Groups and Symmetry

Author: Mark A. Armstrong

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475740344

Category: Mathematics

Page: 187

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This is a gentle introduction to the vocabulary and many of the highlights of elementary group theory. Written in an informal style, the material is divided into short sections, each of which deals with an important result or a new idea. Includes more than 300 exercises and approximately 60 illustrations.

Von Fermat bis Minkowski

Eine Vorlesung über Zahlentheorie und ihre Entwicklung

Author: W. Scharlau,H. Opolka

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642618499

Category: Mathematics

Page: 226

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Groups and Symmetry

Author: Mark Anthony Armstrong

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783540966753

Category: Mathematics

Page: 186

View: 3193

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Groups are important because they measure symmetry. This text, designed for undergraduate mathematics students, provides a gentle introduction to the vocabulary and many of the highlights of elementary group theory. Written in an informal style, the material is divided into short sections, each of which deals with an important result or a new idea. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on concrete examples, often geometrical in nature, so that finite rotation groups and the 17 wallpaper groups are treated in detail alongside theoretical results such as Lagrange's theorem, the Sylow theorems, and the classification theorem for finitely generated abelian groups. A novel feature at this level is a proof of the Nielsen-Schreier theorem, using groups actions on trees. There are more than 300 exercises and approximately 60 illustrations to help develop the student's intuition.

From Groups to Geometry and Back

Author: Vaughn Climenhaga,Anatole Katok

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470434792

Category: Geometry

Page: 420

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Groups arise naturally as symmetries of geometric objects, and so groups can be used to understand geometry and topology. Conversely, one can study abstract groups by using geometric techniques and ultimately by treating groups themselves as geometric objects. This book explores these connections between group theory and geometry, introducing some of the main ideas of transformation groups, algebraic topology, and geometric group theory. The first half of the book introduces basic notions of group theory and studies symmetry groups in various geometries, including Euclidean, projective, and hyperbolic. The classification of Euclidean isometries leads to results on regular polyhedra and polytopes; the study of symmetry groups using matrices leads to Lie groups and Lie algebras. The second half of the book explores ideas from algebraic topology and geometric group theory. The fundamental group appears as yet another group associated to a geometric object and turns out to be a symmetry group using covering spaces and deck transformations. In the other direction, Cayley graphs, planar models, and fundamental domains appear as geometric objects associated to groups. The final chapter discusses groups themselves as geometric objects, including a gentle introduction to Gromov's theorem on polynomial growth and Grigorchuk's example of intermediate growth. The book is accessible to undergraduate students (and anyone else) with a background in calculus, linear algebra, and basic real analysis, including topological notions of convergence and connectedness. This book is a result of the MASS course in algebra at Penn State University in the fall semester of 2009.

Arithmetic Groups and Their Generalizations

What, Why, and How

Author: Lizhen Ji

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821848666

Category: Mathematics

Page: 259

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In one guise or another, many mathematicians are familiar with certain arithmetic groups, such as $\mathbf{Z}$ or $\textrm{SL}(n,\mathbf{Z})$. Yet, many applications of arithmetic groups and many connections to other subjects within mathematics are less well known. Indeed, arithmetic groups admit many natural and important generalizations. The purpose of this expository book is to explain, through some brief and informal comments and extensive references, what arithmetic groups and their generalizations are, why they are important to study, and how they can be understood and applied to many fields, such as analysis, geometry, topology, number theory, representation theory, and algebraic geometry. It is hoped that such an overview will shed a light on the important role played by arithmetic groups in modern mathematics. Titles in this series are co-published with International Press, Cambridge, MA. Table of Contents: Introduction; General comments on references; Examples of basic arithmetic groups; General arithmetic subgroups and locally symmetric spaces; Discrete subgroups of Lie groups and arithmeticity of lattices in Lie groups; Different completions of $\mathbb{Q}$ and $S$-arithmetic groups over number fields; Global fields and $S$-arithmetic groups over function fields; Finiteness properties of arithmetic and $S$-arithmetic groups; Symmetric spaces, Bruhat-Tits buildings and their arithmetic quotients; Compactifications of locally symmetric spaces; Rigidity of locally symmetric spaces; Automorphic forms and automorphic representations for general arithmetic groups; Cohomology of arithmetic groups; $K$-groups of rings of integers and $K$-groups of group rings; Locally homogeneous manifolds and period domains; Non-cofinite discrete groups, geometrically finite groups; Large scale geometry of discrete groups; Tree lattices; Hyperbolic groups; Mapping class groups and outer automorphism groups of free groups; Outer automorphism group of free groups and the outer spaces; References; Index. Review from Mathematical Reviews: ...the author deserves credit for having done the tremendous job of encompassing every aspect of arithmetic groups visible in today's mathematics in a systematic manner; the book should be an important guide for some time to come. (AMSIP/43.)

