Groups and Symmetry

Author: Mark A. Armstrong

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475740344

Category: Mathematics

Page: 187

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This is a gentle introduction to the vocabulary and many of the highlights of elementary group theory. Written in an informal style, the material is divided into short sections, each of which deals with an important result or a new idea. Includes more than 300 exercises and approximately 60 illustrations.

Groups and Symmetry

Author: Mark A. Armstrong,Gérard Iooss,Daniel D. Joseph

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387966755

Category: Mathematics

Page: 324

View: 5891

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Groups are important because they measure symmetry. This text, designed for undergraduate mathematics students, provides a gentle introduction to the vocabulary and many of the highlights of elementary group theory. Written in an informal style, the material is divided into short sections, each of which deals with an important result or a new idea. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on concrete examples, often geometrical in nature, so that finite rotation groups and the 17 wallpaper groups are treated in detail alongside theoretical results such as Lagrange's theorem, the Sylow theorems, and the classification theorem for finitely generated abelian groups. A novel feature at this level is a proof of the Nielsen-Schreier theorem, using groups actions on trees. There are more than 300 exercises and approximately 60 illustrations to help develop the student's intuition.

Groups and Symmetry

A Guide to Discovering Mathematics

Author: David W. Farmer

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821804502

Category: Mathematics

Page: 102

View: 2514

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Mathematics is discovered by looking at examples, noticing patterns, making conjectures, and testing those conjectures. Once discovered, the final results get organized and put in textbooks. The details and the excitement of the discovery are lost. This book introduces the reader to the excitement of the original discovery. By means of a wide variety of tasks, readers are led to find interesting examples, notice patterns, devise rules to explain the patterns, and discover mathematics for themselves. The subject studied here is the mathematics behind the idea of symmetry, but the methods and ideas apply to all of mathematics. The only prerequisites are enthusiasm and a knowledge of basic high-school math. The book is only a guide. It will start you off in the right direction and bring you back if you stray too far. The excitement and the discovery are left to you.

Symmetry

An Introduction to Group Theory and Its Applications

Author: Roy McWeeny

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486138801

Category: Science

Page: 256

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Well-organized volume develops ideas of group and representation theory in progressive fashion. Emphasis on finite groups describing symmetry of regular polyhedra and of repeating patterns, plus geometric illustrations.

Symmetry, Representations, and Invariants

Author: Roe Goodman,Nolan R. Wallach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387798528

Category: Mathematics

Page: 716

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Symmetry is a key ingredient in many mathematical, physical, and biological theories. Using representation theory and invariant theory to analyze the symmetries that arise from group actions, and with strong emphasis on the geometry and basic theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, Symmetry, Representations, and Invariants is a significant reworking of an earlier highly-acclaimed work by the authors. The result is a comprehensive introduction to Lie theory, representation theory, invariant theory, and algebraic groups, in a new presentation that is more accessible to students and includes a broader range of applications. The philosophy of the earlier book is retained, i.e., presenting the principal theorems of representation theory for the classical matrix groups as motivation for the general theory of reductive groups. The wealth of examples and discussion prepares the reader for the complete arguments now given in the general case. Key Features of Symmetry, Representations, and Invariants: (1) Early chapters suitable for honors undergraduate or beginning graduate courses, requiring only linear algebra, basic abstract algebra, and advanced calculus; (2) Applications to geometry (curvature tensors), topology (Jones polynomial via symmetry), and combinatorics (symmetric group and Young tableaux); (3) Self-contained chapters, appendices, comprehensive bibliography; (4) More than 350 exercises (most with detailed hints for solutions) further explore main concepts; (5) Serves as an excellent main text for a one-year course in Lie group theory; (6) Benefits physicists as well as mathematicians as a reference work.

Topics in Group Theory

Author: Geoff Smith,Olga Tabachnikova

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447104617

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

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The theory of groups is simultaneously a branch of abstract algebra and the study of symmetry. Designed for readers approaching the subject for the first time, this book reviews all the essentials. It recaps the basic definitions and results, including Lagranges Theorem, the isomorphism theorems and group actions. Later chapters include material on chain conditions and finiteness conditions, free groups and the theory of presentations. In addition, a novel chapter of "entertainments" demonstrates an assortment of results that can be achieved with the theoretical machinery.

Transformation Geometry

An Introduction to Symmetry

Author: George E. Martin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461256801

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

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Transformation Geometry: An Introduction to Symmetry offers a modern approach to Euclidean Geometry. This study of the automorphism groups of the plane and space gives the classical concrete examples that serve as a meaningful preparation for the standard undergraduate course in abstract algebra. The detailed development of the isometries of the plane is based on only the most elementary geometry and is appropriate for graduate courses for secondary teachers.

