Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory

Author: Andrew P. Dicks

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439840776

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 612

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The last decade has seen a huge interest in green organic chemistry, particularly as chemical educators look to "green" their undergraduate curricula. Detailing published laboratory experiments and proven case studies, this book discusses concrete examples of green organic chemistry teaching approaches from both lecture/seminar and practical perspectives. The experienced contributors address such topics as the elimination of solvents in the organic laboratory, organic reactions under aqueous conditions, organic reactions in non-aqueous media, greener organic reagents, waste management/recycling strategies, and microwave technology as a greener heating tool. This reference allows instructors to directly incorporate material presented in the text into their courses. Encouraging a stimulating organic chemistry experience, the text emphasizes the need for undergraduate education to: Focus on teaching sustainability principles throughout the curriculum Be flexible in the teaching of green chemistry, from modification of an existing laboratory experiment to development of a brand-new course Reflect modern green research areas such as microwave reactivity, alternative reaction solvents, solvent-free chemistry, environmentally friendly reagents, and waste disposal Train students in the "green chemistry decision-making" process Integrating recent research advances in green chemistry research and the Twelve Principles of Organic Chemistry into the lecture and laboratory environments, Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory highlights smaller, more cost-effective experiments with minimized waste disposal and reduced reaction times. This approach develops a fascinating and relevant undergraduate organic laboratory experience while focusing on real-world applications and problem-solving.

A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles

Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology

Author: Chi-wai Kan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 143983945X

Category: Science

Page: 311

View: 5629

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Industries worldwide have been impacted by environmental regulations, economics, and ultimately consumers, which has led to more thought about the development of sustainable products. The textile industry is no exception. The preparation, dyeing, and finishing of textile fibres requires large amounts of water and other chemicals which may be toxic or hazardous. Green chemistry along with other green technologies may now play a leading role in this process. This book emphasises the importance of plasma treatment as a green and sustainable technology. A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology discusses the plasma treatment of textile fibres and its environmental, economic, and social benefits. The book reviews the general properties of textiles and provides a description of the current treatment methods typically used today. The author then introduces the concept of plasma and its application in treating textile materials. The application of plasma as a pretreatment as well as a treatment in dyeing textiles is discussed. The book summarizes the application of plasma treatment in the printing and finishing of textiles. Also explored is the concept of sustainability and its role in the development of plasma treatments in textile wet processing. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry are incorporated throughout the book.

Nanocellulose and Sustainability

Production, Properties, Applications, and Case Studies

Author: Koon-Yang Lee

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351262912

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 300

View: 1285

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Nanometre scale cellulose fibres, or nanocellulose, are emerging materials for various advanced applications. Nanocellulose and Sustainability: Production, Properties, Applications, and Case Studies provides a comprehensive overview of nanocellulose production, nanocellulose properties and nanocellulose in selected applications. This book serves as an entry level reference text for undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and professional engineers working in the area of nanocellulose and sustainability.

A Handbook of Applied Biopolymer Technology

Synthesis, Degradation and Applications

Author: Sanjay Kumar Sharma,Ackmez Mudhoo,James H. Clark

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1849731519

Category: Science

Page: 482

View: 6409

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Covers the latest research in green chemistry principles for new, environmentally friendly processes in the fields of engineering, science and technology.

Green Chemistry Metrics

A Guide to Determining and Evaluating Process Greenness

Author: Andrew P. Dicks,Andrei Hent

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319105000

Category: Science

Page: 90

View: 9355

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This contribution to SpringerBriefs in Green Chemistry outlines and discusses the four major green chemistry metrics (atom economy, reaction mass efficiency, E factor and process mass intensity), at a level that is comprehensible by upper-level undergraduates. Such students have previously received fundamental training in organic chemistry basics, and are ideally positioned to learn about green chemistry principles, of which metrics is one foundational pillar. Following this, other green metrics in common use are discussed, along with applications that allow important calculations to be easily undertaken. Finally, an introduction to metrics in the context of life cycle analyses is presented. It should be noted that no other available publication teaches green chemistry metrics in detail with an emphasis on educating undergraduates, whilst simultaneously providing a contemporary industrial flavour to the material.

