“Der” Maya-Kalender

die Wahrheit über das größte Rätsel einer Hochkultur

Author: Bernd Ingmar Gutberlet

Publisher: BASTEI LÜBBE

ISBN: 9783431037906

Category: End of the world

Page: 285

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Ancient Maya

The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization

Author: Arthur Demarest

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521592246

Category: History

Page: 373

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In this archaeological study, Arthur Demarest brings the lost pre-Columbian civilization of the Maya to life. In applying a holistic perspective to the most recent evidence from archaeology, paleoecology, and epigraphy, this theoretical interpretation emphasizes both the brilliant rain forest adaptations of the ancient Maya and the Native American spirituality that permeated all aspects of their daily life.

Ideology and the Formation of Early States

Author: Henri J. M. Claessen,Jarich Gerlof Oosten

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004104709

Category: Social Science

Page: 444

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In this volume the role of ideology in the emergency of early states is discussed by an international group of specialists. The book is of interest to all those concerned with the complex interaction of ideological and political developments.

Ideologies in Archaeology

Author: Reinhard Bernbeck,Randall H. McGuire

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816526737

Category: Social Science

Page: 410

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Archaeologists have often used the term ideology to vaguely refer to a Òrealm of ideas.Ó Scholars from Marx to Zizek have developed a sharper concept, arguing that ideology works by representingÑor misrepresentingÑpower relations through concealment, enhancement, or transformation of real social relations between groups. Ideologies in Archaeology examines the role of ideology in this latter sense as it pertains to both the practice and the content of archaeological studies. While ideas like reflexive archaeology and multivocality have generated some recent interest, this book is the first work to address in any detail the mutual relationship between ideologies of the past and present ideological conditions producing archaeological knowledge. Contributors to this volume focus on elements of life in past societies that Òwent without sayingÓ and that concealed different forms of power as obvious and unquestionable. From the use of burial rites as political theater in Iron Age Germany to the intersection of economics and elite power in Mississippian mound building, the contributors uncover complex manipulations of power that have often gone unrecognized. They show that OccamÕs razorÑthe tendency to favor simpler explanationsÑis sometimes just an excuse to avoid dealing with the historical world in its full complexity. Jean-Paul DemouleÕs concluding chapter echoes this sentiment and moreover brings a continental European perspective to the preceding case studies. In addition to situating this volume in a wider history of archaeological currents, Demoule identifies the institutional and cultural factors that may account for the current direction in North American archaeology. He also offers a defense of archaeology in an era of scientific relativism, which leads him to reflect on the responsibilities of archaeologists. Includes contributions by: Susan M. Alt, Bettina Arnold, Uzi Baram, Reinhard Bernbeck, Matthew David Cochran, Jean-Paul Demoule, Kurt A. Jordan, Susan Kus, Vicente Lull, Christopher N. Matthews, Randall H. McGuire, Rafael Mic—, Cristina Rihuete Herrada, Paul Mullins, Sue Novinger, Susan Pollock, Victor Raharijaona, Roberto Risch, Kathleen Sterling, Ruth M. Van Dyke, and LouAnn Wurst

Mesoamerican Religions and Archaeology

Essays in Pre-Columbian Civilizations

Author: Aleksandar Boskovic

Publisher: Archaeopress Pre-Columbian Archaeology

ISBN: 9781784915025

Category:

Page: 98

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Our understanding of ancient Pre-Columbian civilizations has changed significantly as the result of archaeological research in the last fifty years. Major projects during this period included dealing with cultural change in different contexts (Valley of Mexico, Oaxaca), regional research projects ("Olmec"), as well as attempts to understand more general trends in interpreting Pre-Columbian art and ideology (Codex Cihuacoatl, Templo Mayor). This book presents both the changes that occurred in the last few decades, and the impact that they had on our understanding on ancient Mesoamerican religions and cultures. It also includes references to some lesser-known research traditions (such as Croatia, Serbia, and Slovenia), as well as to the work of scholars like Jacques Soustelle or Didier Boremanse. With the insistence on clear methodology, based on field research, this book uses the context of specific archaeological finds in order to put Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures in a historical perspective. In terms of method, the author follows R. E. W. Adams, Jeremy Sabloff, Robert J. Sharer and other archaeologists in emphasizing the "field archaeology school" approach, with its insistence on using the data acquired in context. Archaeological and anthropological research is in itself fascinating enough to not need stolen artefacts, forged vases, fantastic stories and invented mythical genealogies. The main goal of this book is to produce a methodologically sound and ethically valid interdisciplinary introduction into the exciting world of ancient Mesoamerica.