Groups and Symmetry

A Guide to Discovering Mathematics

Author: David W. Farmer

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821804502

Category: Mathematics

Page: 102

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Mathematics is discovered by looking at examples, noticing patterns, making conjectures, and testing those conjectures. Once discovered, the final results get organized and put in textbooks. The details and the excitement of the discovery are lost. This book introduces the reader to the excitement of the original discovery. By means of a wide variety of tasks, readers are led to find interesting examples, notice patterns, devise rules to explain the patterns, and discover mathematics for themselves. The subject studied here is the mathematics behind the idea of symmetry, but the methods and ideas apply to all of mathematics. The only prerequisites are enthusiasm and a knowledge of basic high-school math. The book is only a guide. It will start you off in the right direction and bring you back if you stray too far. The excitement and the discovery are left to you.

Differentialgeometrie

Kurven - Flächen - Mannigfaltigkeiten

Author: Wolfgang Kühnel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658006153

Category: Mathematics

Page: 284

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Dieses Buch ist eine Einführung in die Differentialgeometrie und ein passender Begleiter zum Differentialgeometrie-Modul (ein- und zweisemestrig). Zunächst geht es um die klassischen Aspekte wie die Geometrie von Kurven und Flächen, bevor dann höherdimensionale Flächen sowie abstrakte Mannigfaltigkeiten betrachtet werden. Die Nahtstelle ist dabei das zentrale Kapitel "Die innere Geometrie von Flächen". Dieses führt den Leser bis hin zu dem berühmten Satz von Gauß-Bonnet, der ein entscheidendes Bindeglied zwischen lokaler und globaler Geometrie darstellt. Die zweite Hälfte des Buches ist der Riemannschen Geometrie gewidmet. Den Abschluss bildet ein Kapitel über "Einstein-Räume", die eine große Bedeutung sowohl in der "Reinen Mathematik" als auch in der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie von A. Einstein haben. Es wird großer Wert auf Anschaulichkeit gelegt, was durch zahlreiche Abbildungen unterstützt wird. Bei der Neuauflage wurden einige zusätzliche Lösungen zu den Übungsaufgaben ergänzt.

Geometry and Symmetry

Author: Paul B. Yale

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486169324

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 2663

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DIVIntroduction to the geometry of euclidean, affine and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. Many exercises, extensive bibliography. Advanced undergraduate level. /div

Liebe und Mathematik

Im Herzen einer verborgenen Wirklichkeit

Author: Edward Frenkel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662434210

Category: Mathematics

Page: 317

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Symmetry and Structure

Readable Group Theory for Chemists

Author: Sidney F. A. Kettle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470516188

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 2666

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Building on the foundation of the Second Edition, Symmetry and Structure: Readable Group Theory for Chemists, Third Edition turns the complex and potentially difficult subject of group theory into an accessible and readable account of this core area of chemistry. By using a diagrammatical approach and demonstrating the physical principles involved in understanding group theory, the text provides a non-mathematical, yet thorough, treatment of this broad topic. This new edition has been fully revised and updated to include a much more three-dimensional and accurate visualization of many of the key topics. The chapter on octahedral molecules is extended to cover the important topic of the ligand field theory of octahedral transition metal complexes. Problems and summaries are included at the end of each chapter, the book provides detailed answers to frequently asked questions, and numerous diagrams and tables are featured for ease of reading and to enhance student understanding. Symmetry and Structure: Readable Group Theory for Chemists, Third Edition is an essential textbook for all students, researchers and lecturers in chemistry, biochemistry, chemical engineering, physics and material science.

Symmetry, Representations, and Invariants

Author: Roe Goodman,Nolan R. Wallach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387798528

Category: Mathematics

Page: 716

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Symmetry is a key ingredient in many mathematical, physical, and biological theories. Using representation theory and invariant theory to analyze the symmetries that arise from group actions, and with strong emphasis on the geometry and basic theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, Symmetry, Representations, and Invariants is a significant reworking of an earlier highly-acclaimed work by the authors. The result is a comprehensive introduction to Lie theory, representation theory, invariant theory, and algebraic groups, in a new presentation that is more accessible to students and includes a broader range of applications. The philosophy of the earlier book is retained, i.e., presenting the principal theorems of representation theory for the classical matrix groups as motivation for the general theory of reductive groups. The wealth of examples and discussion prepares the reader for the complete arguments now given in the general case. Key Features of Symmetry, Representations, and Invariants: (1) Early chapters suitable for honors undergraduate or beginning graduate courses, requiring only linear algebra, basic abstract algebra, and advanced calculus; (2) Applications to geometry (curvature tensors), topology (Jones polynomial via symmetry), and combinatorics (symmetric group and Young tableaux); (3) Self-contained chapters, appendices, comprehensive bibliography; (4) More than 350 exercises (most with detailed hints for solutions) further explore main concepts; (5) Serves as an excellent main text for a one-year course in Lie group theory; (6) Benefits physicists as well as mathematicians as a reference work.