Permeable Reactive Barrier

Sustainable Groundwater Remediation

Author: Ravi Naidu,Volker Birke

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482224488

Category: Nature

Page: 333

View: 2434

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Remediation of groundwater is complex and often challenging. But the cost of pump and treat technology, coupled with the dismal results achieved, has paved the way for newer, better technologies to be developed. Among these techniques is permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology, which allows groundwater to pass through a buried porous barrier that either captures the contaminants or breaks them down. And although this approach is gaining popularity, there are few references available on the subject. Until now. Permeable Reactive Barrier: Sustainable Groundwater Remediation brings together the information required to plan, design/model, and apply a successful, cost-effective, and sustainable PRB technology. With contributions from pioneers in this area, the book covers state-of-the-art information on PRB technology. It details design criteria, predictive modeling, and application to contaminants beyond petroleum hydrocarbons, including inorganics and radionuclides. The text also examines implementation stages such as the initial feasibility assessment, laboratory treatability studies (including column studies), estimation of PRB design parameters, and development of a long-term monitoring network for the performance evaluation of the barrier. It also outlines the predictive tools required for life cycle analysis and cost/performance assessment. A review of current PRB technology and its applications, this book includes case studies that exemplify the concepts discussed. It helps you determine when to recommend PRB, what information is needed from the site investigation to design it, and what regulatory validation is required.

Chemistry Education

Best Practices, Opportunities and Trends

Author: Javier GarcÃa-MartÃnez,Elena Serrano-Torregrosa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527336052

Category: Science

Page: 792

View: 4235

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This comprehensive collection of top-level contributions provides a thorough review of the vibrant field of chemistry education. Highly-experienced chemistry professors and chemistry education experts at universities all over the world cover the latest developments in chemistry learning and teaching, as well as the pivotal role of chemistry for shaping the future world. Adopting a practice-oriented approach, they offer a critical view of the current challenges and opportunities of chemistry education, highlighting the pitfalls that can occur, sometimes unconsciously, in teaching chemistry and how to circumvent them. The main topics discussed include the role of technology, best practices, science visualization, and project-based education. Hands-on tips on how to optimally implement novel methods of teaching chemistry at university and high-school level make this is a useful resource for professors with no formal training in didactics as well as for secondary school teachers.

Microwave Chemical and Materials Processing

A Tutorial

Author: Satoshi Horikoshi,Robert F. Schiffmann,Jun Fukushima,Nick Serpone

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811064660

Category: Science

Page: 393

View: 9658

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The principal aim of this book is to introduce chemists through a tutorial approach to the use of microwaves by examining several experiments of microwave chemistry and materials processing. It will subsequently enable chemists to fashion their own experiments in microwave chemistry or materials processing. Microwave heating has become a popular methodology in introducing thermal energy in chemical reactions and material processing in laboratory-scale experiments. Several research cases where microwave heating has been used in a wide range of fields have been reported, including organic synthesis, polymers, nanomaterials, biomaterials, and ceramic sintering, among others. In most cases, microwave equipment is used as a simple heat source. Therefore the principal benefits of microwave radiation have seldom been taken advantage of. One reason is the necessity to understand the nature of electromagnetism, microwave engineering, and thermodynamics. However, it is difficult for a chemist to appreciate these in a short time, so they act as barriers for the chemist who might take an interest in the use of microwave radiation. This book helps to overcome these barriers by using figures and diagrams instead of equations as much as possible.

Advances in Photocatalytic Disinfection

Author: Taicheng An,Huijun Zhao,Po Keung Wong

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662534967

Category: Science

Page: 315

View: 8653

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This book presents the latest results related to photocatalytic inactivation/killing of microorganisms, which is a promising alternative disinfection method that produces less or even no disinfection byproduct. The book is divided into 13 chapters, which introduce readers to the latest developments in the photocatalytic disinfection of microorganisms, examine essential photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) disinfection studies, and forecast and make recommendations for the further development of PC and PEC disinfection. Bringing together contributions by various leading research groups worldwide, it offers a valuable resource for researchers and the industry alike, as well as the general public. Taicheng An, PhD, is Chair Professor and Director at the Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China. Huijun Zhao, PhD, is Chair Professor and Director at the Centre for Clean Environment and Energy & Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Australia. Po Keung Wong, PhD, is a Professor at the School of Life Sciences, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Recent Advances in Environmental Science from the Euro-Mediterranean and Surrounding Regions

Proceedings of Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration (EMCEI-1), Tunisia 2017