Precolumbian Water Management

Ideology, Ritual, and Power

Author: Lisa Joyce Lucero,Barbara W. Fash

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816523146

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

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Among ancient Mesoamerican and Southwestern peoples, water was as essential as maize for sustenance and was a driving force in the development of complex society. Control of water shaped the political, economic, and religious landscape of the ancient Americas, yet it is often overlooked in Precolumbian studies. Now one volume offers the latest thinking on water systems and their place within the ancient physical and mental language of the region. Precolumbian Water Management examines water management from both economic and symbolic perspectives. Water management facilities, settlement patterns, shrines, and water-related imagery associated with civic-ceremonial and residential architecture provide evidence that water systems pervade all aspects of ancient society. Through analysis of such data, the contributors seek to combine an understanding of imagery and the religious aspects of water with its functional components, thereby presenting a unified perspective of how water was conceived, used, and represented in ancient greater Mesoamerica. The collection boasts broad chronological and geographical coverageÑfrom the irrigation networks of Teotihuacan to the use of ritual water technology at Casas GrandesÑthat shows how procurement and storage systems were adapted to local conditions. The articles consider the mechanisms that were used to build upon the sacredness of water to enhance political authority through time and space and show that water was not merely an essential natural resource but an important spiritual one as well, and that its manipulation was socially far more complex than might appear at first glance. As these papers reveal, an understanding of materials associated with water can contribute much to the ways that archaeologists study ancient cultural systems. Precolumbian Water Management underscores the importance of water management research and the need to include it in archaeological projects of all types.

Kolumbus' Erbe

Wie Menschen, Tiere, Pflanzen die Ozeane überquerten und die Welt von heute schufen

Author: Charles C. Mann

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 364403771X

Category: History

Page: 816

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«Das beste Sachbuch des Jahres.» TIME Die Entdeckung Amerikas war für das Leben auf unserem Planeten das folgenreichste Ereignis seit dem Aussterben der Dinosaurier. Denn: Millionen Jahre waren die Hemisphären weitgehend voneinander isoliert gewesen. Mit Kolumbus traten sie in einen Austausch. Menschen und Pflanzen, Tiere und Krankheiten gelangten per Schiff in neue Lebensräume und schufen eine Welt, in der nichts blieb, wie es einmal gewesen war. Das hatte auch gravierende politische Konsequenzen: Der «kolumbische Austausch» trug mehr als alles andere dazu bei, dass Europa zur Weltmacht aufstieg und China verdrängte. Charles C. Mann zeichnet ein spannendes Panorama dieser Vorgänge, das Kontinente und Jahrhunderte umfasst. Ein großartiges Lesevergnügen für alle Wissensdurstigen! «Herausragend.» The New York Times «Ein faszinierendes und vielschichtiges Buch, das auf vorbildliche Weise sprechende Fakten mit gutem Geschichtenerzählen vereint.» The Washington Post

Agency in Archaeology

Author: Marcia-Anne Dobres,John Robb

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317959396

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

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Agency in Archaeology is the first critical volume to scrutinise the concept of agency and to examine in-depth its potential to inform our understanding of the past. Theories of agency recognise that human beings make choices, hold intentions and take action. This offers archaeologists scope to move beyond looking at broad structural or environmental change and instead to consider the individual and the group Agency in Archaeology brings together nineteen internationally renowned scholars who have very different, and often conflicting, stances on the meaning and use of agency theory to archaeology. The volume is composed of five theoretically-based discussions and nine case studies, drawing on regions from North America and Mesoamerica to Western and central Europe, and ranging in subject from the late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers to the restructuring of gender relations in the north-eastern US.

