Human Impacts on Ancient Marine Ecosystems

A Global Perspective

Author: Torben C. Rick,Jon M. Erlandson

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520253438

Category: History

Page: 319

View: 5586

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“An excellent volume with mature, sophisticated, comprehensive research by leaders in the fields of archaeology, zooarchaeology, and paleoarchaeology that will be useful to scientists of many interests.”—David Steadman, author of Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds “This volume will make a significant contribution to our understanding of ancient human impacts on marine ecosystems, which will be of interest to all researchers who are concerned about the environment. The editors and contributors are commended for their efforts on this significant research topic.”—Steven R. James, coeditor of The Archaeology of Global Change: The Impact of Humans on Their Environment

Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters

Integrating Archaeology and Ecology in the Northeast Pacific

Author: Todd J. Braje,Torben C. Rick

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520267265

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 320

View: 2445

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“The bones recovered from the middens of the northeastern Pacific shorelines have important stories to tell biologists, marine mammalogists, and those concerned with marine conservation. This volume unearths a wealth of information about the historical ecology of seals, sea lions, and sea otters in the North Pacific that spans thousands of years. It provides fascinating insights into how the world once looked, and how it may one day look again as seals, sea lions, and sea otters reclaim and recolonize their former haunts.”—Andrew Trites, Director, Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia “Braje and Rick have assembled a compelling set of case studies on the long-term and complex interactions between people, marine mammals, and environments in the Northeast Pacific. The promise of zooarchaeology as historical science is on full display, as researchers use geochemistry, aDNA, morphometrics, and traditional analytic methods to address questions of utmost importance to the long-term health of coastal ecosystems. If this book doesn't convince conservation biology about the need to take the long view of animal histories and ecosystems into account in developing conservation management plans, I'm not sure what will.”—Virginia L. Butler, Department of Anthropology, Portland State University

Human Dispersal and Species Movement

Author: Nicole Boivin,Michael Petraglia,Rémy Crassard

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107164141

Category: Social Science

Page: 572

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How have humans colonised the entire planet and reshaped its ecosystems in the process? This unique and groundbreaking collection of essays explores human movement through time, the impacts of these movements on landscapes and other species, and the ways in which species have co-evolved and transformed each other as a result. Exploring the spread of people, plants, animals, and diseases through processes of migration, colonisation, trade and travel, it assembles a broad array of case studies from the Pliocene to the present. The contributors from disciplines across the humanities and natural sciences are senior or established scholars in the fields of human evolution, archaeology, history, and geography.

Marine Historical Ecology in Conservation

Applying the Past to Manage for the Future

Author: John N. Kittinger,Loren McClenachan,Keryn B. Gedan,Louise K. Blight

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520276949

Category: Nature

Page: 312

View: 4006

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"This volume provides a blueprint for managing the challenges of ocean conservation using marine historical ecology--an area of study evolving as societies confront ocean ecosystems that are being drastically altered by human activity. Applying the practice of historical ecology developed in terrestrial environments, Marine Historical Ecology guides the creation of historical baselines for marine species and ecosystems in order to inform and improve conservation and management efforts"--Provided by publisher.

Modern Oceans, Ancient Sites

Archaeology and Marine Conservation on San Miguel Island, California

Author: Todd J Braje

Publisher: University of Utah Press

ISBN: 9780874809848

Category: Social Science

Page: 160

View: 1975

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There is a growing consensus in the scientific realm that the world’s oceans are reaching a state of crisis as commercial fisheries are more widely overexploited and many coastal ecosystems are approaching collapse. A number of scientists and resource managers have argued that a successful understanding of the current crisis can be found through the development of a deeper historical perspective of the ecology of coastal ecosystems and the impacts that humans have had on them. In Modern Oceans, Ancient Sites: Archaeology and Marine Conservation on San Miguel Island, California, Todd Braje works to provide just such an understanding, bridging the divide between the archaeological record and the modern crisis. Using archaeological, paleoecological, and historical datasets from California’s Channel Islands and the larger Santa Barbara Channel region, Braje explores the evolving relationship between humans and fragile island ecosystems. San Miguel Island, westernmost of the Northern Channel Islands, holds archaeological records spanning 10,000 years, providing a backdrop for the examination of changes in human demography, subsistence, and technology over time. Braje’s systematic excavations of five well-preserved sitesranging from a 9500-year-old shell midden to a 150-year-old abalone fishing camptranslate into a long-term case study that enables a unique assessment of the human impacts on marine ecosystems. Modern Oceans, Ancient Sites: Archaeology and Marine Conservation on San Miguel Island, California helps to provide a more complete picture of human sea and land use through time, offering vital information for understanding, interpreting, and managing the past, present, and future of both the Channel Islands and global marine ecosystems. Braje demonstrates the relevance of archaeological, historical, and paleoecological data to extant environmental problems and concludes with tangible and practical recommendations for managing modern marine ecosystems and fisheries.