Author: Amjad Kallel,Mohamed Ksibi,Hamed Ben Dhia,Nabil Khélifi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319705482

Category: Science

Page: 2023

View: 3722

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This volume includes the papers presented during the 1st Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration (EMCEI) which was held in Sousse, Tunisia in November 2017. This conference was jointly organized by the editorial office of the Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration in Sfax, Tunisia and Springer (MENA Publishing Program) in Germany. It aimed to give a more concrete expression to the Euro-Mediterranean integration process by supplementing existing North-South programs and agreements with a new multilateral scientific forum that emphasizes in particular the vulnerability and proactive remediation of the Euro-Mediterranean region from an environmental point of view. This volume gives a general and brief overview on current research focusing on emerging environmental issues and challenges and its applications to a variety of problems in the Euro-Mediterranean zone and surrounding regions. It contains over five hundred and eighty carefully refereed short contributions to the conference. Topics covered include (1) innovative approaches and methods for environmental sustainability, (2) environmental risk assessment, bioremediation, ecotoxicology, and environmental safety, (3) water resources assessment, planning, protection, and management, (4) environmental engineering and management, (5) natural resources: characterization, assessment, management, and valorization, (6) intelligent techniques in renewable energy (biomass, wind, waste, solar), (7) sustainable management of marine environment and coastal areas, (8) remote sensing and GIS for geo-environmental investigations, (9) environmental impacts of geo/natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic, and marine hazards), and (10) the environmental health science (natural and social impacts on Human health). Presenting a wide range of topics and new results, this edited volume will appeal to anyone working in the subject area, including researchers and students interested to learn more about new advances in environmental research initiatives in view of the ever growing environmental degradation in the Euro-Mediterranean region, which has turned environmental and resource protection into an increasingly important issue hampering sustainable development and social welfare.

Die Katalyse

Author: Paul Sabatier

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3846039152

Category:

Page: 256

View: 6942

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Chemistry the Central Science, 13th Ed, Pearson Education, 2015

