Immigration Judges and U.S. Asylum Policy

Author: Banks Miller,Linda Camp Keith,Jennifer S. Holmes

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812246608

Category: Law

Page: 248

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Although there are legal norms to secure the uniform treatment of asylum claims in the United States, anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that strategic and economic interests also influence asylum outcomes. Previous research has demonstrated considerable variation in how immigration judges decide seemingly similar cases, which implies a host of legal concerns—not the least of which is whether judicial bias is more determinative of the decision to admit those fleeing persecution to the United States than is the merit of the claim. These disparities also raise important policy considerations about how to fix what many perceive to be a broken adjudication system. With theoretical sophistication and empirical rigor, Immigration Judges and U.S. Asylum Policy investigates more than 500,000 asylum cases that were decided by U.S. immigration judges between 1990 and 2010. The authors find that judges treat certain facts about an asylum applicant more objectively than others: facts determined to be legally relevant tend to be treated similarly by judges of different political ideologies, while facts considered extralegal are treated subjectively. Furthermore, the authors examine how local economic and political conditions as well as congressional reforms have affected outcomes in asylum cases, concluding with a series of policy recommendations aimed at improving the quality of immigration law decision making rather than trying to reduce disparities between decision makers.

Inside Asylum Bureaucracy: Organizing Refugee Status Determination in Austria

Author: Julia Dahlvik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319633066

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

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This open access monograph provides sociological insight into governmental action on the administration of asylum in the European context. It offers an in-depth understanding of how decision-making officials encounter and respond to structural contradictions in the asylum procedure produced by diverging legal, political, and administrative objectives. The study focuses on structural aspects on the one hand, such as legal and organisational elements, and aspects of agency on the other hand, examining the social practices and processes going on at the frontside and the backside of the administrative asylum system. Coverage is based on a case study using ethnographic methods, including qualitative interviews, participant observation, as well as artefact analysis. This case study is positioned within a broader context and allows for comparison within and beyond the European system, building a bridge to the international scientific community. In addition, the author links the empirical findings to sociological theory. She explains the identified patterns of social practice in asylum administration along the theories of social practices, social construction and structuration. This helps to contribute to the often missing theoretical development in this particular field of research. Overall, this book provides a sociological contribution to a key issue in today's debate on immigration in Europe and beyond. It will appeal to researchers, policy makers, administrators, and practitioners as well as students and readers interested in immigration and asylum.

The Future of Human Rights

U.S. Policy for a New Era

Author: William F. Schulz

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812220759

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 8821

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In the introduction to The Future of Human Rights, William F. Schulz laments that U.S. foreign policy, "so buoyant at the end of the Cold War, has returned to earth with a thud over the past few years. Among its crash victims has been American leadership in the struggle for human rights." Although countless books have decried the impact of neoconservatism on America's standing in the world, far fewer have examined how the adherents to that movement, including those in the Bush administration, have damaged human rights themselves. The administration cited human rights abuses as justification for invading Iraq only after no weapons of mass destruction were discovered. But, according to Schulz, it seems likely that the WMDs and terror links were rationalizations of the wish to topple a regime for other reasons. The extent to which the damage sustained over the past few years is the result of misappropriated principles may be debated, but the tragic result is that the United States has been handicapped in providing crucial human rights leadership--especially where such leadership is desperately needed. The thirteen essays in this volume, by such notable scholars and activists as Philip Alston, Rachel Kleinfeld, George Lopez, John Shattuck, and Debora Spar, provide thematic assessments of the current state of global human rights programs as well as prescriptions for once again making the United States a respected and forceful proponent of human rights. Topics include democracy promotion, women's rights, refugee policy, religious freedom, labor standards, and economic, social, and cultural rights, among many others. Taken together, the essays converge on one overarching point: to attract the widest support, the U.S. commitment to universal human rights should be presented as reflecting the best of the American tradition.

