partial erosion of social democracy. Yet despite the fracturing of consensus and the many economic and social challenges facing Norway and Sweden today, the achievement of their welfare states remains largely intact.

Antifa

The Anti-fascist Handbook

Author: Mark Bray

Publisher: Melville House

ISBN: 1612197035

Category: HISTORY

Page: 259

View: 1820

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Born soon after fascism was invented in the early 20th century, the anti-fascist movement - aka 'antifa' - has a long, fascinating history that is surprisingly little known. As it makes a dramatic and widespread reappearance in Trump's America, this book is both a riveting history, and an accessible guide to methods used over the years to fight repressive demagogism.

History in Dispute: Twentieth-century European social and political movements. Second series

Author: Benjamin Frankel

Publisher: St James Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 3180

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Addresses heavily debated questions by offering different critical perspectives on major historical events, drawn from all time periods and from all parts of the globe. This volume covers twentieth-century European social and political movements. Provides students with an enhanced understanding of events only summarized in history texts, helps stimulate critical thinking and provides ideas for papers and assignments.

Forward to the Past?

Continuity and Change in Political Development in Hungary, Austria, and the Czech and Slovak Republics

Author: Lene Bøgh Sørensen,Leslie C. Eliason

Publisher: Aarhus Universitetsforlag

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 307

View: 4071

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These eleven essays by historians, political scientists, sociologists and anthropologists establish a foundation for appreciating the political history of Central Europe. By examining the political landscape in each country, the contributors aim to evoke the legacy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and bridge the gap between the two extreme images of Central European history. Specific topics presented include: the lost dimensions of social movements and classes; the relationship between the concepts of "nation" and "state"; Austrian democracy; party system development; the myth of Czech liberalism; the Sudeten-German problem; Slovak politics; the regime change in Hungary; and the relationship between democracy and organised interests. By focusing on the consequences of past regime types, social structures and cultural contexts for democractic development, this volume presents a significant base from which future scholars can proceed on a country-by-country analysis.

Bread and Democracy in Germany

Author: Alexander Gerschenkron

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801495861

Category: History

Page: 238

View: 4353

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A classic in its field, Bread and Democracy in Germany has been widely praised since its publication in 1943 for its account of German political and economic development. In his preface, Alexander Gerschenkron states: "The primary purpose of this study is to show, first, how, before 1914, the machinery of Junker protectionism is agriculture, coupled with the Junker philosophy . . . delayed the development of democratic institutions in Germany; and second, how the Junkers contrived to escape almost unscathed from the German revolution of 1918 and how this fact contributed to the constitutional weakness and subsequent disintegration of the Weimar Republic." Emphasizing the importance of the problem of German agriculture in its relation to democratic reconstruction, Gerschenkron asserts that "the political attitude of farmers in several European countries had a decisive influence on the fate of European democracy. Nowhere is this more true than in Germany. The German farmers bear their full share of responsibility for the advent of fascism in that country."

Democratization in Eastern and Western Europe

Author: Frederick D. Weil,Jeffrey Huffman,Mary Gautier

Publisher: JAI Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 378

View: 9750

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Provides research on democracy and society, discussing such topics as: reformed churches and the fall of communism in Hungary and Romania; the Polish conflict of the 1980s as a challenge to systemic transformations; and nationalism and democracy in England, France and Russia.