Lectures on Generating Functions

Author: Sergei K. Lando

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821834819

Category: Mathematics

Page: 148

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In combinatorics, one often considers the process of enumerating objects of a certain nature, which results in a sequence of positive integers. With each such sequence, one can associate a generating function, whose properties tell us a lot about the nature of the objects being enumerated. Nowadays, the language of generating functions is the main language of enumerative combinatorics. This book is based on the course given by the author at the College of Mathematics of the Independent University of Moscow. It starts with definitions, simple properties, and numerous examples of generating functions. It then discusses various topics, such as formal grammars, generating functions in several variables, partitions and decompositions, and the exclusion-inclusion principle. In the final chapter, the author describes applications of generating functions to enumeration of trees, plane graphs, and graphs embedded in two-dimensional surfaces. Throughout the book, the reader is motivated by interesting examples rather than by general theories. It also contains a lot of exercises to help the reader master the material. Little beyond the standard calculus course is necessary to understand the book. It can serve as a text for a one-semester undergraduate course in combinatorics.

Applied Combinatorics, Second Edition

Author: Fred Roberts,Barry Tesman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420099836

Category: Computers

Page: 848

View: 9989

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Now with solutions to selected problems, Applied Combinatorics, Second Edition presents the tools of combinatorics from an applied point of view. This bestselling textbook offers numerous references to the literature of combinatorics and its applications that enable readers to delve more deeply into the topics. After introducing fundamental counting rules and the tools of graph theory and relations, the authors focus on three basic problems of combinatorics: counting, existence, and optimization problems. They discuss advanced tools for dealing with the counting problem, including generating functions, recurrences, inclusion/exclusion, and Pólya theory. The text then covers combinatorial design, coding theory, and special problems in graph theory. It also illustrates the basic ideas of combinatorial optimization through a study of graphs and networks.

Primality Testing for Beginners

Author: Lasse Rempe-Gillen, Rebecca Waldecker

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821898833

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

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How can you tell whether a number is prime? What if the number has hundreds or thousands of digits? This question may seem abstract or irrelevant, but in fact, primality tests are performed every time we make a secure online transaction. In 2002, Agrawal, Kayal, and Saxena answered a long-standing open question in this context by presenting a deterministic test (the AKS algorithm) with polynomial running time that checks whether a number is prime or not. What is more, their methods are essentially elementary, providing us with a unique opportunity to give a complete explanation of a current mathematical breakthrough to a wide audience. Rempe-Gillen and Waldecker introduce the aspects of number theory, algorithm theory, and cryptography that are relevant for the AKS algorithm and explain in detail why and how this test works. This book is specifically designed to make the reader familiar with the background that is necessary to appreciate the AKS algorithm and begins at a level that is suitable for secondary school students, teachers, and interested amateurs. Throughout the book, the reader becomes involved in the topic by means of numerous exercises.

Counting with Symmetric Functions

Author: Jeffrey Remmel,Anthony Mendes

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3319236180

Category: Mathematics

Page: 292

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This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics. It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions. Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions. Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4. The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enumeration theorem using symmetric functions. Chapters 7 and 8 are more specialized than the preceding ones, covering consecutive pattern matches in permutations, words, cycles, and alternating permutations and introducing the reciprocity method as a way to define ring homomorphisms with desirable properties. Counting with Symmetric Functions will appeal to graduate students and researchers in mathematics or related subjects who are interested in counting methods, generating functions, or symmetric functions. The unique approach taken and results and exercises explored by the authors make it an important contribution to the mathematical literature.

