Landscape Disturbance and Biodiversity in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Author: Philip W. Rundel,Gloria Montenegro,Fabian M. Jaksic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366203543X

Category: Science

Page: 451

View: 3487


Human impact on natural landscapes through urbanization and agricultural expansion are becoming more and more dramatic and are the cause of serious environmental problems. This volume examines the effect of landscape disturbance on plant and animal diversity in the five mediterranean-climate regions of the world. It begins with three introductory chapters broadly reviewing the issues of landscape degradation. Further contributions describe regional land use conflicts in each of the five regions. Landscape disturbance and plant diversity, and landscape disturbance and animal diversity are treated in separate chapters. Four contributions deal with demography and ecophysiology in vegetation succession following disturbance. The volume closes with a consideration of the future addressing aspects of environmental politics.

Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground

Author: L.R. Walker

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080550848

Category: Science

Page: 868

View: 2275


As the human population inexorably grows, its cumulative impact on the Earth's resources is hard to ignore. The ability of the Earth to support more humans is dependent on the ability of humans to manage natural resources wisely. Because disturbance alters resource levels, effective management requires understanding of the ecology of disturbance. This book is the first to take a global approach to the description of both natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes that physically impact the ground. Natural disturbances such as erosion, volcanoes, wind, herbivory, flooding and drought plus anthropogenic disturbances such as foresty, grazing, mining, urbanization and military actions are considered. Both disturbance impacts and the biotic recovery are addressed as well as the interactions of different types of disturbance. Other chapters cover processes that are important to the understanding of disturbance of all types including soil processes, nutrient cycles, primary productivity, succession, animal behaviour and competition. Humans react to disturbances by avoiding, exacerbating, or restoring them or by passing environmental legislation. All of these issues are covered in this book. Managers need better predictive models and robust data-collections that help determine both site-specfic and generalized responses to disturbance. Multiple disturbances have a complex effect on both physical and biotic processes as they interact. This book provides a wealth of detail about the process of disturbance and recovery as well as a synthesis of the current state of knowledge about disturbance theory, with extensive documentation.

Mediterranean Ecogeography

Author: Harriet D. Allen

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780582404526

Category: Science

Page: 263

View: 1754


This volume examines not only the physical geography of Mediterranean environments, but also the human impacts on the ecology of each area. It includes case material from Europe, mediterranean environments of South Africa, and North America.

The Biology of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Author: Karen J. Esler,Anna L. Jacobsen,R. Brandon Pratt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019105965X

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 3860


The world's mediterranean-type climate regions (including areas within the Mediterranean, South Africa, Australia, California, and Chile) have long been of interest to biologists by virtue of their extraordinary biodiversity and the appearance of evolutionary convergence between these disparate regions. These regions contain many rare and endemic species. Their mild climate makes them appealing places to live and visit and this has resulted in numerous threats to the species and communities that occupy them. Threats include a wide range of factors such as habitat loss due to development and agriculture, disturbance, invasive species, and climate change. As a result, they continue to attract far more attention than their limited geographic area might suggest. This book provides a concise but comprehensive introduction to mediterranean-type ecosystems. As with other books in the Biology of Habitats Series, the emphasis in this book is on the organisms that dominate these regions although their management, conservation, and restoration are also considered. The book is intended for students, naturalists, practitioners, and professionals without any previous knowledge of mediterranean-type ecosystem ecology. It is an accessible text suitable for graduate students and researchers of mediterranean-type ecosystem ecology and geography, as well as professional ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and conservation biologists requiring a concise, authoritative overview of the topic.

Mediterranean Island Landscapes

Natural and Cultural Approaches

Author: Ioannis N. Vogiatzakis,Gloria Pungetti,A.M. Mannion

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402050640

Category: Science

Page: 369

View: 9150


Mediterranean islands exhibit many similarities in their biotic ecological, physical and environmental characteristics. There are also many differences in terms of their human colonization and current anthropogenic pressures. This book addresses in three sections these characteristics and examines the major environmental changes that the islands experienced during the Quaternary period. The first section provides details on natural and cultural factors which have shaped island landscapes. It describes the environmental and cultural changes of the Holocene and their effects on biota, as well as on the current human pressures that are now threats to the sustainability of the island communities. The second section focuses on the landscapes of the largest islands namely Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Cyprus, Crete, Malta and the Balearics. Each island chapter includes a special topic reflecting a particular characteristic of the island. Part three presents strategies for action towards sustainability in Mediterranean islands and concludes with a comparison between the largest islands. Despite several published books on Mediterranean ecosystems/landscapes there is no existing book dealing with Mediterranean islands in a collective manner. Students, researchers and university lecturers in environmental science, geography, biology and ecology will find this work invaluable as a cross-disciplinary text while planners and politicians will welcome the succinct summaries as background material to planning decisions.