The Breakout

The Origins of Civilization

Author: Martha Lamberg-Karlovsky

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0873659104

Category: History

Page: 131

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For much of the twentieth century, Mesopotamia was thought to he the singular "Cradle of Civilization;" and the agents of change that brought it about were thought to be demographic, ecological, and technological. Bronze Age Mesopotamian accomplishments were believed to have diffused outward, influencing the development of civilization in the rest of the world. Part of this Mesopocentric view was revised as archaeological evidence revealed that other unique civilizations had existed in both the Old and New Worlds, but the traditional Near Eastern pattern of development continued to serve as a model. In the mid-1980s, however, Harvard's Kwang-chih Chang proposed in Symbols--a publication of Harvard's Peabody Museum and Department of Anthropology--that China's first civilization did not evolve according to the conventional Mesopotamian model and argued instead for a new paradigm for understanding the origins of civilization in ancient China and the New World. In this collection of subsequent Symbols articles and other essays, Maya and Near Eastern studies specialists engage in a stimulating debate of Chang's thesis, also presented here.

Maya Palaces and Elite Residences

An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: Jessica Joyce Christie

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292782624

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

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Maya "palaces" have intrigued students of this ancient Mesoamerican culture since the early twentieth century, when scholars first applied the term "palace" to multi-room, gallery-like buildings set on low platforms in the centers of Maya cities. Who lived in these palaces? What types of ceremonial and residential activities took place there? How do the physical forms and spatial arrangement of the buildings embody Maya concepts of social organization and cosmology? This book brings together state-of-the-art data and analysis regarding the occupants, ritual and residential uses, and social and cosmological meanings of Maya palaces and elite residences. A multidisciplinary team of senior researchers reports on sites in Belize (Blue Creek), Western Honduras (Copan), the Peten (Tikal, Dos Pilas, Aguateca), and the Yucatan (Uxmal, Chichen-Itza, Dzibilchaltun, Yaxuna). Archaeologist contributors discuss the form of palace buildings and associated artifacts, their location within the city, and how some palaces related to landscape features. Their approach is complemented by art historical analyses of architectural sculpture, epigraphy, and ethnography. Jessica Joyce Christie concludes the volume by identifying patterns and commonalties that apply not only to the cited examples, but also to Maya architecture in general.

Tod und Leben großer amerikanischer Städte

Author: Jane Jacobs

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3035602123

Category: Architecture

Page: 220

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In The Death and Life of Great American Cities durchleuchtet Jane Jacobs 1961 die fragwürdigen Methoden der Stadtplanung und Stadtsanierung in Amerika, der "New Yorker" nannte es das unkonventionellste und provozierendste Buch über Städtebau seit langem. Die deutsche Ausgabe wurde schnell auch im deutschsprachigem Raum zu einer viel gelesenen und diskutierten Lektüre. Sie ist jetzt wieder in einem Nachdruck zugänglich, mit einem Vorwort von Gerd Albers (1993), das nach der Aktualität dieser Streitschrift fragt.

Pre-Columbian America

Empires of the New World

Author: Kathleen Kuiper Manager, Arts and Culture

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc

ISBN: 161530150X

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 200

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Presents a history of ancient American civilizations prior to the arrival of Columbus, discussing history, agriculture, religion, architecture, art, and politics.