Chemistry the Central Science

Author: Brown-LeMay-Bursten-Murphy-Woodward-Stoltzfus

Publisher: Bukupedia

ISBN: N.A

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 1246

View: 2126

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To the Instructor Philosophy We authors of Chemistry: The Central Science are delighted and honored that you have chosen us as your instructional partners for your general chemistry class. We have all been active researchers who appreciate both the learning and the discovery aspects of the chemical sciences. We have also all taught general chemistry many times. Our varied, wide-ranging experiences have formed the basis of the close collaborations we have enjoyed as coauthors. In writing our book, our focus is on the students: we try to ensure that the text is not only accurate and up-to-date but also clear and readable. We strive to convey the breadth of chemistry and the excitement that scientists experience in making new discoveries that contribute to our understanding of the physical world. We want the student to appreciate that chemistry is not a body of specialized knowledge that is separate from most aspects of modern life, but central to any attempt to address a host of societal concerns, including renewable energy, environmental sustainability, and improved human health. Publishing the thirteenth edition of this text bespeaks an exceptionally long record of successful textbook writing. We are appreciative of the loyalty and support the book has received over the years, and mindful of our obligation to justify each new edition. We begin our approach to each new edition with an intensive author retreat, in which we ask ourselves the deep questions that we must answer before we can move forward. What justifies yet another edition? What is changing in the world not only of chemistry, but with respect to science education and the qualities of the students we serve? The answer lies only partly in the changing face of chemistry itself. The introduction of many new technologies has changed the landscape in the teaching of sciences at all levels. The use of the Internet in accessing information and presenting learning materials has markedly changed the role of the textbook as one element among many tools for student learning. Our challenge as authors is to maintain the text as the primary source of chemical knowledge and practice, while at the same time integrating it with the new avenues for learning made possible by technology and the Internet. This edition incorporates links to a number of those new methodologies, including use of the Internet, computer-based classroom tools, such as Learning Catalytics™, a cloud-based active learning analytics and assessment system, and web-based tools, particularly MasteringChemistry®, which is continually evolving to provide more effective means of testing and evaluating student performance, while giving the student immediate and helpful feedback. In past versions, MasteringChemistry® provided feedback only on a question level. Now with Knewtonenhanced adaptive follow-up assignments, and Dynamic Study Modules, MasteringChemistry® continually adapts to each student, offering a personalized learning experience. As authors, we want this text to be a central, indispensable learning tool for students. Whether as a physical book or in electronic form, it can be carried everywhere and used at any time. It is the one place students can go to obtain the information outside of the classroom needed for learning, skill development, reference, and test preparation. The text, more effectively than any other instrument, provides the depth of coverage and coherent background in modern chemistry that students need to serve their professional interests and, as appropriate, to prepare for more advanced chemistry courses. If the text is to be effective in supporting your role as instructor, it must be addressed to the students. We have done our best to keep our writing clear and interesting and the book attractive and well illustrated. The book has numerous in-text study aids for students, including carefully placed descriptions of problem-solving strategies. We hope that our cumulative experiences as teachers is evident in our pacing, choice of examples, and the kinds of study aids and motivational tools we have employed. We believe students are more enthusiastic about learning chemistry when they see its importance relative to their own goals and interests; therefore, we have highlighted many important applications of chemistry in everyday life. We hope you make use of this material. It is our philosophy, as authors, that the text and all the supplementary materials provided to support its use must work in concert with you, the instructor. A textbook is only as useful to students as the instructor permits it to be. This book is replete with features that can help students learn and that can guide them as they acquire both conceptual understanding and problem- solving skills. There is a great deal here for the students to use, too much for all of it to be absorbed by any one student. You will be the guide to the best use of the book. Only with your active help will the students be able to utilize most effectively all that the text and its supplements offer. Students care about grades, of course, and with encouragement they will also become interested in the subject matter and care about learning. Please consider emphasizing features of the book that can enhance student appreciation of chemistry, such as the Chemistry Put to Work and Chemistry and Life boxes that show how chemistry impacts modern life and its relationship to health and life processes. Learn to use, and urge students to use, the rich online resources available. Emphasize conceptual understanding and place less emphasis on simple manipulative, algorithmic problem solving. What Is New in This Edition? A great many changes have been made in producing this thirteenth edition. We have continued to improve upon the art program, and new features connected with the art have been introduced. Many figures in the book have undergone modification, and dozens of new figures have been introduced A systematic effort has been made to place explanatory labels directly into figures to guide the student. New designs have been employed to more closely integrate photographic materials into figures that