Multifunctional Landscapes

Multifunctional Theory, Values and History

Author: Jesper Brandt,Hans Vejre,Ülo Mander,M. Antrop

Publisher: Wit Pr/Computational Mechanics


Category: Nature

Page: 276

View: 8554


Encouraging interdisciplinary discussions and emphasizing practical applications these books contain papers originally presented at the conference on this topic held in Roskilde, Denmark in 2000. These have since been peer-reviewed and revised for publication. Volume I presents a new framework for understanding and interpreting landscapes and their functions and values in space and time.

Transdisciplinary challenges in landscape ecology and restoration ecology

an anthology with forewords by E. Laszlo and M. Antrop and epilogue by E. Allen

Author: Zeev Naveh

Publisher: Springer Verlag

ISBN: 9781402044205

Category: Political Science

Page: 423

View: 760


Capitalizing on forty years of intensive ecological studies, this anthology presents a collection of widely dispersed major publications on theoretical and practical Mediterranean, global environmental and landscape issues. These range from Mediterranean ecosystems and vegetation types in California and Israel, to the significance of fire in the evolution of cultural Mediterranean landscapes in the Pleistocene and Early Holocene with special reference to Mt. Carmel; and from the development of Tanzania Masailand, a sociological and ecological challenge to multifunctional, self-organizing biosphere landscapes and the future of our Total Human Ecosystem.Each chapter features a comprehensive study of ecological and landscape issues, synthesized in the introduction, and woven with autobiographical experiences. The concluding chapter calls for a transdisciplinary shift in all environmental scientific fields and particularly in landscape and restoration ecology, to cope with the complex, closely interwoven ecological, socio-economical, political and cultural crises facing human society during the present crucial transition from the industrial to the post-industrial, global information age.Updating and broadening the scope of the groundbreaking Springer book on Landscape Theory and Applications by the author and Lieberman (1994), this is a unique transdisciplinary attempt based on advanced systems complexity theories, which link the natural and human sciences. It will be of value for all those dealing with land and landscape study in the broadest sense as academic scientists, researchers and scholars, professionals and practitioners and students.

Old fields

dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

Author: Viki A. Cramer,Richard J. Hobbs,Society for Ecological Restoration International

Publisher: Island Pr

ISBN: 9781597260749

Category: Nature

Page: 334

View: 7609


Land abandonment is increasing as human influence on the globe intensifies and various ecological, social, and economic factors conspire to force the cessation of agriculture and other forms of land management. The “old fields” that result from abandonment have been the subject of much study, yet few attempts have been made to examine the larger questions raised by old field dynamics. Old Fields brings together leading experts from around the world to synthesize past and current work on old fields, providing an up-to-date perspective on the ecological dynamics of abandoned land. The book gives readers a broad understanding of why agricultural land is abandoned, the factors that determine the ecological recovery of old fields, and how this understanding contributes to theoretical and applied ecology. Twelve case studies from diverse geographical and climatic areas—including Australian rainforest, Brazilian Amazonia, New Jersey piedmont, and South African renosterveld—offer a global perspective on the causes and results of land abandonment. Concluding chapters consider the similarities and differences among the case studies, examine them in the context of ecological concepts, and discuss their relevance to the growing field of restoration ecology. Old Fields is the first book to draw together studies on old fields from both a theoretical and practical perspective. It represents an important contribution to the development of theory on old field dynamics and the practice of ecological restoration on abandoned farmland, and the broader implications of old field dynamics to ecology and restoration.