From Groups to Geometry and Back

Author: Vaughn Climenhaga,Anatole Katok

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470434792

Category: Geometry

Page: 420

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Groups arise naturally as symmetries of geometric objects, and so groups can be used to understand geometry and topology. Conversely, one can study abstract groups by using geometric techniques and ultimately by treating groups themselves as geometric objects. This book explores these connections between group theory and geometry, introducing some of the main ideas of transformation groups, algebraic topology, and geometric group theory. The first half of the book introduces basic notions of group theory and studies symmetry groups in various geometries, including Euclidean, projective, and hyperbolic. The classification of Euclidean isometries leads to results on regular polyhedra and polytopes; the study of symmetry groups using matrices leads to Lie groups and Lie algebras. The second half of the book explores ideas from algebraic topology and geometric group theory. The fundamental group appears as yet another group associated to a geometric object and turns out to be a symmetry group using covering spaces and deck transformations. In the other direction, Cayley graphs, planar models, and fundamental domains appear as geometric objects associated to groups. The final chapter discusses groups themselves as geometric objects, including a gentle introduction to Gromov's theorem on polynomial growth and Grigorchuk's example of intermediate growth. The book is accessible to undergraduate students (and anyone else) with a background in calculus, linear algebra, and basic real analysis, including topological notions of convergence and connectedness. This book is a result of the MASS course in algebra at Penn State University in the fall semester of 2009.

The Hauptvermutung Book

A Collection of Papers on the Topology of Manifolds

Author: Andrew Ranicki,A.J. Casson,D.P. Sullivan,M.A. Armstrong,C.P. Rourke,G.E. Cooke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401733430

Category: Mathematics

Page: 192

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The Hauptvermutung is the conjecture that any two triangulations of a poly hedron are combinatorially equivalent. The conjecture was formulated at the turn of the century, and until its resolution was a central problem of topology. Initially, it was verified for low-dimensional polyhedra, and it might have been expected that furt her development of high-dimensional topology would lead to a verification in all dimensions. However, in 1961 Milnor constructed high-dimensional polyhedra with combinatorially inequivalent triangulations, disproving the Hauptvermutung in general. These polyhedra were not manifolds, leaving open the Hauptvermu tung for manifolds. The development of surgery theory led to the disproof of the high-dimensional manifold Hauptvermutung in the late 1960's. Unfortunately, the published record of the manifold Hauptvermutung has been incomplete, as was forcefully pointed out by Novikov in his lecture at the Browder 60th birthday conference held at Princeton in March 1994. This volume brings together the original 1967 papers of Casson and Sulli van, and the 1968/1972 'Princeton notes on the Hauptvermutung' of Armstrong, Rourke and Cooke, making this work physically accessible. These papers include several other results which have become part of the folklore but of which proofs have never been published. My own contribution is intended to serve as an intro duction to the Hauptvermutung, and also to give an account of some more recent developments in the area. In preparing the original papers for publication, only minimal changes of punctuation etc.

Symmetries and Group Theory in Particle Physics

An Introduction to Space-Time and Internal Symmetries

Author: Giovanni Costa,Gianluigi Fogli

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642154824

Category: Science

Page: 291

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Symmetries, coupled with the mathematical concept of group theory, are an essential conceptual backbone in the formulation of quantum field theories capable of describing the world of elementary particles. This primer is an introduction to and survey of the underlying concepts and structures needed in order to understand and handle these powerful tools. Specifically, in Part I of the book the symmetries and related group theoretical structures of the Minkowskian space-time manifold are analyzed, while Part II examines the internal symmetries and their related unitary groups, where the interactions between fundamental particles are encoded as we know them from the present standard model of particle physics. This book, based on several courses given by the authors, addresses advanced graduate students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter active research in the field, and having a working knowledge of classical field theory and relativistic quantum mechanics. Numerous end-of-chapter problems and their solutions will facilitate the use of this book as self-study guide or as course book for topical lectures.

Geometry and Symmetry

Author: Paul B. Yale

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486169324

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

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DIVIntroduction to the geometry of euclidean, affine and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. Many exercises, extensive bibliography. Advanced undergraduate level. /div

Group Theory and Chemistry

Author: David M. Bishop

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486132323

Category: Science

Page: 336

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Concise, self-contained introduction to group theory and its applications to chemical problems. Symmetry, matrices, molecular vibrations, transition metal chemistry, more. Relevant math included. Advanced-undergraduate/graduate-level. 1973 edition.

Naive Lie Theory

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387782157

Category: Mathematics

Page: 217

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In this new textbook, acclaimed author John Stillwell presents a lucid introduction to Lie theory suitable for junior and senior level undergraduates. In order to achieve this, he focuses on the so-called "classical groups'' that capture the symmetries of real, complex, and quaternion spaces. These symmetry groups may be represented by matrices, which allows them to be studied by elementary methods from calculus and linear algebra. This naive approach to Lie theory is originally due to von Neumann, and it is now possible to streamline it by using standard results of undergraduate mathematics. To compensate for the limitations of the naive approach, end of chapter discussions introduce important results beyond those proved in the book, as part of an informal sketch of Lie theory and its history. John Stillwell is Professor of Mathematics at the University of San Francisco. He is the author of several highly regarded books published by Springer, including The Four Pillars of Geometry (2005), Elements of Number Theory (2003), Mathematics and Its History (Second Edition, 2002), Numbers and Geometry (1998) and Elements of Algebra (1994).