convey chemical principles. We have continued to explore means for more clearly and directly addressing the issue of concept learning. It is well established that conceptual misunderstandings, which impede student learning in many areas, are difficult to correct. We have looked for ways to identify and correct misconceptions via the worked examples in the book, and in the accompanying practice exercises. Among the more important changes made in the new edition, with this in mind, are: • A major new feature of this edition is the addition of a second Practice Exercise to accompany each Sample Exercise within the chapters. The majority of new Practice Exercises are of the multiple-choice variety, which enable feedback via MasteringChemistry®. The correct answers to select Practice Exercises are given in an appendix, and guidance for correcting wrong answers is provided in MasteringChemistry ®. The new Practice Exercise feature adds to the aids provided to students for mastering the concepts advanced in the text and rectifying conceptual misunderstandings. The enlarged practice exercise materials also further cement the relationship of the text to the online learning materials. At the same time, they offer a new supportive learning experience for all students, regardless of whether the MasteringChemistry® program is used. • A second major innovation in this edition is the Design An Experiment feature, which appears as a final exercise in all chapters beginning with Chapter 3, as well as in MasteringChemistry®. The Design an Experiment exercise is a departure from the usual kinds of end-of-chapter exercises in that it is inquiry based, open ended, and tries to stimulate the student to “think like a scientist.” Each exercise presents the student with a scenario in which various unknowns require investigation. The student is called upon to ponder how experiments might be set up to provide answers to particular questions about a system, and/ or test plausible hypotheses that might account for a set of observations. The aim of the Design an Experiment exercises is to foster critical thinking. We hope that they will be effective in active learning environments, which include classroom-based work and discussions, but they are also suitable for individual student work. There is no one right way to solve these exercises, but we authors offer some ideas in an online Instructor’s Resource Manual, which will include results from class testing and analysis of student responses. • The Go Figure exercises introduced in the twelfth edition proved to be a popular innovation, and we have expanded on its use. This feature poses a question that students can answer by examining the figure. These questions encourage students to actually study the figure and understand its primary message. Answers to the Go Figure questions are provided in the back of the text. • The popular Give It Some Thought (GIST) questions embedded in the text have been expanded by improvements in some of the existing questions and addition of new ones. The answers to all the GIST items are provided in the back of the text. • New end-of-chapter exercises have been added, and many of those carried over from the twelfth edition have been significantly revised. Analysis of student responses to the twelfth edition questions in MasteringChemistry® helped us identify and revise or create new questions, prompting improvements and eliminations of some questions. Additionally, analysis of usage of MasteringChemistry® has enhanced our understanding of the ways in which instructors and students have used the end-of-chapter and MasteringChemistry® materials. This, in turn, has led to additional improvements to the content within the text and in the MasteringChemistry® item library. At the end of each chapter, we list the Learning Outcomes that students should be able to perform after studying each section. End-of-chapter exercises, both in the text and in MasteringChemistry ® offer ample opportunities for students to assess mastery of learning outcomes. We trust the Learning Outcomes will help you organize your lectures and tests as the course proceeds. Organization and Contents The first five chapters give a largely macroscopic, phenomenological view of chemistry. The basic concepts introduced—such as nomenclature, stoichiometry, and thermochemistry—provide necessary background for many of the laboratory experiments usually performed in general chemistry. We believe that an early introduction to thermochemistry is desirable because so much of our understanding of chemical processes is based on considerations of energy changes. Thermochemistry is also important when we come to a discussion of bond enthalpies. We believe we have produced an effective, balanced approach to teaching thermodynamics in general chemistry, as well as providing students with an introduction to some of the global issues involving energy production and consumption. It is no easy matter to walk the narrow pathway between—on the one hand—trying to teach too much at too high a level and—on the other hand—resorting to oversimplifications. As with the book as a whole, the emphasis has been on imparting conceptual understanding, as opposed to presenting equations into which students are supposed to plug numbers. The next four chapters (Chapters 6–9) deal with electronic structure and bonding. We have largely retained our presentation of atomic orbitals. For more advanced students, Closer Look boxes in Chapters 6 and 9 highlight radial probability functions and the phases of orbitals. Our approach of placing this latter discussion in a Closer Look box in Chapter 9 enables those who wish to cover this topic to do so, while others may wish to bypass it. In treating this topic and others in Chapters 7 and 9, we have materially enhanced the accompanying figures to more effectively bring home their central messages. In Chapters 10–13, the focus of the text changes to the next level of the organization of matter: examining the states of matter. Chapters 10 and 11 deal with gases, liquids, and intermolecular forces, as in earlier editions. Chapter 12 is devoted to solids, presenting an enlarged and more contemporary view of the solid state as well as of modern materials. The chapter provides an opportunity to show how abstract chemical bonding concepts impact real-world applications. The modular organization