India Before Europe

Author: Catherine B. Asher,Cynthia Talbot

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521809045

Category: History

Page: 313

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India is a land of enormous diversity. Cross-cultural influences are everywhere in evidence, in the food people eat, the clothes they wear, and in the places they worship. This was especially the case in the India that existed from 1200 to 1750, before the European intervention. The book takes the reader on a journey across the political, economic, religious and cultural landscapes of medieval India, from the Ghurid conquests and the Dehli Sultanate to the great court of the Mughals. This was a time of conquest and consolidation, when Muslims and Hindus came together to create a unique culture which still resonates in today's India. As the first survey of its kind in over a decade, the book is a tour de force. It is beautifully illustrated and fluently composed, with a cast of characters which will educate students and general readers alike.

Asia Before Europe

Economy and Civilisation of the Indian Ocean from the Rise of Islam to 1750

Author: K. N. Chaudhuri

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521316811

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 477

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This book explores the dynamic interaction between economic life, society and civilisation in the regions around and beyond the Indian Ocean during the period from the rise of Islam to 1750. Within a distinctive theory of comparative history, Professor Chaudhuri analyses how the identity of different Asian civilisations was established. He examines the structural features of food habits, clothing, architectural styles and housing; the different modes of economic production; and the role of crop raising, pastoral nomadism, and industrial activities for the main regions of the Indian Ocean. In an original and perceptive conclusion, the author demonstrates how Indian Ocean societies were united or separated from one another by a conscious cultural and linguistic identity. However, there was a deeper structure of unities created by a common ecology, technology, technology of economic production, traditions of government, theory of political obligations and rights, and a shared historical experience. His theory enables the author to show that the real Indian Ocean was an area that extended historically from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to the sea which lies beyond Japan.

Geschichte der Welt 1350-1750

Weltreiche und Weltmeere

Author: Akira Iriye,Jürgen Osterhammel,Wolfgang Reinhard

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 340664113X

Category: History

Page: 1008

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«Weltgeschichte ist lange Zeit als eine Geschichte des Aufstiegs und Niedergangs einer kleinen Zahl von ‚Hochkulturen‘ geschrieben worden. Unter diesen Kulturen schienen Europa oder der atlantische ‚Westen‘ während der letzten Jahrhunderte nach den Kriterien Macht, Wohlstand und kulturelle Kreativität zu dominieren. Das neue sechsbändige Werk zur Weltgeschichte, das von einem Team von Historikerinnen und Historikern vorwiegend aus den USA und Deutschland erarbeitet wird und das gleichzeitig bei C.H.Beck und Harvard University Press erscheint, verabschiedet sich von diesen Traditionen. Es leugnet die Errungenschaften des Westens nicht, stellt sie aber in den größeren Zusammenhang gleichzeitiger Entwicklungen in anderen Teilen der Welt. Dadurch wird das allmähliche, dabei aber krisenhafte Entstehen des heutigen dicht integrierten und pluralistischen Weltzusammenhangs sichtbar. Erstmals werden in diesen Bänden die Ergebnisse von mehreren Jahrzehnten internationaler Forschung zur Vorgeschichte der Globalisierung und zur Entwicklung von Gesellschaften und politischen Ordnungen auf allen Kontinenten von führenden Experten zusammenfassend dargestellt. Weltgeschichte erscheint hier nicht als Aneinanderreihung einzelner Spezialgeschichten. Die Aufmerksamkeit richtet sich auf bisher wenig beachtete Querbeziehungen und Wechselwirkungen: auf Migrationen von Einzelnen und Gruppen und die Gründung neuer Gesellschaften, auf die interkontinentale Ausbreitung von Technologien, Religionen oder politischen Ideen, auf globale Kommunikationsnetze, Handelsströme und Konsummuster, auf Imperialismus, Kolonialismus und großräumige Kriege.»

Der gefräßige Leviathan

Entstehung, Ausbreitung und Zukunft des modernen Staates

Author: Alexander Thiele

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 316156880X

Category: Law

Page: 369

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Die politische Welt ist in Nationalstaaten aufgeteilt. Wann aber ist diese Staatsform entstanden und was unterscheidet sie von vormodernen Herrschaftsformen? Wie konnte sie sich anschliessend weltweit ausbreiten und andere Herrschaftsformen praktisch vollstandig verdrangen? Und schliesslich: Wird der moderne Staat auch zukunftig bestehen konnen oder befinden wir uns bereits mitten in einer poststaatlichen Ara, wie sie schon von Carl Schmitt vorhergesagt wurde? Auf diese Fragen will Alexander Thiele Antworten finden. Dabei zeigt er vor allem: Staatlichkeit befand sich schon immer im Wandel und wird sich auch weiterhin wandeln. Der moderne Staat aber ist kein Auslaufmodell und sollte es auch nicht sein. Eine demokratische Welt wird es nur mit Staaten geben konnen - allerdings nicht mit Nationalstaaten. Es gilt vielmehr mit der Nation und dem Nationalismus die letzten sakralen Elemente aus der staatlichen Sphare zu beseitigen.