Creating Human Rights

How Noncitizens Made Sex Persecution Matter to the World

Author: Lisa S. Alfredson

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 081220106X

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 4597

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Selected by Choice magazine as an Outstanding Academic Title for 2009 Creating Human Rights offers the first systematic study of a pioneering women's refugee movement and its challenge, as an international trigger case, to more conventional paths toward human rights policy development. Lisa S. Alfredson argues that such cases, which unfold in the context of a specific country and have profound impacts on international human rights efforts, have been neglected in research and pose a challenge to recent theorizing on human rights change. In the early 1990s, Canada witnessed the emergence of the world's first comprehensive refugee policy for women who were seeking protection from female-specific forms of violence—rape, domestic abuse, public stoning of adulterers, genital mutilation—while challenging a gender-biased system. Close examination of this novel movement, Alfredson contends, provides crucial insights into why and how states may articulate new human rights that set international precedents. Analyzing original empirical data and sociopolitical historical trends, the book documents the decisive global impacts of the movement while shedding light on the paradox of noncitizen politics and asylum seekers' little recognized political strength. Contrary to expectation, findings suggest transnational networks and pressures are not required for some forms of change. Rather, international trigger cases illuminate a range of other key actors and advocacy strategies leading, subsequently, to a more comprehensive understanding of human rights acceptance. In the case of the women's refugee movement, the convergence of human rights and noncitizen politics points toward a new dimension for human rights scholarship that, in the current age of globalization, is becoming critically important.

Asylum Adjudication

Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Policy of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-seventh Congress, First Session, on how Do We Determine who is Entitled to Asylum in the United States and who is Not?, October 14 and 16, 1981

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Policy

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Asylum, Right of

Page: 293

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Terrorism, Asylum Issues, and U.S. Immigration Policy

Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, on S. 667 a Bill to the Immigration and Nationality Act to Improve Procedures for the Exclusion of Aliens to Enter the United States by Fraud, May 28, 1993

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs

Publisher: Government Printing Office

ISBN: 9780160446757

Category: Political Science

Page: 209

View: 7773

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Mexico's Human Rights Crisis

Author: Alejandro Anaya-Munoz,Barbara Frey

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812251075

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 8207

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Lawless elements are ascendant in Mexico, as evidenced by the operations of criminal cartels engaged in human and drug trafficking, often with the active support or acquiescence of government actors. The sharp increase in the number of victims of homicide, disappearances and torture over the past decade is unparalleled in the country's recent history. According to editors Alejandro Anaya-Muñoz and Barbara Frey, the "war on drugs" launched in 2006 by President Felipe Calderón and the corrupting influence criminal organizations have on public institutions have empowered both state and nonstate actors to operate with impunity. Impunity, they argue, is the root cause that has enabled a human-rights crisis to flourish, creating a climate of generalized violence that is carried out, condoned, or ignored by the state and precluding any hope for justice. Mexico's Human Rights Crisis offers a broad survey of the current human rights issues that plague Mexico. Essays focus on the human rights consequences that flow directly from the ongoing "war on drugs" in the country, including violence aimed specifically at women, and the impunity that characterizes the government's activities. Contributors address the violation of the human rights of migrants, in both Mexico and the United States, and cover the domestic and transnational elements and processes that shape the current human rights crisis, from the state of Mexico's democracy to the influence of rulings by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights on the decisions of Mexico's National Supreme Court of Justice. Given the scope, the contemporaneity, and the gravity of Mexico's human rights crisis, the recommendations made in the book by the editors and contributors to curb the violence could not be more urgent. Contributors: Alejandro Anaya-Muñoz, Karina Ansolabehere, Ariadna Estévez, Barbara Frey, Janice Gallagher, Rodrigo Gutiérrez Rivas, Susan Gzesh, Sandra Hincapié, Catalina Pérez Correa, Laura Rubio Díaz-Leal, Natalia Saltalamacchia, Carlos Silva Forné, Regina Tamés, Javier Treviño-Rangel, Daniel Vázquez, Benjamin James Waddell.

Was ist ein Migrationsregime? What Is a Migration Regime?

Author: Andreas Pott,Christoph Rass,Frank Wolff

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658205326

Category: Social Science

Page: 330

View: 4100

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Der Begriff des Migrationsregimes erfreut sich großer Beliebtheit. Er verspricht einen analytischen Zugriff auf die Komplexität der Beziehung von Migration und Regulation. Dabei wird er jedoch sehr unterschiedlich genutzt und gedeutet. Die Herausgeber des Sammelbandes verstehen diese Vielstimmigkeit als einen Aufruf zur Debatte. Aufbauend auf einem längeren Austauschprozess auf Tagungen und Workshops haben sie Forscher*innen, die zentrale Fachrichtungen einer interdisziplinären Migrationsforschung und deren unterschiedliche Perspektiven vertreten, eingeladen, die Grundannahmen, Potentiale und Herausforderungen des Ansatzes zu diskutieren. Die so versammelten kritischen Einsichten in ein Schlüsselkonzept der modernen Migrationswissenschaft leuchten Wege aus, wie Fragen von Machtverteilung, Agency und Aushandlung systematischer in die Migrationsforschung einbezogen werden können.