Symmetry

A Mathematical Exploration

Author: Kristopher Tapp

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461402992

Category: Mathematics

Page: 215

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This textbook is perfect for a math course for non-math majors, with the goal of encouraging effective analytical thinking and exposing students to elegant mathematical ideas. It includes many topics commonly found in sampler courses, like Platonic solids, Euler’s formula, irrational numbers, countable sets, permutations, and a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. All of these topics serve a single compelling goal: understanding the mathematical patterns underlying the symmetry that we observe in the physical world around us. The exposition is engaging, precise and rigorous. The theorems are visually motivated with intuitive proofs appropriate for the intended audience. Students from all majors will enjoy the many beautiful topics herein, and will come to better appreciate the powerful cumulative nature of mathematics as these topics are woven together into a single fascinating story about the ways in which objects can be symmetric.

Algebra and Geometry

Author: Alan F. Beardon

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139443494

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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Describing two cornerstones of mathematics, this basic textbook presents a unified approach to algebra and geometry. It covers the ideas of complex numbers, scalar and vector products, determinants, linear algebra, group theory, permutation groups, symmetry groups and aspects of geometry including groups of isometries, rotations, and spherical geometry. The book emphasises the interactions between topics, and each topic is constantly illustrated by using it to describe and discuss the others. Many ideas are developed gradually, with each aspect presented at a time when its importance becomes clearer. To aid in this, the text is divided into short chapters, each with exercises at the end. The related website features an HTML version of the book, extra text at higher and lower levels, and more exercises and examples. It also links to an electronic maths thesaurus, giving definitions, examples and links both to the book and to external sources.

Primer for Point and Space Groups

Author: Richard Liboff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468493833

Category: Science

Page: 220

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Written in the spirit of Liboff's acclaimed text on Quantum Mechanics, this introduction to group theory offers an exceptionally clear presentation with a good sense of what to explain, which examples are most appropriate, and when to give a counter-example.

Group Theory

Author: W. R. Scott

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486140164

Category: Mathematics

Page: 512

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Here is clear, well-organized coverage of the most standard theorems, including isomorphism theorems, transformations and subgroups, direct sums, abelian groups, and more. This undergraduate-level text features more than 500 exercises.

Classical Topology and Combinatorial Group Theory

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461243726

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

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In recent years, many students have been introduced to topology in high school mathematics. Having met the Mobius band, the seven bridges of Konigsberg, Euler's polyhedron formula, and knots, the student is led to expect that these picturesque ideas will come to full flower in university topology courses. What a disappointment "undergraduate topology" proves to be! In most institutions it is either a service course for analysts, on abstract spaces, or else an introduction to homological algebra in which the only geometric activity is the completion of commutative diagrams. Pictures are kept to a minimum, and at the end the student still does nr~ understand the simplest topological facts, such as the rcason why knots exist. In my opinion, a well-balanced introduction to topology should stress its intuitive geometric aspect, while admitting the legitimate interest that analysts and algebraists have in the subject. At any rate, this is the aim of the present book. In support of this view, I have followed the historical development where practicable, since it clearly shows the influence of geometric thought at all stages. This is not to claim that topology received its main impetus from geometric recreations like the seven bridges; rather, it resulted from the l'isualization of problems from other parts of mathematics-complex analysis (Riemann), mechanics (Poincare), and group theory (Dehn). It is these connec tions to other parts of mathematics which make topology an important as well as a beautiful subject.

Number, Shape, & Symmetry

An Introduction to Number Theory, Geometry, and Group Theory

Author: Diane L. Herrmann,Paul J. Sally, Jr.

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466554649

Category: Mathematics

Page: 444

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Through a careful treatment of number theory and geometry, Number, Shape, & Symmetry: An Introduction to Number Theory, Geometry, and Group Theory helps readers understand serious mathematical ideas and proofs. Classroom-tested, the book draws on the authors’ successful work with undergraduate students at the University of Chicago, seventh to tenth grade mathematically talented students in the University of Chicago’s Young Scholars Program, and elementary public school teachers in the Seminars for Endorsement in Science and Mathematics Education (SESAME). The first half of the book focuses on number theory, beginning with the rules of arithmetic (axioms for the integers). The authors then present all the basic ideas and applications of divisibility, primes, and modular arithmetic. They also introduce the abstract notion of a group and include numerous examples. The final topics on number theory consist of rational numbers, real numbers, and ideas about infinity. Moving on to geometry, the text covers polygons and polyhedra, including the construction of regular polygons and regular polyhedra. It studies tessellation by looking at patterns in the plane, especially those made by regular polygons or sets of regular polygons. The text also determines the symmetry groups of these figures and patterns, demonstrating how groups arise in both geometry and number theory. The book is suitable for pre-service or in-service training for elementary school teachers, general education mathematics or math for liberal arts undergraduate-level courses, and enrichment activities for high school students or math clubs.