The Discrete Math Workbook

A Companion Manual for Practical Study

Author: Sergei Kurgalin,Sergei Borzunov

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319926454

Category: Computers

Page: 485

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This practically-oriented textbook presents an accessible introduction to discrete mathematics through a substantial collection of classroom-tested exercises. Each chapter opens with concise coverage of the theory underlying the topic, reviewing the basic concepts and establishing the terminology, as well as providing the key formulae and instructions on their use. This is then followed by a detailed account of the most common problems in the area, before the reader is invited to practice solving such problems for themselves through a varied series of questions and assignments. Topics and features: provides an extensive set of exercises and examples of varying levels of complexity, suitable for both laboratory practical training and self-study; offers detailed solutions to many problems, applying commonly-used methods and computational schemes; introduces the fundamentals of mathematical logic, the theory of algorithms, Boolean algebra, graph theory, sets, relations, functions, and combinatorics; presents more advanced material on the design and analysis of algorithms, including asymptotic analysis, and parallel algorithms; includes reference lists of trigonometric and finite summation formulae in an appendix, together with basic rules for differential and integral calculus. This hands-on study guide is designed to address the core needs of undergraduate students training in computer science, informatics, and electronic engineering, emphasizing the skills required to develop and implement an algorithm in a specific programming language.

Bernoulli Numbers and Zeta Functions

Author: Tsuneo Arakawa,Tomoyoshi Ibukiyama,Masanobu Kaneko

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431549196

Category: Mathematics

Page: 274

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Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of exponential sums expressed by generalized Bernoulli numbers; the relation between ideal classes of orders of quadratic fields and equivalence classes of binary quadratic forms; class number formula for positive definite binary quadratic forms; congruences between some class numbers and Bernoulli numbers; simple zeta functions of prehomogeneous vector spaces; Hurwitz numbers; Barnes multiple zeta functions and their special values; the functional equation of the doub le zeta functions; and poly-Bernoulli numbers. An appendix by Don Zagier on curious and exotic identities for Bernoulli numbers is also supplied. This book will be enjoyable both for amateurs and for professional researchers. Because the logical relations between the chapters are loosely connected, readers can start with any chapter depending on their interests. The expositions of the topics are not always typical, and some parts are completely new.

Analytic Combinatorics

Author: Philippe Flajolet,Robert Sedgewick

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139477161

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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Analytic combinatorics aims to enable precise quantitative predictions of the properties of large combinatorial structures. The theory has emerged over recent decades as essential both for the analysis of algorithms and for the study of scientific models in many disciplines, including probability theory, statistical physics, computational biology, and information theory. With a careful combination of symbolic enumeration methods and complex analysis, drawing heavily on generating functions, results of sweeping generality emerge that can be applied in particular to fundamental structures such as permutations, sequences, strings, walks, paths, trees, graphs and maps. This account is the definitive treatment of the topic. The authors give full coverage of the underlying mathematics and a thorough treatment of both classical and modern applications of the theory. The text is complemented with exercises, examples, appendices and notes to aid understanding. The book can be used for an advanced undergraduate or a graduate course, or for self-study.

Analytic Combinatorics in Several Variables

Author: Robin Pemantle,Mark C. Wilson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107031575

Category: Mathematics

Page: 380

View: 402

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This book is the result of nearly fifteen years of work on developing analytic machinery to recover, as effectively as possible, asymptotics of the coefficients of a multivariate generating function. It is the first book to describe many of the results and techniques necessary to estimate coefficients of generating functions in more than one variable.

Mathematics++

Author: Ida Kantor, Jiří Matoušek,Robert Šámal

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470422611

Category: MATHEMATICS

Page: 343

View: 2508

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Mathematics++ is a concise introduction to six selected areas of 20th century mathematics providing numerous modern mathematical tools used in contemporary research in computer science, engineering, and other fields. The areas are: measure theory, high-dimensional geometry, Fourier analysis, representations of groups, multivariate polynomials, and topology. For each of the areas, the authors introduce basic notions, examples, and results. The presentation is clear and accessible, stressing intuitive understanding, and it includes carefully selected exercises as an integral part. Theory is complemented by applications--some quite surprising--in theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics. The chapters are independent of one another and can be studied in any order. It is assumed that the reader has gone through the basic mathematics courses. Although the book was conceived while the authors were teaching Ph.D. students in theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics, it will be useful for a much wider audience, such as mathematicians specializing in other areas, mathematics students deciding what specialization to pursue, or experts in engineering or other fields.