Lie Groups

A Problem Oriented Introduction Via Matrix Groups

Author: Harriet Pollatsek

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 9780883857595

Category: Mathematics

Page: 177

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The work of the Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie extends ideas of symmetry and leads to many applications in mathematics and physics. Ordinarily, the study of the "objects" in Lie's theory (Lie groups and Lie algebras) requires extensive mathematical prerequisites beyond the reach of the typical undergraduate. By restricting to the special case of matrix Lie groups and relying on ideas from multivariable calculus and linear algebra, this lovely and important material becomes accessible even to college sophomores. Working with Lie's ideas fosters an appreciation of the unity of mathematics and the sometimes surprising ways in which mathematics provides a language to describe and understand the physical world.Lie Groups is an active learning text that can be used by students with a range of backgrounds and interests. The material is developed through 200 carefully chosen problems. This is the only book in the undergraduate curriculum to bring this material to students so early in their mathematical careers.

Applied Group Theory

The Commonwealth and International Library: Selected Readings in Physics

Author: Arthur P. Cracknell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483182479

Category: Science

Page: 430

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Applied Group Theory covers group theory and its applications and is designed to cater undergraduate students. This text is comprised of two parts; the first of which discusses topics such as symmetry; crystallographic groups; vibrations in molecules and solids; and electronic states in atoms, molecules, and solids. This book then explains in the second part topics including the elastic characteristic vibrations of symmetrical systems; theory of Brillouin zones and symmetry properties of wave functions in crystals; and magnetic symmetry of crystals. This text also gives hints to solutions of the exercises provided in each discussion. This selection will be invaluable to undergraduate students of mathematics who are in need of reference materials in group theory that are understandable to them. Mathematics instructors will also find this book helpful.

Transformation Geometry

An Introduction to Symmetry

Author: George E. Martin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461256801

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

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Transformation Geometry: An Introduction to Symmetry offers a modern approach to Euclidean Geometry. This study of the automorphism groups of the plane and space gives the classical concrete examples that serve as a meaningful preparation for the standard undergraduate course in abstract algebra. The detailed development of the isometries of the plane is based on only the most elementary geometry and is appropriate for graduate courses for secondary teachers.

Gruppentheorie und ihre Anwendung auf die Quantenmechanik der Atomspektren

Author: Eugene Paul Wigner

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663025551

Category: Mathematics

Page: 332

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Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.

Groups and Geometry

Author: P. M. Neumann,Gabrielle A. Stoy,E. C. Thompson

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198534518

Category: Mathematics

Page: 254

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Available for the first time in published form, Groups and Geometry presents the Oxford Mathematical Institute notes for undergraduates and first year postgraduates. The content is guided by the Oxford syllabus but includes much more material than is included on the syllabus. This book is about the measurement of symmetry: covering groups and geometry with the symbiotic relationship between the two more than justifying the union. A number of exercises are included in this sylish text to help the reader gain a full understanding of this branch of mathematics.

Naive Lie Theory

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387782157

Category: Mathematics

Page: 217

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In this new textbook, acclaimed author John Stillwell presents a lucid introduction to Lie theory suitable for junior and senior level undergraduates. In order to achieve this, he focuses on the so-called "classical groups'' that capture the symmetries of real, complex, and quaternion spaces. These symmetry groups may be represented by matrices, which allows them to be studied by elementary methods from calculus and linear algebra. This naive approach to Lie theory is originally due to von Neumann, and it is now possible to streamline it by using standard results of undergraduate mathematics. To compensate for the limitations of the naive approach, end of chapter discussions introduce important results beyond those proved in the book, as part of an informal sketch of Lie theory and its history. John Stillwell is Professor of Mathematics at the University of San Francisco. He is the author of several highly regarded books published by Springer, including The Four Pillars of Geometry (2005), Elements of Number Theory (2003), Mathematics and Its History (Second Edition, 2002), Numbers and Geometry (1998) and Elements of Algebra (1994).