of the chapter allows you to tailor your coverage to focus on materials (semiconductors, polymers, nanomaterials, and so forth) that are most relevant to your students and your own interests. Chapter 13 treats the formation and properties of solutions in much the same manner as the previous edition. The next several chapters examine the factors that determine the speed and extent of chemical reactions: kinetics (Chapter 14), equilibria (Chapters 15–17), thermodynamics (Chapter 19), and electrochemistry (Chapter 20). Also in this section is a chapter on environmental chemistry (Chapter 18), in which the concepts developed in preceding chapters are applied to a discussion of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. This chapter has increasingly come to be focused on green chemistry and the impacts of human activities on Earth’s water and atmosphere. After a discussion of nuclear chemistry (Chapter 21), the book ends with three survey chapters. Chapter 22 deals with nonmetals, Chapter 23 with the chemistry of transition metals, including coordination compounds, and Chapter 24 with the chemistry of organic compounds and elementary biochemical themes. These final four chapters are developed in a parallel fashion and can be covered in any order. Our chapter sequence provides a fairly standard organization, but we recognize that not everyone teaches all the topics in the order we have chosen. We have therefore made sure that instructors can make common changes in teaching sequence with no loss in student comprehension. In particular, many instructors prefer to introduce gases (Chapter 10) after stoichiometry (Chapter 3) rather than with states of matter. The chapter on gases has been written to permit this change with no disruption in the flow of material. It is also possible to treat balancing redox equations (Sections 20.1 and 20.2) earlier, after the introduction of redox reactions in Section 4.4. Finally, some instructors like to cover organic chemistry (Chapter 24) right after bonding (Chapters 8 and 9). This, too, is a largely seamless move. We have brought students into greater contact with descriptive organic and inorganic chemistry by integrating examples throughout the text. You will find pertinent and relevant examples of “real” chemistry woven into all the chapters to illustrate principles and applications. Some chapters, of course, more directly address the “descriptive” properties of elements and their compounds, especially Chapters 4, 7, 11, 18, and 22–24. We also incorporate descriptive organic and inorganic chemistry in the end-of-chapter exercises. Changes in This Edition The What is New in This Edition section on pp. xx–xxi details changes made throughout the new edition. Beyond a mere listing, however, it is worth dwelling on the general goals we set forth in formulating this new edition. Chemistry: The Central Science has traditionally been valued for its clarity of writing, its scientific accuracy and currency, its strong end-of-chapter exercises, and its consistency in level of coverage. In making changes, we have made sure not to compromise these characteristics, and we have also continued to employ an open, clean design in the layout of the book. The art program for this thirteenth edition has continued the trajectory set in the twelfth edition: to make greater and more effective use of the figures as learning tools, by drawing the reader more directly into the figure. The art itself has continued to evolve, with modifications of many figures and additions or replacements that teach more effectively. The Go Figure feature has been expanded greatly to include a larger number of figures. In the same vein, we have added to the Give it Some Thought feature, which stimulates more thoughtful reading of the text and fosters critical thinking. We provide a valuable overview of each chapter under the What’s Ahead banner. Concept links ( ) continue to provide easy-to-see cross-references to pertinent material covered earlier in the text. The essays titled Strategies in Chemistry, which provide advice to students on problem solving and “thinking like a chemist,” continue to be an important feature. For example, the new Strategies in Chemistry essay at the end of Chapter 3 introduces the new Design an Experiment feature and provides a worked out example as guidance. We have continued to emphasize conceptual exercises in the end-of-chapter exercise materials. The well-received Visualizing Concepts exercise category has been continued in this edition. These exercises are designed to facilitate concept understanding through use of models, graphs, and other visual materials. They precede the regular end-of-chapter exercises and are identified in each case with the relevant chapter section number. A generous selection of Integrative Exercises, which give students the opportunity to solve problems that integrate concepts from the present chapter with those of previous chapters, is included at the end of each chapter. The importance of integrative problem solving is highlighted by the Sample Integrative Exercise, which ends each chapter beginning with Chapter 4. In general, we have included more conceptual endof- chapter exercises and have made sure that there is a good representation of somewhat more difficult exercises to provide a better mix in terms of topic and level of difficulty. Many of the exercises have been restructured to facilitate their use in MasteringChemistry ®. We have made extensive use of the metadata from student use of MasteringChemistry® to analyze end-ofchapter exercises and make appropriate changes, as well as to develop Learning Outcomes for each chapter. New essays in our well-received Chemistry Put to Work and Chemistry and Life series emphasize world events, scientific discoveries, and medical breakthroughs that bear on topics developed in each chapter. We maintain our focus on the positive aspects of chemistry without neglecting the problems that can arise in an increasingly technological world. Our goal is to help students appreciate the real-world perspective of chemistry and the ways in which chemistry affects their lives. It is perhaps a natural tendency for chemistry textbooks to grow in length with succeeding editions, but it is one that we have resisted. There are, nonetheless, many new items in this edition, mostly ones that replace other material considered