Concrete Mathematics

A Foundation for Computer Science

Author: Ronald L. Graham,Donald Ervin Knuth,Oren Patashnik

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201558029

Category: Computers

Page: 657

View: 7959

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This book, updated and improved, introduces the mathematics that supports advanced computer programming and the analysis of algorithms. The primary aim of its well-known authors is to provide a solid and relevant base of mathematical skills--the skills needed to solve complex problems, to evaluate horrendous-looking sums, to solve complex recurrence relations, and to discover subtle patterns in data. It is an indispensable text and reference, not only for computer scientists but for all technical professionals in virtually every discipline.

Introductory Discrete Mathematics

Author: V. K . Balakrishnan

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486140385

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

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This concise, undergraduate-level text focuses on combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some standard network optimization problems, and algorithms. More than 200 exercises, many with complete solutions. 1991 edition.

Combinatorics: The Rota Way

Author: Joseph P. S. Kung,Gian-Carlo Rota,Catherine H. Yan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052188389X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 396

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Compiled and edited by two of Gian-Carlo Rota's students, this book is based on notes from his influential combinatorics courses.

Combinatorics

A Guided Tour

Author: David R. Mazur

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 9780883857625

Category: Mathematics

Page: 391

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Combinatorics is mathematics of enumeration, existence, construction, and optimization questions concerning finite sets. This text focuses on the first three types of questions and covers basic counting and existence principles, distributions, generating functions, recurrence relations, Polya theory, combinatorial designs, error correcting codes, partially ordered sets, and selected applications to graph theory including the enumeration of trees, the chromatic polynomial, and introductory Ramsey theory. The only prerequisites are single-variable calculus and familiarity with sets and basic proof techniques. The text emphasizes the brands of thinking that are characteristic of combinatorics: bijective and combinatorial proofs, recursive analysis, and counting problem classification. It is flexible enough to be used for undergraduate courses in combinatorics, second courses in discrete mathematics, introductory graduate courses in applied mathematics programs, as well as for independent study or reading courses. What makes this text a guided tour are the approximately 350 reading questions spread throughout its eight chapters. These questions provide checkpoints for learning and prepare the reader for the end-of-section exercises of which there are over 470. Most sections conclude with Travel Notes that add color to the material of the section via anecdotes, open problems, suggestions for further reading, and biographical information about mathematicians involved in the discoveries.

A Mathematical Introduction to Wavelets

Author: P. Wojtaszczyk

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521578943

Category: Mathematics

Page: 261

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This book presents a mathematical introduction to the theory of orthogonal wavelets and their uses in analyzing functions and function spaces, both in one and in several variables. Starting with a detailed and self-contained discussion of the general construction of one dimensional wavelets from multiresolution analysis, the book presents in detail the most important wavelets: spline wavelets, Meyer's wavelets and wavelets with compact support. It then moves to the corresponding multivariable theory and gives genuine multivariable examples. The author discusses wavelet decompositions in Lp spaces, Hardy spaces and Besov spaces and provides wavelet characterizations of those spaces. Also included are periodic wavelets or wavelets not associated with a multiresolution analysis. This will be an invaluable book for those wishing to learn about the mathematical foundations of wavelets.

The Mathematical Legacy of Richard P. Stanley

Author: Patricia Hersh,Thomas Lam,Pavlo Pylyavskyy,Victor Reiner

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470427249

Category: Combinatorial analysis

Page: 352

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Richard Stanley's work in combinatorics revolutionized and reshaped the subject. His lectures, papers, and books inspired a generation of researchers. In this volume, these researchers explain how Stanley's vision and insights influenced and guided their own perspectives on the subject. As a valuable bonus, this book contains a collection of Stanley's short comments on each of his papers. This book may serve as an introduction to several different threads of ongoing research in combinatorics as well as giving historical perspective.