Encyclopedia of Biodiversity

Author: Simon A. Levin

Publisher: N.A


Category: Biodiversity

Page: 16

View: 7491


Includes articles on agriculture, ecology, forests, wetlands, and environment, as well as organisms

Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen

in ökologischer, dynamischer und historischer Sicht

Author: Heinz Ellenberg,Christoph Leuschner

Publisher: UTB

ISBN: 3825281043

Category: Science

Page: 1095

View: 6684


Die aktuelle Gesamtschau der Vegetationsökologie Zentraleuropas, jetzt in der vollständig überarbeiteten, stark erweiterten 6. Auflage! Dieses Handbuch behandelt die naturräumlichen und pflanzengeographischen Grundlagen Mitteleuropas sowie die Entwicklung unter dem Einfluss des Menschen in den letzten 7000 Jahren – in den Bereichen Vegetations- und Standortskunde, Ökophysiologie, Populationsökologie, Ökosystemforschung und Naturschutzbiologie. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt auf den aktuellen Umweltbelastungen und der daraus resultierenden hohen Dynamik der Lebensgemeinschaften in heutiger Zeit. Mit rund 1000 gut erläuterten Abbildungen und Tabellen, einer überarbeiteten Version der Zeigerwerte der Pflanzen Mitteleuropas, 5300 Literaturzitaten und umfangreichem Register. Ein unverzichtbares Nachschlagewerk und Lehrbuch für Studierende und Wissenschaftler der Ökologie, Forst- und Agrarwissenschaften und Geographie sowie für im Umwelt- und Naturschutz Wirkende.

Information und die innere Struktur des Universums

Author: Tom Stonier

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642765084

Category: Computers

Page: 97

View: 3277


Ist Information eine unabhängige Größe, wie Masse, Impuls oder elektrische Ladung? Professor T. Stonier ist davon überzeugt. Information existiert, unabhängig davon, ob jemand sie versteht. Mehr als 2000 Jahre konnte niemand ägyptische Hieroglyphen entziffern, die Information war aber enthalten. Niemand wird bezweifeln, daß ein DNA-Kristall mehr Information trägt als ein Salzkristall derselben Masse. Der entscheidende Punkt ist, daß die Bildung eines DNA-Kristalls mehr Energie benötigt. Energie wird verbraucht, um Information zu erzeugen, d.h. um den Organisationsgrad eines Systems zu erhöhen bzw. seine Entropie zu reduzieren. Tom Stonier stellt den Begriff von Information und ihre Bedeutung von einer neuen Warte dar. Wer mit Information zu tun hat, sollte dieses Buch lesen. Die Zeit schreibt zur englischen Ausgabe: "... unterstützt er seine Thesen mit einleuchtenden Beispielen und Metaphern, die auch Nichtphysikern das Lesen seines Buches zum logischen Vergnügen machen. Nebenbei lernen wir bei ihm eine Menge Physik und Molekulargenetik."

How Landscapes Change

Human Disturbance and Ecosystem Fragmentation in the Americas

Author: Gay A. Bradshaw,Pablo Marquet

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540436973

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 9377


North and South America share similar human and ecological histories and, increasingly, economic and social linkages. As such, issues of ecosystem functions and disruptions form a common thread among these cultures. This volume synthesizes the perspectives of several disciplines, such as ecology, anthropology, economy, and conservation biology. The chief goal is to gain an understanding of how human and ecological processes interact to affect ecosystem functions and species in the Americas. Throughout the text the emphasis is placed on habitat fragmentation. At the same time, the book provides an overview of current theory, methods, and approaches used in the analysis of ecosystem disruptions and fragmentation.

Wenn der Nagekäfer zweimal klopft

Das geheime Leben der Insekten

Author: Dave Goulson

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446447083

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 5535


Der britische Biologe Dave Goulson unternimmt eine Expedition auf den Planeten der Insekten – genauer auf die Blumenwiesen rund um sein marodes französisches Landhaus. Die Helden seiner Feldforschungsabenteuer sind nicht nur Bienen und Hummeln, sondern alles, was kreucht und fleucht: Grillen, Grashüpfer, Glühwürmchen – und Libellen, denen beim Liebemachen zuzusehen eine Freude ist. Goulson taucht dabei so tief ins Reich der Tiere ein wie kaum jemand zuvor. Ein Buch, das die entscheidende Bedeutung von Insekten für unsere Umwelt und das ganze globale Ökosystem beleuchtet. Und ein Weckruf, die Nutzung von Insektiziden zurückzufahren, um das Sterben der Bienen und anderer Bestäuber zu stoppen.