Lightning in the Andes and Mesoamerica

Pre-Columbian, Colonial, and Contemporary Perspectives

Author: John E. Staller,Brian Stross

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199967768

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

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Lightning has evoked a numinous response as well as powerful timeless references and symbols among ancient religions throughout the world. Thunder and lightning have also taken on various symbolic manifestations, some representing primary deities, as in the case of Zeus and Jupiter in the Greco/Roman tradition, and Thor in Norse myth. Similarly, lightning veneration played an important role to the ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica and Andean South America. Lightning veneration and the religious cults and their associated rituals represent to varying degrees a worship of nature and the forces that shape the natural world. The inter-relatedness of the cultural and natural environment is related to what may be called a widespread cultural perception of the natural world as sacred, a kind of mythic landscape. Comparative analysis of the Andes and Mesoamerica has been a recurring theme recently in part because two of the areas of "high civilization" in the Americas have much in common despite substantial ecological differences, and in part because there is some evidence, of varying quality, that some people had migrated from one area to the other. Lightning in the Andes and Mesoamerica is the first ever study to explore the symbolic elements surrounding lightning in their associated Pre-Columbian religious ideologies. Moreover, it extends its examination to contemporary culture to reveal how cultural perceptions of the sacred, their symbolic representations and ritual practices, and architectural representations in the landscape were conjoined in the ancient past. Ethnographic accounts and ethnohistoric documents provide insights through first-hand accounts that broaden our understanding of levels of syncretism since the European contact. The interdisciplinary research presented herein also provides a basis for tracing back Pre-Columbian manifestations of lightning its associated religious beliefs and ritual practices, as well as its mythological, symbolic, iconographic, and architectural representations to earlier civilizations. This unique study will be of great interest to scholars of Pre-Columbian South and Mesoamerica, and will stimulate future comparative studies by archaeologists and anthropologists.

Die Mühle des Hamlet

Ein Essay über Mythos und das Gerüst der Zeit

Author: Giorgio de Santillana,Hertha v. Dechend

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783709193853

Category: Computers

Page: 522

View: 1592

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Die Mühle des Hamlet enthält den Bericht über eine faszinierende Expedition der Autoren durch die Kulturgeschichte der Menschheit. Gestützt auf zahllose Dokumente aus fast aller Welt und eine entsprechend umfangreiche Bibliographie gelingt es den Autoren, überzeugend und detailliert nachzuweisen, daß die großen universellen Mythen - unter denen die Mühle des Hamlet, oder vielmehr die des skandinavischen Amlodhi, nur als das Ende einer langen Kette zu sehen ist - einen gemeinsamen Ursprung haben, der nicht auf der Erde zu finden ist, sondern im Sternenhimmel: Der Mythos ist eine Sprache für die Darstellung, die Überlieferung und die Handhabung eines umfangreichen und komplexen Korpus astronomischer Kenntnisse gewesen und damit - als Sprache der astronomisch berechenbaren und strukturierbaren Zeit - der Ursprung des wissenschaftlichen Denkens. Das Buch läßt die Unhaltbarkeit der gängigen Vorstellung deutlich werden, die Weltbilder unserer Vorfahren ließen sich allein aus den vermeintlichen Inhalten der Mythen ermitteln, als handle es sich dabei um wörtlich zu nehmende Beschreibungen.

The Common Things

Essays on Thomism and Education

Author: Daniel McInerny

Publisher: CUA Press

ISBN: 9780966922608

Category: Philosophy

Page: 281

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This volume presents a critique of the privacies of contemporary education, with its emphasis upon the conventional and useful. The essays seek to uphold an account of man's intellectual and affective capacities which understands these capacities as naturally ordered to truth.

Sexus und Herrschaft

Die Tyrannei des Mannes in unserer Gesellschaft

Author: Kate Millett

Publisher: Kiepenheuer & Witsch

ISBN: 3462411209

Category: Social Science

Page: 496

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»Sexus und Herrschaft« ist Kate Milletts erstes Buch. Es erschien 1969 und machte die Autorin über Nacht berühmt. Übersetzungen in zahlreiche Sprachen folgten. Kate Millett stellt in ihrem Buch die These auf, daß Sexualität ein politisches Instrument ist und der Koitus, die scheinbar intimste Beziehung zwischen den Geschlechtern, dem Patriarchat zur Unterdrückung und Demütigung der Frau dient. Als Beleg für ihre These analysiert sie die Werke von Autoren wie D. H. Lawrence, Henry Miller, Norman Mailer, Jean Genet. Das Buch gehört seit seinem Erscheinen zu den Standardwerken der Frauenbewegung.