Lectures on Selected Topics in Mathematical Physics

Elliptic Functions and Elliptic Integrals

Author: William A. Schwalm

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681740389

Category: Science

Page: 67

View: 8626

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This volume is a basic introduction to certain aspects of elliptic functions and elliptic integrals. Primarily, the elliptic functions stand out as closed solutions to a class of physical and geometrical problems giving rise to nonlinear differential equations. While these nonlinear equations may not be the types of greatest interest currently, the fact that they are solvable exactly in terms of functions about which much is known makes up for this. The elliptic functions of Jacobi, or equivalently the Weierstrass elliptic functions, inhabit the literature on current problems in condensed matter and statistical physics, on solitons and conformal representations, and all sorts of famous problems in classical mechanics. The lectures on elliptic functions have evolved as part of the first semester of a course on theoretical and mathematical methods given to first and second year graduate students in physics and chemistry at the University of North Dakota. They are for graduate students or for researchers who want an elementary introduction to the subject that nevertheless leaves them with enough of the details to address real problems. The style is supposed to be informal. The intention is to introduce the subject as a moderate extension of ordinary trigonometry in which the reference circle is replaced by an ellipse. This entre depends upon fewer tools and has seemed less intimidating that other typical introductions to the subject that depend on some knowledge of complex variables. The first three lectures assume only calculus, including the chain rule and elementary knowledge of differential equations. In the later lectures, the complex analytic properties are introduced naturally so that a more complete study becomes possible.

An Introduction to Enumeration

Author: Alan Camina,Barry Lewis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780857296009

Category: Mathematics

Page: 232

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Written for students taking a second or third year undergraduate course in mathematics or computer science, this book is the ideal companion to a course in enumeration. Enumeration is a branch of combinatorics where the fundamental subject matter is numerous methods of pattern formation and counting. Introduction to Enumeration provides a comprehensive and practical introduction to this subject giving a clear account of fundamental results and a thorough grounding in the use of powerful techniques and tools. Two major themes run in parallel through the book, generating functions and group theory. The former theme takes enumerative sequences and then uses analytic tools to discover how they are made up. Group theory provides a concise introduction to groups and illustrates how the theory can be used to count the number of symmetries a particular object has. These enrich and extend basic group ideas and techniques. The authors present their material through examples that are carefully chosen to establish key results in a natural setting. The aim is to progressively build fundamental theorems and techniques. This development is interspersed with exercises that consolidate ideas and build confidence. Some exercises are linked to particular sections while others range across a complete chapter. Throughout, there is an attempt to present key enumerative ideas in a graphic way, using diagrams to make them immediately accessible. The development assumes some basic group theory, a familiarity with analytic functions and their power series expansion along with some basic linear algebra.

Combinatorial Reasoning

An Introduction to the Art of Counting

Author: Duane DeTemple,William Webb

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118652134

Category: Mathematics

Page: 488

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Written by two well-known scholars in the field, Combinatorial Reasoning: An Introduction to the Art of Counting presents a clear and comprehensive introduction to the concepts and methodology of beginning combinatorics. Focusing on modern techniques and applications, the book develops a variety of effective approaches to solving counting problems. Balancing abstract ideas with specific topical coverage, the book utilizes real world examples with problems ranging from basic calculations that are designed to develop fundamental concepts to more challenging exercises that allow for a deeper exploration of complex combinatorial situations. Simple cases are treated first before moving on to general and more advanced cases. Additional features of the book include: • Approximately 700 carefully structured problems designed for readers at multiple levels, many with hints and/or short answers • Numerous examples that illustrate problem solving using both combinatorial reasoning and sophisticated algorithmic methods • A novel approach to the study of recurrence sequences, which simplifies many proofs and calculations • Concrete examples and diagrams interspersed throughout to further aid comprehension of abstract concepts • A chapter-by-chapter review to clarify the most crucial concepts covered Combinatorial Reasoning: An Introduction to the Art of Counting is an excellent textbook for upper-undergraduate and beginning graduate-level courses on introductory combinatorics and discrete mathematics.