Asia Inside Out

Author: Eric Tagliacozzo,Helen F. Siu,Peter C. Perdue

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674967682

Category: History

Page: 418

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Asia Inside Out reveals the dynamic forces that have linked regions of the world’s largest continent. Connected Places, the second of three volumes, highlights the flows of goods, ideas, and people across natural and political boundaries and illustrates the confluence of factors in the historical construction of place and space.

Religious Cultures in Early Modern India

New Perspectives

Author: Rosalind O'Hanlon,David Washbrook

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317982878

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 2794

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Religious authority and political power have existed in complex relationships throughout India’s history. The centuries of the ‘early modern’ in South Asia saw particularly dynamic developments in this relationship. Regional as well as imperial states of the period expanded their religious patronage, while new sectarian centres of doctrinal and spiritual authority emerged beyond the confines of the state. Royal and merchant patronage stimulated the growth of new classes of mobile intellectuals deeply committed to the reappraisal of many aspects of religious law and doctrine. Supra-regional institutions and networks of many other kinds - sect-based religious maths, pilgrimage centres and their guardians, sants and sufi orders - flourished, offering greater mobility to wider communities of the pious. This was also a period of growing vigour in the development of vernacular religious literatures of different kinds, and often of new genres blending elements of older devotional, juridical and historical literatures. Oral and manuscript literatures too gained more rapid circulation, although the meaning and canonical status of texts frequently changed as they circulated more widely and reached larger lay audiences. Through explorations of these developments, the essays in this collection make a distinctive contribution to a critical formative period in the making of India’s modern religious cultures. This book was published as a special issue of South Asian History and Culture.

A History of India

Author: Romila Thapar,Percival Spear,Thomas George Percival Spear

Publisher: Penguin Books India

ISBN: 9780140138368

Category: History

Page: 298

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Covers the period from Mughal rule, through the years of British control, to the government of Nehru, with emphasis on the continuity of development from one era to the next.

Vedic Voices

Intimate Narratives of a Living Andhra Tradition

Author: David M. Knipe

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190266732

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

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For countless generations families have lived in isolated communities in the Godavari Delta of coastal Andhra Pradesh, learning and reciting their legacy of Vedas, performing daily offerings and occasional sacrifices. They are the virtually unrecognized survivors of a 3,700-year-old heritage, the last in India who perform the ancient animal and soma sacrifices according to Vedic tradition. In Vedic Voices, David M. Knipe offers for the first time, an opportunity for them to speak about their lives, ancestral lineages, personal choices as pandits, wives, children, and ways of coping with an avalanche of changes in modern India. He presents a study of four generations of ten families, from those born at the outset of the twentieth century down to their great-grandsons who are just beginning, at the age of seven, the task of memorizing their Veda, the Taittiriya Samhita, a feat that will require eight to twelve years of daily recitations. After successful examinations these young men will reside with the Veda family girls they married as children years before, take their places in the oral transmission of a three-thousand-year Vedic heritage, teach the Taittiriya collection of texts to their own sons, and undertake with their wives the major and minor sacrifices performed by their ancestors for some three millennia. Coastal Andhra, famed for bountiful rice and coconut plantations, has received scant attention from historians of religion and anthropologists despite a wealth of cultural traditions. Vedic Voices describes in captivating prose the geography, cultural history, pilgrimage traditions, and celebrated persons of the region. Here unfolds a remarkable story of Vedic pandits and their wives, one scarcely known in India and not at all to the outside world.