less pertinent. Here is a list of several significant changes in content: In Chapter 1, the Closer Look box on the scientific method has been rewritten. The Chemistry Put to Work box, dealing with Chemistry in the News, has been completely rewritten, with items that describe diverse ways in which chemistry intersects with the affairs of modern society. The Chapter Summary and Learning Outcomes sections at the end of the chapter have been rewritten for ease of use by both instructor and student, in this and all chapters in the text. Similarly, the exercises have been thoroughly vetted, modified where this was called for and replaced or added to, here and in all succeeding chapters. In Chapter 3, graphic elements highlighting the correct approach to problem solving have been added to Sample Exercises on calculating an empirical formula from mass percent of the elements present, combustion analysis, and calculating a theoretical yield. Chapter 5 now presents a more explicit discussion of combined units of measurement, an improved introduction to enthalpy, and more consistent use of color in art. Changes in Chapter 6 include a significant revision of the discussion of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, including greater clarity on absorption versus emission processes. There is also a new Closer Look box on Thought Experiments and Schrödinger’s Cat, which gives students a brief glimpse of some of the philosophical issues in quantum mechanics and also connects to the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics. In Chapter 7, the emphasis on conceptual thinking was enhanced in several ways: the section on effective nuclear charge was significantly revised to include a classroom-tested analogy, the number of Go Figure features was increased substantially, and new end-of-chapter exercises emphasize critical thinking and understanding concepts. In addition, the Chemistry Put to Work box on lithium-ion batteries was updated and revised to include discussion of current issues in using these batteries. Finally, the values of ionic radii were revised to be consistent with a recent research study of the best values for these radii. In Chapter 9, which is one of the most challenging for students, we continue to refine our presentation based on our classroom experience. Twelve new Go Figure exercises will stimulate more student thought in a chapter with a large amount of graphic material. The discussion of molecular geometry was made more conceptually oriented. The section on delocalized bonding was completely revised to provide what we believe will be a better introduction that students will find useful in organic chemistry. The Closer Look box on phases in orbitals was revamped with improved artwork. We also increased the number of end-of-chapter exercises, especially in the area of molecular orbital theory. The Design an Experiment feature in this chapter gives the students the opportunity to explore color and conjugated π systems. Chapter 10 contains a new Sample Exercise that walks the student through the calculations that are needed to understand Torricelli’s barometer. Chapter 11 includes an improved definition of hydrogen bonding and updated data for the strengths of intermolecular attractions. Chapter 12 includes the latest updates to materials chemistry, including plastic electronics. New material on the diffusion and mean free path of colloids in solution is added to Chapter 13, making a connection to the diffusion of gas molecules from Chapter 10. In Chapter 14, ten new Go Figure exercises have been added to reinforce many of the concepts presented as figures and graphs in the chapter. The Design an Experiment exercise in the chapter connects strongly to the Closer Look box on Beer’s Law, which is often the basis for spectrometric kinetics experiments performed in the general chemistry laboratory. The presentation in Chapter 16 was made more closely tied to that in Chapter 15, especially through the use of more initial/ change/equilibrium (ICE) charts. The number of conceptual end-of-chapter exercises, including Visualizing Concepts features, was increased significantly. Chapter 17 offers improved clarity on how to make buffers, and when the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation may not be accurate. Chapter 18 has been extensively updated to reflect changes in this rapidly evolving area of chemistry. Two Closer Look boxes have been added; one dealing with the shrinking level of water in the Ogallala aquifer and a second with the potential environmental consequences of hydraulic fracking. In Chapter 20, the description of Li-ion batteries has been significantly expanded to reflect the growing importance of these batteries, and a new Chemistry Put to Work box on batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles has been added. Chapter 21 was updated to reflect some of the current issues in nuclear chemistry and more commonly used nomenclature for forms of radiation are now used. Chapter 22 includes an improved discussion of silicates. In Chapter 23, the section on crystal-field theory (Section 23.6) has undergone considerable revision. The description of how the d-orbital energies of a metal ion split in a tetrahedral crystal field has been expanded to put it on par with our treatment of the octahedral geometry, and a new Sample Exercise that effectively integrates the links between color, magnetism, and the spectrochemical series has been added. Chapter 24’s coverage of organic chemistry and biochemistry now includes oxidation–reduction reactions that organic chemists find most relevant. To the Student Chemistry: The Central Science, Thirteenth Edition, has been written to introduce you to modern chemistry. As authors, we have, in effect, been engaged by your instructor to help you learn chemistry. Based on the comments of students and instructors who have used this book in its previous editions, we believe that we have done that job well. Of course, we expect the text to continue to evolve through future editions. We invite you to write to tell us what you like about the book so that we will know where we have helped you most. Also, we would like to learn of any shortcomings so that we might further improve the book in subsequent editions. Our addresses are given at the end of the Preface. Advice for Learning and Studying Chemistry Learning chemistry