California Indians and Their Environment

An Introduction

Author: Kent G. Lightfoot,Otis Parrish

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520256905

Category: History

Page: 493

View: 8194

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"Relevant, timely, and approachable, California Indians and Their Environment is an instant classic that should be invaluable for anyone interested in California's diverse natural and cultural landscapes and the future sustainability of the state."—Torben Rick, author of Human Impacts on Ancient Marine Ecosystems: A Global Perspective "California Indians and Their Environment stands respectfully on the shoulders of scholarly giants and demonstrates the cumulative power of cultural, historical, and scientific research. It is a remarkably inclusive and relevant text that is both highly informative of past indigenous life ways and identities and strikingly insightful into current environmental crises that confront us all."—Seth Mallios, author of The Deadly Politics of Giving: Exchange and Violence at Ajacan, Roanoke, and Jamestown "In this highly readable and insightful book, Lightfoot and Parrish show how the natural diversity of California not only influenced the contours of Indian lifeways, but was indeed augmented by burning and other practices, that were used to sustain indigenous economies. The ingenuity and skill with which California Indians managed and used natural resources underscores the need to infuse modern land-use policy with the knowledge of people whose ecological experiences in North America eclipse those of Euroamericans by a factor of forty."—Kenneth E. Sassaman, author of People of the Shoals: Stallings Culture of the Savannah River Valley "This book is a deeply informative and fascinating examination of California Indians' rich and complex relationship with the ecological landscape. Lightfoot and Parrish have thoroughly updated the classic book, The Natural World of the California Indians, with critical analysis of anthropological theory and methods and incorporation of indigenous knowledge and practices. It is a lucid, accessible book that tells an intriguing story for our modern times."—Melissa K. Nelson, San Francisco State University and President of The Cultural Conservancy "At once scholarly and accessible, this book is destined to be a classic. Framed around pressing environmental issues of concern to a broad range of Californians today, Lightfoot and Parrish provide an historical ecology of California's amazingly diverse environments, its biological resources, and the Native peoples who both adapted to and actively managed them."—Jon M. Erlandson, author of Early Hunter-Gatherers of the California Coast "California Indians and Their Environment fills a significant gap in our understanding of the first peoples of California. Lightfoot and Parrish take on the daunting task of synthesizing and expanding on our knowledge of indigenous land-management practices, sustainable economies, and the use of natural resources for food, medicine, and technological needs. This innovative and thought-provoking book is highly recommended to anyone who wants to learn more about the diverse traditions of California Indians."—Lynn Gamble, author of The Chumash World at European Contact "This innovative book moves understanding of the Native Peoples of California from the past to the future. The authors' insight into Native Californians as fire managers is an eye-opener to interpreting the ecological and cultural uniqueness of the region. Lightfoot and Parrish have provided the best introduction to Native California while at the same time advancing the best scholarship with an original synthesis. A rare feat!"—William Simmons, Brown University

Choice

Publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a Division of the American Library Association

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Academic libraries

Page: N.A

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Marine Pollution

Author: Christopher L. J. Frid,Bryony A. Caswell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191039713

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 1322

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As a society, we use more than 100,000 different industrial compounds to promote health and treat disease, to grow food and to access clean water. While technological developments have improved our lives, most of these compounds end up in our oceans where they threaten marine life and human health. The practice of ocean waste disposal has had a long history and was initially believed to have minimal associated costs. However, it is now clear that although we can use the oceans for cheap waste treatment, we do this at the expense of the other key benefits we derive from the sea, notably human food supplies as well as its aesthetic value (including opportunities for recreation and tourism). Many of the pollution problems of previous decades appear to have been solved in the developed world, or at least managed to minimise their environmental impacts. However, despite treatment being available for some waste products, a potent mixture of toxic compounds and other potentially harmful additions continue to enter the marine environment every day. So, have the problems of marine pollution really been solved or have we simply generated a suite of different and potentially more complex challenges? In this volume we consider marine pollution from the perspective of the historical problems that are now successfully managed or solved, the ongoing problems and the emerging challenges that we face. These include hormone mimics, the residues from pharmaceuticals, nanometre-sized particles added to new materials, the millimetric plastics added to shampoos and cosmetics, the artificial fibres in the clothes we wear, and the noise and light pollution from our expanding industries and cities. Marine Pollution is aimed at senior undergraduates, masters and graduate level students studying marine sciences. It will also serve as a useful reference for researchers and professionals working in the fields of environmental management, marine planning, marine environmental regulation and protection, as well as those working for government departments, environmental NGOs and marine environmental consultancies.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 9141