This Side of Silence

Human Rights, Torture, and the Recognition of Cruelty

Author: Tobias Kelly

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812205237

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

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We are accustomed to thinking of torture as the purposeful infliction of cruelty by public officials, and we assume that lawyers and clinicians are best placed to speak about its causes and effects. However, it has not always been so. The category of torture is a very specific way of thinking about violence, and our current understandings of the term are rooted in recent twentieth-century history. In This Side of Silence, social anthropologist Tobias Kelly argues that the tensions between post-Cold War armed conflict, human rights activism, medical notions of suffering, and concerns over immigration have produced a distinctively new way of thinking about torture, which is saturated with notions of law and trauma. This Side of Silence asks what forms of suffering and cruelty can be acknowledged when looking at the world through the narrow legal category of torture. The book focuses on the recent history of Britain but draws wider comparative conclusions, tracing attempts to recognize survivors and perpetrators across the fields of asylum, criminal law, international human rights, and military justice. In this thorough and eloquent ethnography, Kelly avoids treating the legal prohibition of torture as the inevitable product of progress and yet does not seek to dismiss the real differences it has made in concrete political struggles. Based on extensive archival research and ethnographic fieldwork, the book argues that the problem of recognition rests not in the inability of the survivor to communicate but in our inability to listen and take responsibility for the injustice before us.

PAIS Subject Headings

Author: Public Affairs Information Service

Publisher: [New York] : Public Affairs Information Service, Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Economics

Page: 536

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Amnesty International Report 2016/17

Author: Amnesty International Sektion der Bundesrepublik

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104904332

Category: Political Science

Page: 544

View: 3935

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Der ›Amnesty International Report 2016/17‹ ist das essentielle Handbuch zur weltweiten Lage der Menschenrechte. Bewaffnete Konflikte, Terror und mangelnder staatlicher Schutz haben 65 Millionen Menschen weltweit in die Flucht getrieben. Doch immer mehr Staaten riegeln ihre Grenzen ab und verwehren den Geflüchteten ihre Rechte auf Leben, Freiheit und Sicherheit. Gleichzeitig gefährden Zensur, Repressionen und autoritäre Praktiken die vermeintlich sicheren zivilisatorischen Errungenschaften. Der ›Amnesty International Report‹ gibt anhand von circa 160 Länderberichten – unter anderem aus der Volksrepublik China, Nigeria, der Türkei und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika – einen Überblick über die weltweite Situation der Menschenrechte und ist eine wichtige Grundlage für alle, die sich für die Menschenrechte interessieren und sie durch politische Entscheidungen oder freiwilliges Engagement verändern wollen.

Migrant Youth, Transnational Families, and the State

Care and Contested Interests

Author: Lauren Heidbrink

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812246047

Category: Law

Page: 208

View: 6899

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Each year, more than half a million migrant children journey from countries around the globe and enter the United States with no lawful immigration status; many of them have no parent or legal guardian to provide care and custody. Yet little is known about their experiences in a nation that may simultaneously shelter children while initiating proceedings to deport them, nor about their safety or well-being if repatriated. Migrant Youth, Transnational Families, and the State examines the draconian immigration policies that detain unaccompanied migrant children and draws on U.S. historical, political, legal, and institutional practices to contextualize the lives of children and youth as they move through federal detention facilities, immigration and family courts, federal foster care programs, and their communities across the United States and Central America. Through interviews with children and their families, attorneys, social workers, policy-makers, law enforcement, and diplomats, anthropologist Lauren Heidbrink foregrounds the voices of migrant children and youth who must navigate the legal and emotional terrain of U.S. immigration policy. Cast as victims by humanitarian organizations and delinquents by law enforcement, these unauthorized minors challenge Western constructions of child dependence and family structure. Heidbrink illuminates the enduring effects of immigration enforcement on its young charges, their families, and the state, ultimately questioning whose interests drive decisions about the care and custody of migrant youth.

Freakonomics

überraschende Antworten auf alltägliche Lebensfragen ; [warum wohnen Drogenhändler bei ihren Müttern? Führt mehr Polizei zu weniger Kriminalität? Sind Swimmingpools gefährlicher als Revolver? Macht gute Erziehung glücklich?]

Author: Steven D. Levitt,Stephen J. Dubner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783442154517

Category:

Page: 411

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Sind Swimmingpools gefährlicher als Revolver? Warum betrügen Lehrer? Der preisgekrönte Wirtschaftswissenschaftler Steven D. Levitt kombiniert Statistiken, deren Zusammenführung und Gegenüberstellung auf den ersten Blick absurd erscheint, durch seine Analysetechnik aber zu zahlreichen Aha-Effekten führt. Ein äußerst unterhaltsamer Streifzug durch die Mysterien des Alltags, der uns schmunzeln lässt und stets über eindimensionales Denken hinausführt.