requires both the assimilation of many concepts and the development of analytical skills. In this text, we have provided you with numerous tools to help you succeed in both tasks. If you are going to succeed in your chemistry course, you will have to develop good study habits. Science courses, and chemistry in particular, make different demands on your learning skills than do other types of courses. We offer the following tips for success in your study of chemistry: Don’t fall behind! As the course moves along, new topics will build on material already presented. If you don’t keep up in your reading and problem solving, you will find it much harder to follow the lectures and discussions on current topics. Experienced teachers know that students who read the relevant sections of the text before coming to a class learn more from the class and retain greater recall. “Cramming” just before an exam has been shown to be an ineffective way to study any subject, chemistry included. So now you know. How important to you, in this competitive world, is a good grade in chemistry? Focus your study. The amount of information you will be expected to learn can sometimes seem overwhelming. It is essential to recognize those concepts and skills that are particularly important. Pay attention to what your instructor is emphasizing. As you work through the Sample Exercises and homework assignments, try to see what general principles and skills they employ. Use the What’s Ahead feature at the beginning of each chapter to help orient yourself to what is important in each chapter. A single reading of a chapter will simply not be enough for successful learning of chapter concepts and problem- solving skills. You will need to go over assigned materials more than once. Don’t skip the Give It Some Thought and Go Figure features, Sample Exercises, and Practice Exercises. They are your guides to whether you are learning the material. They are also good preparation for test-taking. The Learning Outcomes and Key Equations at the end of the chapter should help you focus your study. Keep good lecture notes. Your lecture notes will provide you with a clear and concise record of what your instructor regards as the most important material to learn. Using your lecture notes in conjunction with this text is the best way to determine which material to study. Skim topics in the text before they are covered in lecture. Reviewing a topic before lecture will make it easier for you to take good notes. First read the What’s Ahead points and the end-of-chapter Summary; then quickly read through the chapter, skipping Sample Exercises and supplemental sections. Paying attention to the titles of sections and subsections gives you a feeling for the scope of topics. Try to avoid thinking that you must learn and understand everything right away. You need to do a certain amount of preparation before lecture. More than ever, instructors are using the lecture period not simply as a one-way channel of communication from teacher to student. Rather, they expect students to come to class ready to work on problem solving and critical thinking. Coming to class unprepared is not a good idea for any lecture environment, but it certainly is not an option for an active learning classroom if you aim to do well in the course. After lecture, carefully read the topics covered in class. As you read, pay attention to the concepts presented and to the application of these concepts in the Sample Exercises. Once you think you understand a Sample Exercise, test your understanding by working the accompanying Practice Exercise. Learn the language of chemistry. As you study chemistry, you will encounter many new words. It is important to pay attention to these words and to know their meanings or the entities to which they refer. Knowing how to identify chemical substances from their names is an important skill; it can help you avoid painful mistakes on examinations. For example, “chlorine” and “chloride” refer to very different things. Attempt the assigned end-of-chapter exercises. Working the exercises selected by your instructor provides necessary practice in recalling and using the essential ideas of the chapter. You cannot learn merely by observing; you must be a participant. In particular, try to resist checking the Student Solutions Manual (if you have one) until you have made a sincere effort to solve the exercise yourself. If you get stuck on an exercise, however, get help from your instructor, your teaching assistant, or another student. Spending more than 20 minutes on a single exercise is rarely effective unless you know that it is particularly challenging. Learn to think like a scientist. This book is written by scientists who love chemistry. We encourage you to develop your critical thinking skills by taking advantage of new features in this edition, such as exercises that focus on conceptual learning, and the Design an Experiment exercises. Use online resources. Some things are more easily learned by discovery, and others are best shown in three dimensions. If your instructor has included MasteringChemistry® with your book, take advantage of the unique tools it provides to get the most out of your time in chemistry. The bottom line is to work hard, study effectively, and use the tools available to you, including this textbook. We want to help you learn more about the world of chemistry and why chemistry is the central science. If you really learn chemistry, you can be the life of the party, impress your friends and parents, and … well, also pass the course with a good grade The production of a textbook is a team effort requiring the involvement of many people besides the authors who contributed hard work and talent to bring this edition to life. Although their names don’t appear on the cover of the book, their creativity, time, and support have been instrumental in all stages of its development and production. Each of us has benefited greatly from discussions with colleagues and from correspondence with instructors and students both here and abroad. Colleagues have also helped immensely by reviewing our materials, sharing their insights, and providing suggestions for improvements. On this edition, we were particularly blessed with an exceptional group of accuracy checkers who read through our materials looking for both technical inaccuracies and typographical errors