Eine Geschichte der Welt in 100 Objekten

Author: Neil MacGregor

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406621481

Category: History

Page: 816

View: 3359

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"In diesem Buch machen wir uns auf zu einer Reise zurück in die Vergangenheit und quer über den Globus, um zu erfahren, wie die Menschen in den letzten zwei Millionen Jahren unsere Welt geprägt haben und ihrerseits von ihr geprägt wurden. Diese Geschichte wird ausschließlich erzählt durch Dinge, die Menschen gemacht haben Objekete, die mit großer Sorgfalt hergestellt und dann entweder bewundert und bewahrt oder benutzt, beschädigt und weggeworfen wurden. Ich habe einfach hundert Objekte von verschiedenen Punkten unserer Reise ausgewählt die Bandbreite reicht vom Kochtopf bis zur goldenen Galeone, vom steinzeitlichen Werkzeug bis zur Kreditkarte." Neil MacGregor "Dieses Buch ist so schön, so klug und so richtungweisend, dass es eigentlich in jede Bibliothek gehört." Tim Sommer, art Das Kunstmagazin "MacGregors Geschichte der Welt in 100 Objekten ist eines der wundervollsten Sachbücher der letzten Jahrzehnte." Alexander Cammann, Literaturen "Diese Geschichten sollten nie aufhören." Elisabeth von Thadden, DIE ZEIT "Macht süchtig." Tilman Spreckelsen, Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung

The Crisis of Islamic Masculinities

Author: Amanullah De Sondy

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 178093744X

Category: Religion

Page: 256

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Rigid notions of masculinity are causing crisis in the global Islamic community. These are articulated from the Qur'an, its commentary, historical precedents and societal, religious and familial obligations. Some Muslims who don't agree with narrow constructs of manliness feel forced to consider themselves secular and therefore outside the religious community. In order to evaluate whether there really is only one valid, ideal Islamic masculinity, The Crisis of Islamic Masculinities explores key figures of the Qur'an and Indian-Pakistani Islamic history, and exposes the precariousness of tight constraints on Islamic manhood. By examining Qur'anic arguments and the strict social responsibilities advocated along with narrow Islamic masculinities, Amanullah De Sondy shows that God and women (to whom Muslim men relate but are different from) often act as foils for the construction of masculinity. He argues the constrainers of masculinity have used God and women to think with and to dominate through and that rigid gender roles are the product of a misguided enterprise: the highly personal relationship between humans and God does not lend itself to the organization of society, because that relationship cannot be typified and replicated. Discussions and debates surrounding Islamic masculinities are quickly finding their place in the study of Islam and Muslims, and The Crisis of Islamic Masculinities makes a vital contribution to this emerging field.

An Education in Happiness

The Lessons of Hesse and Tagore

Author: Flavia Arzeni

Publisher: Pushkin Press

ISBN: 190896894X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 208

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Happiness "is neither a privilege of the few, nor a fleeting state of mind: it is hidden behind a door that every person can open once they have found it, at the end of an arduous journey of self-discovery." The two Nobel Prize-winning writers Rabindranath Tagore and Hermann Hesse are arguably very different: one comes to us from the core of Indian culture, the other from the very heart of Old Europe; the former is an eternal wanderer, the latter a determined armchair traveller. Still, there are extraordinary affinities between their works, and they both understood that the path to happiness is paved with small acts and simple notions. Flavia Arzeni's book offers us an oasis of stability and calm in which we can find the answers to our fundamental concerns about life and happiness.

Commerce with the Universe

Africa, India, and the Afrasian Imagination

Author: Gaurav Desai

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535597

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 352

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Reading the life narratives and literary texts of South Asians writing in and about East Africa, Gaurav Desai builds a surprising, alternative history of Africa's experience with slavery, migration, colonialism, nationalism, and globalization. Consulting Afrasian texts that are literary and nonfictional, political and private, he broadens the scope of African and South Asian scholarship and inspires a more nuanced understanding of the Indian Ocean's fertile routes of exchange. Desai shows how the Indian Ocean engendered a number of syncretic identities and shaped the medieval trade routes of the Islamicate empire, the early independence movements galvanized in part by Gandhi's southern African experiences, the invention of new ethnic nationalisms, and the rise of plural, multiethnic African nations. Calling attention to lives and literatures long neglected by traditional scholars, Desai introduces rich, interdisciplinary ways of thinking not only about this specific region but also about the very nature of ethnic history and identity. Traveling from the twelfth century to today, he concludes with a look at contemporary Asian populations in East Africa and their struggle to decide how best to participate in the development and modernization of their postcolonial nations without sacrificing their political autonomy.