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Marine Pollution

Author: Christopher L. J. Frid,Bryony A. Caswell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198726287

Category: Nature

Page: 288

View: 8467

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Many of the 'pollution' problems of previous decades seem to be 'solved', in the developed World, or at least managed to minimise their environmental impacts. Whilst pollutants such as sewage can now be treated to reduce their damaging qualities the resulting effluent still contains a potent mixture of compounds that negatively impact marine ecosystems. These include 'traditional' pollutants, such as metals, and 'new' ones such as hormone mimics and pharmaceutical residues. Similarly, although oil spills are now less common and better managed the growth in global trade means vast volumes of ballast water are moved around continuously. When discharged it is usually contaminated with pollutants and potentially invasive alien species, and so represents a new threat to biodiversity. So, the question arises has pollution really been solved or are there simply different and potentially more complex challenges today? This book considers both the 'traditional' threats from both the 'solved' and 'ongoing' pollution problems, whilst also addressing 'emerging' pollutants such as hormone mimics, nanometre sized particles added to clothing and food packaging, millimetric plastics within hygiene products, residues from the pharmaceuticals we use day-to-day along with noise and light pollution. It also considers the science behind measuring the ecological impacts of pollutants and how they are monitored in the environment including traditional and 'new' management approaches that holistically consider the impacts of human activities. This text provides an up to date account of the range of marine pollutants within a broad ecological and social context.

Océans

La Grande alarme

Author: Roberts Callum

Publisher: Flammarion

ISBN: 2081315181

Category: Social Science

Page: 519

View: 8428

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Dans quel état sont les océans ? Comment s’adaptent-ils au changement climatique, à la pollution, à la surpêche ? Combien de temps supporteront-ils le gaz carbonique que nous émettons ? Quel impact leur acidité aura-t-elle sur la production d’oxygène ? Tandis que la faune et la flore marines dépérissent, l’inquiétante prolifération des méduses n’annonce-t-elle pas une nouvelle extinction massive ? Pour nous aider à comprendre ces processus, Callum Roberts nous familiarise avec toutes les populations et tous les mécanismes océaniques : la disparition des courants marins, la hausse excessive des températures, les déséquilibres induits par les barrages et l’irrigation, les dangers de la fonte des glaces, la pollution provoquée par les produits chimiques, la démesure des rejets plastiques, les perturbations sonores, la voracité des espèces invasives... Roberts, qui appelle à un New Deal océanique, fait le point sur les mesures à prendre, collectives et individuelles. Il est urgent d’agir, car le problème majeur, ce n’est pas tant les transformations du monde que la rapidité avec laquelle elles ont lieu et la brièveté du temps dont dispose le vivant pour s’adapter.

Hunter-Gatherer Behavior

Human Response During the Younger Dryas

Author: Metin I Eren

Publisher: Left Coast Press

ISBN: 1611327865

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 3111

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A major global climate event called the Younger Dryas dramatically affected local environments and human populations at the end of the Pleistocene. This volume is the first book in fifteen years to comprehensively address key questions regarding the extent of this event and how hunter-gatherer populations adapted behaviorally and technologically in the face of major climatic change. An integrated set of theoretical articles and important case studies, written by well-known archaeologists, provide an excellent reference for researchers studying the end of the Pleistocene, as well as those studying hunter-gatherers and their response to climate change.

Das sechste Sterben

Wie der Mensch Naturgeschichte schreibt

Author: Elizabeth Kolbert

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518740628

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

View: 8509

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Sie haben noch nie etwas vom Stummelfußfrosch gehört? Oder vom Sumatra-Nashorn? Gut möglich, dass Sie auch nie von ihnen hören werden, denn sie sind dabei auszusterben. Wir erleben derzeit das sechste sogenannte Massenaussterben: In einem relativ kurzen Zeitraum verschwinden ungewöhnlich viele Arten. Experten gehen davon aus, dass es das verheerendste sein wird, seit vor etwa 65 Millionen Jahren ein Asteroid unter anderem die Dinosaurier auslöschte. Doch dieses Mal kommt die Bedrohung nicht aus dem All, sondern wir tragen die Verantwortung. Wie haben wir Menschen das Massenaussterben herbeigeführt? Wie können wir es beenden? Elizabeth Kolbert spricht mit Geologen, die verschwundene Ozeane erforschen, begleitet Botaniker in die Anden und begibt sich gemeinsam mit Tierschützern auf die Suche nach den letzten Exemplaren gefährdeter Arten. Sie zeigt, wie ernst die Lage ist, und macht uns zu Zeugen der dramatischen Ereignisse auf unserem Planeten.