Public Health in British India

Anglo-Indian Preventive Medicine 1859-1914

Author: Mark Harrison

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521466882

Category: Medical

Page: 324

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After years of neglect the last decade has witnessed a surge of interest in the medical history of India under colonial rule. This is the first major study of public health in British India. It covers many previously unresearched areas such as European attitudes towards India and its inhabitants, and the way in which these were reflected in medical literature and medical policy; the fate of public health at local level under Indian control; and the effects of quarantine on colonial trade and the pilgrimage to Mecca. The book places medicine within the context of debates about the government of India, and relations between rulers and ruled. In emphasising the active role of the indigenous population, and in its range of material, it differs significantly from most other work conducted in this subject area.

Colonial Cities

Essays on Urbanism in a Colonial Context

Author: R.J. Ross,Gerard J. Telkamp

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400961197

Category: History

Page: 250

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by ROBERT ROSS and GERARD J. TELKAMP I In a sense, cities were superfluous to the purposes of colonists. The Europeans who founded empires outside their own continent were primarily concerned with extracting those products which they could not acquire within Europe. These goods were largely agricultural, and grown most often in a climate not found within Europe. Even when, as in India before 1800, the major exports were manufactures, in general they were still made in the countryside rather than in the great cities. It was only on rare occasion when great mineral wealth was discovered that giant metropolises grew up around the site of extraction. Since their location was deter mined by geology, not economics, they might be in the most inaccessible and in convenient areas, but they too would draw labour off from the agricultural pursuits of the colony as a whole. From the point of view of the colonists, the cities were therefore in some respects necessary evils, as they were parasites on the rural producers, competing with the colonists in the process of surplus extraction. Nevertheless, the colonists could not do without cities. The requirements of colonisation demanded many unequivocally urban functions. Pre-eminent among these was of course the need for a port, to allow the export of colonial wares and the import of goods from Europe, or from other parts of the non-European world, in the country-trade as it was known around India.

Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume II

A Century of Wonder. Book 3: The Scholarly Disciplines

Author: Donald F. Lach

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226467139

Category: History

Page: 440

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Praised for its scope and depth, Asia in the Making of Europe is the first comprehensive study of Asian influences on Western culture. For volumes I and II, the author has sifted through virtually every European reference to Asia published in the sixteenth-century; he surveys a vast array of writings describing Asian life and society, the images of Asia that emerge from those writings, and, in turn, the reflections of those images in European literature and art. This monumental achievement reveals profound and pervasive influences of Asian societies on developing Western culture; in doing so, it provides a perspective necessary for a balanced view of world history. Volume I: The Century of Discovery brings together "everything that a European could know of India, Southeast Asia, China, and Japan, from printed books, missionary reports, traders' accounts and maps" (The New York Review of Books). Volume II: A Century of Wonder examines the influence of that vast new body of information about Asia on the arts, institutions, literatures, and ideas of sixteenth-century Europe.

Immigrants in the Lands of Promise

Italians in Buenos Aires and New York City, 1870 - 1914

Author: Michael Adas

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801455251

Category: History

Page: 452

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Over the past five centuries, advances in Western understanding of and control over the material world have strongly influenced European responses to non-Western peoples and cultures. In Machines as the Measure of Men, Michael Adas explores the ways in which European perceptions of their scientific and technological superiority shaped their interactions with people overseas. Adopting a broad, comparative perspective, he analyzes European responses to the cultures of sub-Saharan Africa, India, and China, cultures that they judged to represent lower levels of material mastery and social organization. Beginning with the early decades of overseas expansion in the sixteenth century, Adas traces the impact of scientific and technological advances on European attitudes toward Asians and Africans and on their policies for dealing with colonized societies. He concentrates on British and French thinking in the nineteenth century, when, he maintains, scientific and technological measures of human worth played a critical role in shaping arguments for the notion of racial supremacy and the "civilizing mission" ideology which were used to justify Europe's domination of the globe. Finally, he examines the reasons why many Europeans grew dissatisfied with and even rejected this gauge of human worth after World War I, and explains why it has remained important to Americans. Showing how the scientific and industrial revolutions contributed to the development of European imperialist ideologies, Machines as the Measure of Men highlights the cultural factors that have nurtured disdain for non-Western accomplishments and value systems. It also indicates how these attitudes, in shaping policies that restricted the diffusion of scientific knowledge, have perpetuated themselves, and contributed significantly to chronic underdevelopment throughout the developing world. Adas's far-reaching and provocative book will be compelling reading for all who are concerned about the history of Western imperialism and its legacies. First published to wide acclaim in 1989, Machines as the Measure of Men is now available in a new edition that features a preface by the author that discusses how subsequent developments in gender and race studies, as well as global technology and politics, enter into conversation with his original arguments.